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to have had one-fourth interest in this mill. It was operated by various owners
until about 1865.

Daniel Cummings' Fulling Mill was established in a portion of Jonathan Matte-
son's grist mill, the cloth-dressing department being in charge of Aaron Alba, who
came from Massachusetts ia 1818, the cloth being woven by hand in looms in dwelling
houses. A carding machine was added later and placed in charge of Horace Streeter.
This enterprise was successfully conducted for a number of years previous to the
establishment of the woolen mill at Academy Comers.

Silas Billings' Enterprises, in addition to the distillery already mentioned,
consisted of a saw-mill, an oil-mill, a grist-mill, an ashery and a tannery. The saw-
mill was established by him in 1823. He operated it until 1835. He also erected
an ashery and pearling works in 1833, the product of which was hauled to Ithaca,
New York, and to Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and thence shipped to market. In
1834: he established an oil mill for the manufacture of liaseed oil. This he operated
until 1840, when he removed to Elmira, Few York. The mill, since rebuilt and
now known as the "Knoxville EoUer Mill," was erected by him in 1835, and is one
of the oldest manufacturing enterprises in the county. The gable of the original
mill bore the following inscription:

"E Pluribus Unum.

Head Quarters.

Silas Billings.

Bilt by John Spicer.

A. D. 1825.

"Water power was used until 1854, when steam was substituted. The saw-mill
has also been operated in connection with the grist mill, imder various owners, to
the present time. In 1863 the property was purchased by Joel Johnson. In 1888
the grist mill was rebuilt and the roller process adopted, at a cost of about $20,000.
September 13, 1895, the property was sold at sheriff's sale, and was purchased by
Albert Dearman, who sold it in May, 1896, to Burch & Conklin, the present owners.
It is one of the best equipped mills in the county and does a large custom and mer-
chant business.

In 1830 Silas Billings purchased the tannery established in 1823 by Peter
Eushmore and operated it until 1844, when it was purchased by Angell & Gilbert,
the firm consisting of Daniel Angell and Hiram Gilbert. Angell retired in 1853,
but resumed control in 1855, with Butler Pride as partner. In 1859 Angell sold
his interest to A. D. Knox, who sold to William E. Beard in 1863. In 1868 Daniel
and Delos Angell bought the property, which was purchased in 1873 by W. D.
Angell, who sold it in 1878 to Thomas Brock, who carried it on until 1893, when
it ceased operations.

The Knoxville Foundry was built in 1851, by Gleason, Biles & Eobie, of Bath,
New York, the business being conducted by John P. Biles until 1876, and then by
Solomon Gleason until 1884, when the property was purchased by Clark B. Bailey
and owned by him until 1888, when the foundry and machine shop was destroyed
by fire.



424 HISTOEY OF TIOGA COUNTY.



The Knoxville Sash and Blind Factory and Planing Mill was established in 1852
by Henry Seely. It burned in 1863 and was rebuilt in 1864, and thereafter, until
1880, owned and operated by various parties. In the latter year the property was
purchased by Ira M. Edgcomb. In 1884 the firm of Ira M. Edgeomb & Sons was
formed. They still carry on the enterprise, doing a large business annually and
giving constant employment to fifteen men.

Chester Wells' Furniture Factory was established in 1869 and carried on for
nearly twenty years, the business being confined to the sale and manufacture
of household furniture.

D. L. Freeborn's Foundry and Machine Shop was established in 1884. It gives
employment to six men, and besides doing a general foundry and machine-repairing
business, is devoted to the manufacture of wood-mills and steel land-rollers.

HEECANTILE ENTEEPEISES.

