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Its growth in population and wealth has been steady and progressive. In 1840 it
led in population, having 1,378 inhabitants. In 1870 it had 1,637 inhabitants;
in 1880, 1,345, and ia 1890, 1,311. The decrease in population, during recent
years, has been due to the suspension of lumbering operations, owing to the ex-
haustion of the timber supply. Sullivan is now a strictly agricultural town-
ship, and as such is rich and prosperous.

EARLY SETTLERS.

The settlement of the township began about 1803, in which year Samuel Eey-
nolds came from Vermont and settled on the farm until recently occupied by his
son, the late Thomas Eeynolds, on the State road. David Palmer, a native of



558 HISTORY OF TIOGA COXTNTT.

Oneida county, New York, settled in the eastern part of the township, where he
and his brother Stephen pre-empted and purchased nearly 1,000 acres of land, the
greater portion of which is still owned by their descendants. His brother, Stephen
Palmer, came later and settled beside him. James Gray, who camo in 1805 from
Otsego county. New York, settled in the northeastern part of the township, in what
has since been known as Gray's Valley. He was a EeTolutionary soldier and served
seven years in the Continental army, and was discharged with the rank of captain.
Noah Eumsey, Sr., came from Vermont in 1807, and settled on the site of
Mainesburg. A few years later he sold out to Jonathan L. Spencer, and located
on Eumsey Hill, as did also his brothers. Smith and Jeremiah Eumsey, each of
whom left numerous descendants in Sullivan township. Eussell Eose, an oflB.cer
in the Eevolution, on Washington's staff, came from Connecticut in 1807, and
settled in the northeast corner of what is now "Ward township. A few years
later he removed to Sullivan township and located on the State road, about half
a mile west of the State Eoad Baptist church. A number of his descendants still
reside in this neighborhood. Mrs. Eebecca Packard, a daughter of Eussell Eose,
ajid for many years past a resident of Covington township, was bom in Norfolk
township, Litchfield county, Connecticut, October 11, 1795. She celebrated the
one himdred and first anniversary of her birth in October, 1896. Notwithstand-
ing her great age, she is still bright and active.

After the opening up of the State road through the township in 1808, settlers
began to flock in. It has been difficult to ascertain the exact year of the coming
of each one, and resort has been had to the assessment list of 1818 to determine
who were the tax-paying residents of the township in that year. It is safe to as-
sume, that nearly all of those whose names appear on that list were here as early
as 1810, and some a year or two earlier. In addition to those already given, the
following names appear: Isaac Baker, who settled in "Gray's Valley;" Simeon
Briggs on the State road; Griffin and Constant Bailej', at Chandlerburg; Paul
and ApoUos Cudworth, on Eumsey Hill; Peleg Doud, southeast of Mainestturg;
Aaron Gitchell and Eli Gitchell, a Baptist preacher, and Levi Gitchell, on Eum-
sey Hill; Allen Lane and Benjamin and Henry Lawrence, in the eastern part of
the township; "William Ludington, on the Isaac Squires farm; Ira Mudge, on
the State road; Hanover Pitts, near the fiichmond township line; Jesse Orvis,
on the State road; Thomas Eexford and Gardner Seaman, in the eastern part
of the township; Jesse Smith, near the Eutland township line, and Elijah and
Nathaniel "Welch, on the State road, in the eastern part of the township.

The following additional names appear on the assessment list of 1817, the
first assessment made after the township was organized: John Andrews, Ananias
Balcer, Simeon Briggs, Jr.; Thomas E. Corey, who settled on the State road;
James Cudworth, who settled in the western, and David Crippen, who settled in
the northeastern part of the township; Jacob Collins, who settled near Maines-
burg; Josiah Dewey, who came in 1813, and settled on the State road; John Ellis,,
who came in 1815, and settled in Mainesburg; David Fellows, who also settled in
the Mainesburg neighborhood; John and Silas Gray, David Jones, Timothy
Knowlton, who settled in the southwestern part of the township; John King, who
settled in the. eastern part of the township; Allen Lane, Jr., Lemuel Lane, John



SULLIVAN TOWNSHIP. 559



Ludington, Eeuben Merritt, Joseph aiid Timothy Orvis, Jonathan Partridge, who
settled below Chandlerbnxg; Clement and David Paine, Smith Eumsey, Elisha
Rush, John Simpkins, Lyman Spencer, Nathan Welch, Jr., Roswell and Abial
"Webster, Zebedee Woodward, Nbali Weast, John Watson, Ephraim S. Marsh,
Joseph Ford, Lyman Eumsey, Samuel Hardin, Eobert Potter, Daniel James, Levi
Fox and Isaac Benson.