Scarce & Wing were the pioneer merchants of Knoxville. They began business
in 1815, took lumber in payment for goods, and soon quit, losing heavily. Harvey
Hemingway succeeded them, but only remained for a short time. Archibald Knox
began business in 1818 and continued for many years. Silas Billings engaged in
merchandising in 1823 and at once took the lead in trade. 0. P. and Nehemiah
Beach began business in 1836 and continued several years. Albert Dearman, a
carpenter, came to Knoxville in 1844, began as a clerk for 0. P. Beach, and in 1845
became a partner, the firm becoming Beaiih & Dearman. In 1849 the firm dissolved
and was succeeded by A. & J. Dearman, Justus Dearman, a brother of Albert, becom-
ing his partner. In 1862 Albert withdrew and embarked in business for himself.
In 1871 Justus Dearman's store was destroyed by fire, and was rebuilt in 1873. He
died December 14, 1880, leaving his brother, Albert Dearman, the senior merchant
of the borough. In 1826 Victor Case began selling goods as a clerk for SUas Bill-
ings, and about 1836 went into bupiness for himself, continuing until 1872, when
he was succeeded by his son. Linden Case. Levi Eeynolds opened a store in 1845
and continued in business with but a brief interruption till 1876. Jones & Young
began selling tinware in 1852, and in 1853 Giles Koberts, still in business, bought
them out. He has had seyeral partners in the meantime. These wers the principal
business enterprises established here up to 1853. Since then each year has witnessed
a new undertaking, some to remain a short time while others have established them-
selves in public favor and are permanent and prosperous.

INNS AND HOTELS.

The traveling public was entertained as early as 1815 at the house of Daniel
Cummings, who also owned an interest in a distillery and supplied his patrons with
'liquid refreshments." His house stood on Main street, west of the present brick
hotel. In 1822 Stephen Colvin built a frame hotel near the site of the Gilbert drug
store. His successors were Charles Eyon, 1844, and A. J. Monroe, 1845. This hotel
was demolished in 1851 and Olmstead P. Beach erected a new one on its site, carry-
ing it on until 1860, when the unfinished building, known as the "Ark," was com-
pleted for use as stores. A log hotel, called the Eixford House, was built in 1824,
by "William Knox, and kept open as a hotel till 1829. A large building was erected



KNOXVILLB B0E0U6H. ^2E



hj Silas Billings in 1826, on East Main street, opened as a hotel, and conducted by
Mm till 1832. It had many landlords and was known as the "Knoxville House."
"Weaver House," "Eagle," etc. In 1883 it was destroyed by fire, Capt. B. A. Signor
being the landlord at the time. The large brick building, now known as the Adams
House, was remodeled in 1871 for hotel purposes by Jeremiah Stoddard. The land-
lords here have been Jeremiah Stoddard, A. D. Bryan, A. B. Graves, S. B. Lovelace,
H.' G. Short and John S. Adams. The hotel is now owned and carried on by Mrs.
J. S. Adams, widow of the last-named landlord. "What is known as the Seely Hotel,
near the Edgcomb planing mill, was erected in 1884 by J. O'Harrigan, and kept for
several years by himself and his son. The present landlord is jSTat Seely. About
1886 Andrew Stevens erected what is now known as the Dunham House, near the
Fall Brook depot. Since his death the house has been kept by Mrs. "W. W. Dunham,
Mrs. Stevens' mother. It is now run as a temperance house.

SCHOOLS.

The first school in Knoxville was erected in 1817, and was built of plank,
dove-tailed and dowel-pianed to the frame. In 1834 a better house was bmlt, on
the south side of Main street, and farther east. Between 1855 and 1860 the school
district rented the Quaker meeting house, owing to a dispute, involving possession
of the school house, with John Groodspeed, who nailed up the building, "illegally
using it," as the directors set forth in their proceeding, "for a store room." Being
unable to dispossess him, except by violence, they "left the house in his possession."
A law suit and finally a settlement followed. In 1858 a lot was bought of Julius G.
Seely and a school building erected, which has since been enlarged and improved,
and a graded school system adopted. The school has always been well conducted
and the course of study such as to give pupils a good English education. Among
the early teachers were Sophia Hale, who taught in 1818; Gaylord Griswold Colvin,
1821; Anson Eowley, 1822; Abbey Goodspeed, 1828; Madison Darling, 1832;
Ehoda Horton, 1835; H. G. Olmstead, 1837; Victor Case, 1838, and Hiram K.
Hill, 1839.

BOKOUGH OHGANIZATION AND OFFICIALS.