BUSINESS ENTEEPHISES.

A grist-mill was erected at Mainesburg about 1809, by Noah Eumsey, Sr.
Two or three years later he sold it to Jonathan L. Spencer. In 1834 he sold his
lands and mill and other personal property to John Maine, a pioneer in Lawrence
township, who also bought the lands and personal property of Lyman Spencer.
Mr. Maine operated the mill until 1841, when he sold it to Solon Eichards, who
ran it a number of years, and sold it to E. K. Brundage, and he in turn to
Philemon Doud, who tore down the old mill and erected a steam mill on its site.
N. E. Calkins succeeded Doud as owner of the property, which finally passed into
the hands of Hiram Horton, who leased it to Aaron Austin. On April 17, 1894,
the mill was destroyed by fire and has not been rebuilt. In 1831 Sylvester Bailey
erected a water-power grist-mill in Bailey Hollow, near Chandlerburg. About
1840 he sold it to Moses Crawford, who operated it for a number of years. It
shut down about twenty years ago, 0. W. Palmer being the owner at the time.

In 1819 John Gray erected a saw-mill at Gray's Valley, on Elk run. He
operated until 1832. It had a number of owners. In 1838 Albert Dewey erected
a saw-mill in the eastern part of the township, which he and George Dewey
operated for a number of years. William Young, another early mill owner, built
a mill about 1832 below Mainesburg, on Corey creek, near the Eichmond town-
ship Une. In 1844 Valorus 0. Spencer erected a mill above Maiuesburg. Other
early mill owners and lumbermen were: Stephen Palmer, who ran a mill in the
eastern part of the township; Peleg Doud, who erected one on the South fork of
Corey creek, on what is now the George Eoss farm, and Sylvester Bailey, who
erected one in Bailey Hollow. All these mills were run by water power, the flutter-
wheel being the one generally used. They have passed out of existence, except
the mill near the State road, now operated by Edward Dewey.

In 1820 Lyman and Orange Spencer were operating a distillery near Maines-
burg. It afterwards became the property of John Maine, who ran it a few years,
and then discontinued the business. In 1828 John Packard erected a tannery in
Mainesburg. It was afterwards moved over the hill, north of the village. He
conducted it until his death in 1842, when it shut down. In 1832 Solon Eichards
established a woolen factory in Mainesburg, which he sold in 1838 to Philemon
Doud. It was discontinued about 184.5. J. B. Strong erected a wagon shop in
Mainesburg in the early fifties. It was afterwards carried on by Lorenzo Doud.
It is over thirty years since it ceased operations. The building was afterward
transformed into a skating rink and is now used as a public hall.

The existing manufacturing enterprises are the Mainesburg Co-operative
Creamery Company; the East Sullivan Co-operative Creamery Company, whose



5gQ HISTOET OF TIOGA COUNTY.



creamery is located in Gray's Valley, and the West Sullivan Co-operative Creamery
Company, whose creamery is located on the Mansfield and Eoseville road, near
the Eichmond township Une. These creameries have all been established since
1890. During the season they manufacture about 350 pounds of butter a day
each. The patrons pay three cents a pound for churning aJid receive back the
skim milk. A cheese factory, on the S. K. Longwell place, is not now in
operation.

The first store in the township was staxted-in 1816 by John Gray, in Gray's
Valley. A few years later Timothy and Joseph Orvis, opened a store on King's
Hill, south of the State road. Both these stores were carried on in log buildings.
Some time after this Alvin Ames opened a store in a frame building on Ames'
Hill.

In 1832 John M. Fox opened the first store in Mainesburg. He was after-
wards associated in business with A. C. Witter, the firm being Fox & Witter. Mr.
Fox was in business about forty years. Among the later merchants were John
Eobinson, P. W. Doud, E. A. Fish, L. D. Eumsey and William Strong. There
are now two general stores in Mainesburg, one conducted by J. W. DeWitt & Son,
and the other by J. N. Strange.