The borough of Knoxville was organized, as previously stated, April 19, 1850.
The first council meeting was held February 28, 1851, and Butler B. Strang elected
clerk. At a meeting held May 6, 1851, A. J. Monroe and George A. Mead were
elected street commissioners; Daniel Angell, treasurer, and Archibald D. Knox,
poundmaster. The following are the names of the burgesses elected since the organ-
ization of the borough: Herman Temple, 1851; Hiram Freeborn, 1852-53; David
T. Billings, 1854; Daniel Angell, 1855-56; Julius Morgan, 1857; John P. Biles,
1858; Augustus Alba, 1859; Charles 0. Bowman, 1860; Charles H. Goldsmith,
1861; Justus Dearman, 1862-64; Giles Koberts, 1865-66; Julius G. Seelye, 1867;
"William Markham, 1868; "William Morse, 1869; Augustus Alba, 1870; John M.
Christie, 1871; Giles Eoberts, 1872; "William Morse, 1873; Lucius Matteson, 1874;
John M. Christie, 1875-76; Charies Boom, 1877; Albert Dearman, 1878-80; John
F. Boom, 1880-81; Albert Dearman, 1882; H. G. Short, 1883; John Goodspeed,
1884; Giles Eoberts, 1885; John T. Gear, 1886-87; Albert Dearman, 1888-96, and
I. M. Edgcomb, elected in 1897.



426 HISTORY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

The following named persons have been elected justices of the peace for the
borough: Andrew Beers and Cornelius Van Dyck, 1851; W. B. Dimmick, 1853;
John E. WMte, 1854; re-elected in 1857, 1864, 1869, 1874 and 1879; J. W. Bellews,
1855; Nathan Comstock, 1858; Victor Case, 1861; Nelson G. Ray, 1862; John P.
Biles, 1862; Giles Roberts, 1867; re-elected in 1872; James C. Goodspeed, 1882;
P. G. Babcoek, 1884; W. D. Angell, 1889; re-elected, 1894; James R. Butler, 1892;
Giles Roberts, 1894, and A. B. Hitchcock, 1897.

POSTMASTEES.

The Knoxville postoffice was established November 20, 1822, with Aaron Alba
postmaster. He was commissioned in December, 1822, and held the office until Jan-
uary 23, 1830, when he was succeeded by Colton Knox, who held until October 3,
1831, when Mr. Alba was again appointed. August 12, 1841, Victor Case took the
office, and held it until March 15, 1843, when Mr. Alba once more became post-
master, and was succeeded October 9, 1847, by Daniel Angell. January 30, 1849,
Victor Case was again appointed, and was succeeded, March 2, 1851, by Samuel May,
Jr. Hiram Freeborn became postmaster July 26, 1853; Levi B. Reynolds, May 13,
1861, and Victor Case again April 29, 1869. Linden Case was appointed January 6,
1873. His successor was Jerome W. Hathaway, who held until October 30, 1889,
when Frank L. Gilbert succeeded him and served four years. H. A. Ashton, the
present incumbent, was appointed October 30, 1893.

PHYSICIANS AND LAWYERS.

Eddy Howland, Dr. Simeon Power and Jonathan Bonney, all of whom are
mentioned in the chapter on Deerfield township, were the pioneer physicians. Allen
Frazer, though residing at Academy Corners, included Knoxville in his practice. He
came in 1825. Ephraim Fuller located in 1830 and Pliny Power in 1831. Each
remained about a year. Thaddeus Phelps came in 1832 and left in 1834. Richard I.
Jones came in 1837 and remained until 1840. Herman Temple, a student of Allen
Frazer, practiced from 1840 till his death in 1852. William B. Rich located in
Knoxville in 1843 and practiced thirty years. Jerome Knapp began practice in
Knoxville in 1851. He died in 1854. Dr. Ira W. Bellews came in 1854 and practiced
until 1870. Dr. H. A. Phillips practiced here from 1867 to his death in 1877. C. M.
Phillips, a student of Dr. H. A. Phillips, was in practice here a short time previous to
1881, when he removed to Rathboneville, New York. Dr. Charles Albert Reese, a
native of Somerset county, Pennsylvania, began practice in Knoxville in 1875 and is
still a resident physician of the borough. Walter R. Francis, a native of Wellsboro,
practiced in Knoxville from 1878 to 1891, when he removed to Marion, Indiana.
Alonzo Kibbe, a native of Potter county, located in Knoxville in April, 1891, and
has since pursued the practice of his profession with success. Dr. Charles Trexler
became a resident physician of the borough in January, 1897.