In 18.51 Northrop Smith and H. L. Eoblyer opened a store in Chandlerburg.
Mr. Eoblyer retired in 1857, and Mr. Smith carried on the business for a num-
ber of years afterward. Thomas Wood opened a grocery store here and carried it on
for six or eight years. October 1, 1888, S. L. Wood opened a general store,
which he still carries on. It is now the only store in the place.

Soon after embarking in business in Mainesburg, John M. Fox opened a hotel
in a building still standing, east of the Grange hall. Here he kept hotel for more
than twenty years. In 184-7 Leander D. Eumsey, built the house now known as
"Hotel Thayer." He was succeeded as landlord by J. B. Strong. Daniel James
kept here during the war, his successors being Peleg Doud and E. K. Brundage.
0. B. Thayer, the present landlord, purchased the property in 1886. The Maines-
burg House has been kept for a number of years by A. M. Haight. It was erected for
a private residence.

SCHOOLS.

The first school house in the township was a log structure, erected near Allen
Lane's. It was a subscription school, as were all the early schools of the county.
Another early school, known as the Diven school, was erected in Gray's Valley.
The Eamsdale and Eumsey Hill school houses were all built during the sub-
scription school period. As the township became settled other schools were
started. After the adoption of the common school law, in 1835, regular school
districts were formed, which were sub-divided as population increased. The first
school house in Mainesburg was on the site of the building now occupied as an
office by Dr. J. A. Knipple. In 1896 there were fifteen schools in the township,
and one in Mainesburg, in which seventeen teachers were employed. The schools
are well sustained, good teachers are employed and fair salaries paid.




^J^r^.^Z^e^^r^^-J^



SULLIVAN TOWNSHIP. 561



PHYSICIANS AND JUSTICES.

About 1830 Dr. Dexter ParMiurst, who had previously practiced in Mans-
field, located in Maineshurg, where he continued to practice until his death in
1866. Harry Lyman located in Maineshurg about the same time, but made a
brief stay. Levi Eose begaoi practice about 1835 and continued for a number of
years. David A. Eoblyer began practice about 1845 and continued until about
1850. Dr. George D. Maine, a son of John Maine, graduated from the medical
department of the University of BufEalo in 1856, and a year later located ia
Mainesburg, where he has continued to practice to the present time. Leonard
J. Bradford, a native of the township, graduated from Penn Medical College in
1865, practiced two years at Austinville, and in 1867 located near Sullivan Post-
ofi&ce, where he has continued to practice until the present time. Dr. John A.
Knipple, a graduate of Parish Medical College, has practiced in Mainesburg since
1893.

The following-named persons have served as justices of the peace since the
township was organized: Eli Gitchell, 1819; John Cochran, 1832; Ebenezer
Eipley, 1822; John Marvin, 1835; re-elected, 1835; John Gray, 1825; Ephraim
B. Gerould, 1836; James C. Turner, 1838; Thomas Dyer, 1838; Thomas Putnam,
1838; John Shaffer, 1839; Eufus Smith, ' 1831; Daniel N. Hunt, 1832; 'Lan-
son Miller, 1834; Solon Eichards, 1835; William Hill, 1835; Alfred Eipley,
1836; re-elected, 1840; Evan Harris, 1837; Edwin Dyer, 1838; Isaac Drake,
1838; Philemon Doud, 1840; Leander D. Eumsey, 1841; Calvin C. Green, 1845;
James Gray, 1845; Isaac S. Eumsey, 1848; re-elected, 1853; Thomas Eeynolds,
1850; Henry B. Card, 1855; re-elected, 1860; E. A. Pish, 1858; Isaac Squire,
1860; re-elected, 1872, 1877, 1882; Northrop Smith, 1863; re-elected, 1867, 1887,
1893; K. A. Taylor, 1865; re-elected, 1870; B. I. Eew, 1873; E"athaa Smith, 1878;
Charles Strange, 1883; re-elected, 1888; W. J. Squire and Loren Dodge, 1893.

CHUECHES.