A. J. Monroe began the practice of law in Knoxville in 1851. In 1859 he
removed to Monticello, Iowa. Charles 0. Bowman practiced in Knoxville from
1852 to 1865, when he removed to Erie county, Pennsylvania. Charles L. Peek, a
native of Farmington, studied law under Hon. M. F. Elliott, and practiced in Knox-
ville from 1872 to 1876. John Ormerod came from Coudersport, Potter county, in



KNOSVILLB BOEOUGH.



427



1877, and practiced in Knoxville until 1881. John T. Gear, a native of Pittsford,
Monroe county, New York, was admitted to the Potter county bar in June, 1881, and
December 1, of that year, opened an office in Knoxville, where he has since resided
and successfully practiced his profession. H. A. Ashton, the present postmaster
of Knoxville, was admitted to the Tioga county bar in December, 1887, and imme-
diately located in Knoxville. He has since built up a fair practice.

NEWSPAPEES.

The Knoxville Courier was established November 1, 1883, as a six-column
quarto, by A. H. Owens. In 1884 the firm became Owens & Culver, who ran it as
a Eepublican paper. In 1885 La Mont Brothers became proprietors, and in 1886
it was conducted by Edward E. La Mont. In 1889 Frank G. Babcock became
proprietor and changed it to a folio, and ran it as independent in politics. November
1, 1889, it was purchased by Charles E. Brugler, the present proprietor. It is all
home print, independent in politics, and devoted to local interests. Mr. Brugler
has condxicted it with ability, and it is recognized as one of the best local papers in
the county. It has a pajdng and growing subscription list. A well equipped job
office is run in connection with it.

CHTIKCHES.

A Quaker Society was organized about 1813 and a meeting house erected.
Among the early members were Ebenezer and Mehitabel Seelye, Julius and Joanna
Seelye, Joseph and Euth Colvin, Emmer and Huldali Bowen, Jesse Lapham and
wife, George Martin and wife, and Martin and Freelove Bowen. This society main-
tained its organization and held meetings for many years. The children and grand-
children of the original and early members drifted into other denominations, and the
society finally passed out of existence. The old meeting house is now occupied as
a dwelling.

The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Knoxville, incorporated December
5, 1867, dates the beginning of its history to meetings held previous to 1815 by
William Knox, a local preacher and exhorter. The first pastor was Eev. Samuel
Conant, who began his ministrations about 1815. In 1836 a parsonage was built
in the western part of the borough, Zadoc Bowen making a free gift of the land.
It has been a matter of difficulty to secure the names of the pastors in the order of
their service. The following, however, is an approximately complete list: Between
1830 and 1830— Eevs. John Copeland, Mr. Bell, Mr. Carey, Asa Orcutt, Caleb
Kendall, and I. J. B. McKinney. Between 1830 and 1840— Eevs. Bell, Mr. Dewey,
Nathan Fellows and Ealph D. Brooks. Between 1840 and 1850— Eevs. Francis W.
Conable, Milo Scott, Samuel Nichols, J. L. S. Grandin, Mr. Turk and A. D. Edgar.
Between 1850 and 1860 — Eevs. Davison, James Duncan, Samuel Nichols, E. L. Still-
well, Samuel P. Guernsey and Elisha Sweet. Cornelius Dillenbeck, 1863-63; C. L.
F. Howe, 0. B. "Weaver, 1865-68; Isaac Everitt, 1868-71; John H. Blades, 1871-73;
Charles Weeks, 1873-74; J. Y. Lowell, 1875-77; W. W. Hunt, 1877; J. W. Bamett,
1878; J. 0. Jarman, 1879-80; John Knapp, 1881-83; G. S. Spencer, 1883-85;
John Irons, 1885; C. M. Gardner, 1886-89; H. J. Owens, 1890-94, and S. C. Farn-
ham, who came in October, 1894. In 1871 a frame church building was erected



428 HISTORY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

at a cost of $3,000. In IS?? the old parsonage was exchanged for the residence of
Clark B. Bailey, a difference of $1,400 being paid. The church at present consists
of 117 memhers. There are 110 pupils in the Sunday-school, of which H. M. Cleye-
land is the superintendent.