The Old School Baptist Church of Sullivan was organized about the year
1816, at the residence of Peleg Doud, neax Mainesburg. The first minister of
this denomination to preach in the township, was Eev. Mr. Power. He was soon
Joined by Eev. Ifehemiah Hobart Eipley, who came into the county in 1815, and
settled in Eichmond township, and their efforts resulted in the organization of a
church. Meetings were held in dwellings and school houses. A great many of
the early settlers were members of this church, which maintained its organization
for a number of years. Owing to deaths, removals, and the absorption of its
membership by the regular Baptist churches of East Sullivan, and the State
road, it became too weak to maintain itself and passed out of existence. Among
the ministers who preached to this church was Eev. Eli Gitchell, an early settler
on Eumsey Hill.

The Free Will Baptist Church of Sullivan was the outgrowth of meetings
begun in the autumn of 1830, in the Eumsey Hill school house, by Eev. James H.
Lamphere, who organized a church in the following spring. On April 3, 1866,
the society was incorporated. During recent years it maintained no regular
pastor.

36



562 HISTOET OF TIOGA COUNTY.

The East Sullivan Baptist Church was organized May IS, 1836. In June,
1835, the first regulax appointments for Baptist preaching were made by Samuel
Bullock, of Bradford county, assisted by Elder Elisha Kich. In October follow-
ing, those who had attended these services- organized themselves into a body,
called the Sullivan Baptist Christian Conference. May 18, 1836, a council met
and formally organized the church, with a membership of twenty-seven persons,
as follows: P. Baker, Samuel Bullock, A. Crandall, John Ludington, Peleg Doud,
E. Webster, H. Austin, Philemon Doud, James Gray, Jr., "William Squire, Noah
0. Gray, Aurilla Baker, Lueinda Eeynolds, Elizabeth Bullock, Sarah Crandall,
Eunice Ludington, Betsy "Webster, Louisa Doud, L. "Webster, Louisa Squire, Mary
Hill, Sally Burman, Almira Hill, Caroline Chapman, Isabella Gray, Lucy Eey-
nolds and Louisa Gray. Eev. Elisha Eich was the first pastor. His successors
were Eevs. Packer, D. M. Eoot, Myron Eockwell, J. P. Burnam, S. Grinnell, 1851;
C. Beebe, 1852-56; S. Grinnell, 1857-59; M. Eockwell, 1860-63; G. P. "Watrous,
1865 ; C. A. Stone, 1867; no pastor, 1868 to 1872; M. Eockwell, 1873; P. Purvis,
1875. After 1875 the church had no pastor and in 1888 it became extinct. The
church at Mansfield, organized April 10, 1840, was a branch of this society, as
was also the Sullivan State Eoad Baptist church, organized in June, 1856. A
branch of this church was also organized at the Van Ness school house, in Eut-
land township, December 14, 1839. A Sunday-school was organized about 1843
and regularly sustained until 1870. The first church edifice in the township was
erected by this society in 1842. In May, 1855, the church numbered 111 mem-
bers. The last baptism occurred in August, 1867.

The Sullivan State Road Baptist Church was organized July 8, 1856, in L.
L. Smith's bam. The preliminary steps were taken at a conference which met at
the Eamsdale school house May 3, 1856, and which was presided over by Eev. C.
Beebe, moderator. Upon the formal organization of the church, the following
named persons became members: J. Fletcher, D. D. Miller, Betsy Eumsey, A.
Hart, E. B. Eose, 0. D. Eumsey, D. Fletcher, Mary E. Miller, Cornish Mudge,
Daniel Eose, M. V. Mudge, F. S. Morgaji, Floyd Ashley, E. S. Eose, Allen
Webster, L. A. Eose, Adeline Smith, T. C. Webster, Sarah Fletcher, Clarissa

A. Eose, W. L. Miller, G. W. Doud, S. S. Webster, Anna C. Miller, L. A. Eock-
well, N. N. Eumsey, Betsy Morgan, Susannah Welch, Christiana Ayers, L. Jane
Ashley, Jane E. Eose, Oliver Eumsey, Alonzo S. Chapel and E. J. Lewis. Eev.
C. Beebe, the first pastor, served during 1856. His successors have been as fol-
lows: Eevs. S. Grinnell, 1857; M. Eockwell, 1858-63; G. P. Watrous, 1865-68-
M. Eockwell, 1870-72; J. A. Baskwell, 1873; M. Eockwell, 1875; Henry Bray'
1876-77; Boss Ward, 1878-80; Samuel Early, 1881; S. F. Mathews, 1882; a!
Tilden, 1883-85; E. J. Lewis, 1886; A. J. Adams, 1887; G. H. Trapp, 1889-90;

B. T. Davies, 1891, and J. A. James, the present pastor, who took charge in Mayi
1893. In 1857 the society erected a frame church building on the south side of
the State road, two miles and a half southeast of Mainesburg. This ha^ since
been repaired as needed. The church has 164 members. There are seventy
pupils and teachers in the Sunday-school, of which E. B. Eoberts of Mainesburg
is the superintendent. This is one of the strong and prosperous churches of
the county.



SULLIVAN TOWNSHIP. 5g3



The Methodist Episcopal Church of Maineslurg was organized in 1841, and
incorporated June 14, 1843, the first trustees being Solon Eichards, John Fox,
Lyman Eeynolds, James A. Fellows, Ebenezer Burley, Joshua Smith and James
Pitts. As early as 1808, Eev. Joseph Mitchell, a Methodist Episcopal minister,
while on a visit to his brother, Ensign Mitchell, preached at his home. He after-
wards preached at the log school house near Allen Lane's, known as the Dewey
school house. About 1810 Capt. Thomas Lewis, an exhorter of the same church,
commenced holding meetings in the Diven school house. These he kept up for
several years. His efforts were followed by those of Eev. Mr. Warner, who or-
ganized a Methodist Episcopal class. The church was orgaoiized in 1841, after
a great revival conducted by Eevs. Eobert T. Hancock and Charles L. Brovm.
The new church was placed in the Troy charge, remaining until 1854, and was
served by the following ministers: J. Dodge, 1843; Charles Wright, 1844; M.
Carlton, 1845; Ira Smith, 1846; William Hosmer, 1847; ISTathan Fellows, 1848;
A. C. Huntley, 1849-50; E. Sweet, 1851; M. H. ShurtlefE, 1852, and C. Nash
and E. S. Eosa, 1853. In 1854 Troy circuit was divided and the Mainesburg ap-
pointments also included the State Eoad, Sylvania and Eutland churches. The
pastors of the Mainesburg church have been Eevs. F. Kent, 1854-55; Daniel Clark,
1855-57; John Powell, 1857-58; James H. Eoss, 1858-60; P. T. Christian,
1860-61; E. Colson, 1861-63; E. Mackwood, 1863-66; C. L. F. Howe, 1866-68;
S. G. Ehinevault, 1868-71; Isaac Everitt, 1871-74; D. E. Blaine, 1874-76; Harvey
Lamkin, 1876-79; E. E. Morris, 1879-83; J. L. King, 1883-85; George Fosbinder,
1885-86; T. H. King, 1886-88; C. M. Adams, 1888-91; F. M. Warner, 1891-93;
H. B. Troxel, 1893-94; H. E. Hineman, 1894-95; H. E. Hyde, 1895-97. In
1843 a neat frame building was erected as a house of worship. It was used until
1875, when the present church was built. It is of brick, with stained glass win-
dows, slated roof, a fine tower and spire, and cost, with interior furnishing, $13,000.
It is one of the finest churches in the county.

The State Road Methodist Episcopal Class, as at present organized, is a re-
vival of a class organized about fifty yeajs ago. In 1860 the membership was
as follows: Thomas Eeynolds, leader; Mary Eeynolds, Anson Palmer, Mary
Palmer, Gardner Hagar, Lydia E. Hagar, VanBuren Eeynolds, Celestia Eeynolds,
George Fletcher, John D. Eumsey, Valvasa A. Eumsey, Deborah Eamsdale, Ellen
Smith, Amanda Welch, Margaretta Orvis, Almeda Welch, Eosina Smith, Eiley
Fletcher, Alfred Wheeler, Adaline WTieeler, Isaac W. Smith, Loreta Smith, Lyman
Soper, ISTancy Soper, Moses Soper, Ann Soper, Levi M. Eumsey, Sophia Eumsey,
Almeda Fletcher, Louisa Eumsey, Eaton Beardsley, Louisa Palmer, Fanny Smith,
Eachel Gafford, Eliza Orvis, Lovisa S. Lewis, Charity Baldwin, John E. Hart
and James Lyon. This class first met in the Eamsdale school house. In 1861
the place of meeting was changed to the Union church, then recently erected.
After maintaining its organization for a number of years the class went down.
It has been recently revived and is now in a flourishing condition. There are
twenty-five members. A Union Sunday-school, with an average attendance of
thirty-five pupils, is maintained, of which Lyman Eeynolds is the superintendent.
This class is a branch of the church at Mainesburg.