The Knoxville Free Church Association, incorporated February 6, 1867, was
organized October 24, 1851, for the purpose of providing a house of public worship
in the borough of Knoxville, for the use of the different Christian denominations
desiring to hold services in it. Stock was sold at $10 a share, each member having
one vote for each share owned by him. The stock was taken by nearly all the leading
citizens of Elnozville, many of the subscribers being members of no denomination.
Hiram Freeborn, Henry Freeborn, Daniel Angell, David T. Billings and John Good-
speed gave $100 each to the enterprise. A lot was purchased of Jonathan Matteson
for $50, which he donated. Until 1869 this was the only church building in Knox-
ville. In 1866 a bell was piu-ehased, and in 1867 a "time table" was made out and
agreed to by Methodists, "Christians" and Hniversalists. The building is now
used as a house of worship by the "Christian" church, which was organized October
15, 1865.

The Christian Church of Knoxville, incorporated October 2, 1893, was organized
October 15, 1865, by Eev. Chester D. Kinney, of Osceola; Eev. Mr. White, of Wat-
kins, New York; Eev. J. W. K. Stewart, of Lawrenceville, and Eev. W. D. Euther-
f ord, of Knoxville. The church has now fifty members, with forty-five pupils in the
Sunday-school, of which the pastor is superintendent. The names of the ministers
who have served this church as pastors are as follows: Eevs. W. D. Eutherford,
1865; H. E. Kendall, 1866; Chester D. Kinney, 1868; A. T. Abbott, 1876; Walter
T. Mills, 1878; J. E. Hayes, 1880; Elias Jones, 1886; E. B. Elbridge, 1886; Oscar
Brann, 1887; J. L. Box, 1888; T. V. Moore, 1889; J. W. Wilson, 1890; L. A. Dyke-
man, 1891, and Ira L. Peck, who came April 1, 1894. The society worships in the
Free Church building.

The First Evangelical Congregational Church of Knoxville, incorporated June
18, 1870, was organized April 28, 1867, by Eev. L. Smith Holbert, with seven mem-
bers, viz: Joel and Caroline Johnson and daughter Frances, Elias Horton, Jr., and
Adah, his wife, J. P. Biles and Miss Emily Goodspeed. The names of the pastors
are as follows: Eevs. J. A. Farrer, 1868; John Cairns, 1870; W. H. Segston, 1872,
and A. C. Palmer, 1875. The society began the erection of a brick church building in
1869, which was completed and dedicated February 2, 1871. The building of this
edifice involved the society in debt and it was sold in 1888, and is now owned and
used by the Presbyterian church, organized May 9, 1888, into which the Congrega-
tional society merged.

The Baptist Church of Knoxville was organized March 7, 1868, with seven mem-
bers, as follows: E. P. Masterson, P. J. Masterson, Miss Frank Masterson, Mrs.
Elizabeth Short, William E. Simpson and Mrs. Clara Plaisted. For a number of
years this society worshiped in the Congregational church building. In 1886 this
society united with the First Baptist church of Deerfield. On February 28, 1888,
a new church building costing $2,000 was dedicated. The names of the pastors of
this church from the organization to 1886 are as follows: Eevs. W. P. Omans, 1868;
Stephen H. Murdock, 1871; C. K. Bunnell, 1873; C. A. Diffin, 1876; Philander



KNOXVILLB BOROUGH. 429



Eeynolds, 1878; S. L. Bouvier, 1883; Abner Morrill, 1883; E. K. Hammoiid, 1884.
Since the union the pastors have been the same as those given in the history of the
First Baptist church of Deerfield, in the chapter on Deerfield township.

The First Presbyterian Association of Knoxville was organized May 9, and incor-
porated September 3, 1888. There were thirteen original members, as follows:
Dr. George W. and Mary Korthrop, Joel Johnson, Dr. Ira W. Bellews, Maxy A.
Bellews, Marion Sturnock, Lucy Boom, Lavantia W. Eeynolds, Charles L. Hoyt,
Mariette Gilbert, Elizabeth D. Howland and Clement D. Northrop. Eev. S. H.
Moon, D. D., Ph.D., was the pastor of this church from its organization until Janu-
ary, 1897, having charge also of the churches in Osceola and Elkland. In January,
1897, Eev. J. B. "Woodward, the present pastor, took charge. The society now num-
bers thirty members. In 1888 this society acquired the Congregational church
building, which it still owns and in which it worships. There axe thirty pupils
in the Sunday-school, of which C. L. Hoyt is the superintendent.

CEMETERIES.

The Old Quaker Burying Ground is situated on the south side of Main street,
in the eastern part of the borough. Owing to the fact that the strict mem-
bers of the Society of Friends erected no tombstones or monuments over their dead,
the early graves in this inclosure are unmarked. Here rest, however, the remains
of members of the Howland, Handy, Seelye, Bowen, Clark, Pease and other well-
known families. Over the graves of those dying in later years suitable monuments
have been reared. In this graveyard lies buried the remains of Eev. Elisha Sweet,
a member of the East Genesee Conference, who died September 7, 1869, aged fifty-
nine.

The Free Church Cemetery adjoins that edifice on the south. Here, about 1832,
were re-buried the remains of the occupants of the graves of the first burying ground
in the borough, which was on Main street, not far east of Troup's creek. Members
of the Knox, Alba, Colvin, Matteson, AVhite, Gilbert, Billings, Beach, Goodspeed
and other early families lie buried here. The last interment here was in January,
1884, when the remains of John E. White were buried.

The Riverside Cemetery Association was incorporated August 26, 1887, the
incorporators being J. C. Goodspeed, Sidney Beach, J. T. Gear, Ira M. Edgeomb and
"W. H. Edgeomb. The grounds of this association are located south of the river on
the old John Goodspeed farm. Since the prohibition by the borough council of
further burials in either of the cemeteries within the borough limits, interments have
been made in this cemetery.

SOCIETIES.

During the past fifty years a number of secret, social and benevolent societies
have been organized in Knoxville. The pioneer society was Cowanesque Lodge, No.
232, I. 0. 0. P. It was organized March 21, 1849. In 1867 it was removed to
Mansfield. June 11, 1872, Deerfield Lodge, No. 800, I. 0. 0. P., was organized.
It passed out of existence in 1883, the records being transferred to Jemison Lodge,
No. 333, Westfield. Cowanesque Division, No. 359, Sons of Temperance, was
organized June 14, 1849, and continued in existence about ten years. Cowanesque



430 HISTOEY OP TIOGA COUNTY.

Lodge, No. 351, F. & A. M., was organized December 5, 1864, and now numbers
thirty-eight members. A. & G. Seely Post, No. 44, G. A. E., was organized July 10,
1875. It surrendered its charter in 1879. Its members meet with James Howland
Post, No. 508, at Academy Corners. Knoxville Lodge, No. 760, K. of H., was organ-
ized October 5, 1877, and now numbers sixty members. Knoxville Union, No. 371,
E. A. U., organized March 22, 1881, is in a flourishing condition. Knoxville Tent,
No. 163, K. 0. T. M., was organized April 20, 1893. It now numbers forty mem-
bers and is rapidly growing, new members being added at almost every meeting.



CHAPTEE

WESTFIBLD TOWNSHIP.

Organization — Physical Characteristics — Population — Early Settlers-
Early Enterprises— Schools and Justices— Churches and Cemeteries-
Villages.



WESTFIELD township, bounded on the north by Brookfield township, on the
east by Chatham township, on the south by Clymer township and on the west
by Potter county, was organized in December, 1821, and was taken from Deerfield
township. The origin of its name is attributed to the fact that it was then the
western limit of the settled portion of the Cowanesque va,lley. At the time of its
organization its area included all of Brookfield township, taken from it in February,
1827, and a part of Clymer township, taken from it and Gaines township in Decem-
ber, 1850. As at present constituted, it is seven miles from east to west, has an
average width from north to south of three and one-half miles, and contains about
twenty-four square miles. The east, west and south boundary lines are straight,



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