564 HISTOKT OF TIOGA COUNTY.

The Elh Run Methodist Episcopal Church was incorporated February 2, 1864.
This churcli was the outgrowth of a Methodist class, organized some years pre-
vious at Chandlerburg, which was formally organized into a church a short time
before the iacorporation of the society. In 1861 the class consisted of the follow-
ing named members: Lyman Eeynolds, C. G. Smith, Sarah Smith, Amos Mudge,
Lucy A. Mudge, Eachel Styres, Caroline Squire, Arad Smith, Margey Smith,
Alexander C. Smith, M. A. Smith, Dolly Smith, Hosea Squire and Irene Squire.
In the summer of 1864 a neat frame house of worship, costing $1,;200, was erected.
This society now numbers eighty members. There are sixty pupils and teachers
in the Sunday-school, of which B. C. Smith is the superintendent. This church
has been in the Mainesburg charge since its organization, and has had the same
pastors as the church in Mainesburg.

The Church of Christ of Mainesburg was organized in January, 1876, and
incorporated January 7, 1879. The names of the original members are as fol-
lows: James E. Brown, Lucy Brown, Lovina Love, John Harvey, Clara Harvey,
Anna Doyen, Nellie Doyen, Loretta A. Ford, Myrtle Ford, Flora Love, William

E. Dewey, Alice M. StaufEer, Ada E. Clarey, Delia Eeynolds, Demon Dewey, Emaretta
Eumsey, Margaret Lovell, Phoebe Ashley, Sanford Dewey and Lovena H. Dewey.
Eev. I. E. Spencer was the first pastor. He served two years. The names of
the succeeding pastors are as follows: Eevs. M. S. Blair, 1879-80; A. D. Finch,
1880-81; Cyrus Hurlbut, 1883; C. Brown, 1883; J. M. Calhoun, 1884-85; E.

F. DeWitt, 1886; Charles McGennis, 1887; M. T. Manus, 1889; M. C. Frick,
1890. Since 1890 the church has been without a pastor, and regular services
have not been maintained. A church edifice, costing $2,100, was erected in 1879.
This society was, at one time, a strong and vigorous organization, but death, re-
movals and withdrawals have greatly reduced its membership.

The Central Union Church or Congregation on the State road is the name
of a corporation chartered February 17, 1860, the incorporators being Thomas
Eeynolds, Eleazer Orvis, B. I. Eew, Eeuben Nash and Eoswell Webster. In 1861
it erected a house of worship, known as the Union church, on the north side of
the State road, in the eastern part of the township. This house has been used
from time to time by the Methodists, Christians, Baptists and other denomina-
tions for the purpose of holding religious services. It is now the meeting place
of the State Eoad Methodist Episcopal class. Services are held here regularly
by the pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church in Mainesburg.

CEMETERIES.

The Doud Burying Ground, on the Peleg Doud place, was one of the earliest
btirial places in the township. Members of the Doud family were the first to
be interred here.

The State Road Cemetery, opposite the State Eoad Baptist church, embraces
about two acres of ground, and is inclosed by a neat iron fence. Interments were
begun here about 1830. The remains of early settlers of the eastern and
southern portions of the township lie buried here. A number of bodies were re-
moved from early family burying grounds and re-interred here. The newer
graves are marked by handsome marble and granite monuments.



STTLLITAN TOWNSHIP. 555



Gray's Valley Cemetery, near the old East Sullivan Baptist ehurcli building,
contains the graves of many of the early settlers in the eastern part of the town-
ship. It is neatly fenced and well eared for.

The Mainesburg Cemetery is situated on elevated ground in the northwestern
part of the borough. This cemetery contains about two acres and was opened
about 1863. It is inclosed with a good fence and the graves are well cared for.
The cemetery has a number of very handsome marble and granite monu-
ments. It is the burial place for the borough and vicinity.

SECRET SOCIETIES.



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