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Eiehard Videan, Alonzo Barber, Jacob Whitman and L. E. Sampson. Until 1867
this church was in the same charge with the church at Mansfield. Prom 1867 to
1884 it was in the same charge with the church at Blossburg. Since 1884 it and
the church at Lamb's Creek have constituted one charge. The names of the



COTINGTOK BOEOUGH. 603



pastors are as follows: Ira Smith, 1841-42; Enoch H. Cramer, 1842-43; R. M.
Reach, 1843-44; Samuel Mchols, 1844-45; William E. Pindar, 1845-46; R. L.
Stillwell, 1846-48; 0. Trowbridge, 1848-50; W. C. Mattison, 1850-51; A. H.
Shurtliff, 1851-52; W. Manning, 1852-54; L. L. Rogers, 1854-56; J. R. Jaques,
1856-57; H. N. Seaver, 1857-58; R. L. Stillwell, 1858-60; W. Beach, 1860-61; W.
Cochran, 1861-63; W. M. Haskell, 1863-65; Harvey Lamkin, 1865-67; M. S.
Kymer, 1867-69; Harvey Lamkin, 1870-73; C. G. Lowell, 1873-76; C. H. Wright,
1876-79; R. N. Leake, 1879-84; E. E. Van Kenren, 1884-87; W. M. DuBois, 1887-
89; F. H. Rowley, 1889-91; D. L. Pitts, 1891-94; Cornelius Dillenbeek, 1894-95,
and W. B. Armington, 1895-97. There are ninety members in the Sunday-school,
of which J. W. Bradley is the superintendent. C. E. Barber is president of the
Epworth League, which has a large membership.

The First Baptist Church of Covington was originally known as "The Particular
Baptist Church of Covington." It was organized September 19, 1840, at the
district school house in Covington. The original members were Rev. George Spratt,
whose labors here resulted in the formation of the church; David S. Ireland,
Samuel Morgan, Elizabeth Spratt, Mary Binley, Chastina Macomber, Eliza Marvin,
Sarah P. Kelts, Maria Marvin, Margaxet Ireland, Ann Morgan and Margaret Harris.
The members met in the school house until about 1855, when a church edifice was
erected on Main street. A parsonage was erected in 1882. The society existed
under its old name until about 1861, when it adopted the rules of faith and
practice of the Regular Baptist denomination. The names of those who have
served this church as pastors, are as follows: Revs. George Spratt, 1839-45;
Abijah Sherwood, 1845-50; Levi Stone, 1851-52; D. P. Maryatt, 1852-57; W. L.
Reynolds, 1860-65; G. P. Watrous, 1865-72; E. L. Mills, 1875-78; Ross Ward,
1878-81; S. F. Matthews, 1881-83; A. Tilden, 1883-86; E. J. Lewis, 1886-87; G.
H. Trapp, 1888-90; James Jones, 1893-95, and T. C. Davis, 1895-96. The pastor
of this church also serves the church at Cherry Flats. The Sunday-school was
organized January 1, 1881. The present superintendent is F. M. Patchen. There
is an average attendance of 100 pupils. Mr. Patchen is also president of the
Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor.

The First Presbyterian Church of Covington was organized July 27, 1841, by
Rev. Julius Doane, Rev. Samuel Hopkins, of Coming, New York, and Rev.
Samuel Storrs Howe, of Painted Post, New York. The names of the original
members are as follows: Joel Harkness and Hubbard Clarke, ruling elders;
Mrs. Etmice Clarke, William Clarke, Sarah Clarke, Silas C. Perry, Lucy Putnam,
Mrs. Eliza Kress, Isaac Baker and Mrs. Elizabeth Baker. This church has been
served by the following pastors: Rev. Julius Doane, 1841-42; Octavius Fitch,
1843-44; E. B. Benedict, 1851-54; L. K. Beauge, 1854-57; Henry Losch, 1857;
J. P. Calkins, 1868; J. A. Rosseel, 1870-71. Services were suspended until ].878,
when a revival of interest resulted in giving new life to the society. The pastors since
that time have been Rev. George D. Meigs, 1878-82; W. S. Carter, 1882-85; George
Rodgers, 1885-86; J. B. Woodward, 1889-94, and Charles B. Hoyt, who took
charge in February, 1894. He is also pastor of the church at Mansfield. The
society first met in the "Seminary" building, west of the river. In 1847 the
society was incorporated and a church building erected on the lot adjoining the



604 HISTOKT OF TIOGA COUNTY.

present Bartlett Hotel on the north. This building cost $1,763.50. When it
was dedicated there was a debt of $890.50, the money having been advanced by
Edwin Dyer, who took a mortgage on the property. In 1895 his heirs cancelled
this debt and presented the building, unincumbered, to the society. Another
lot was purchased further south on Main street, and the building removed to it.
The church now numbers forty members. A Sunday-school was organized
January 1, 1894. It now numbers eighty members. The superintendent is Miss
Isabella T. Dyer.

The Secret Societies of Covington are as follows: Covington Lodge, Wo. 374,
I. 0. 0. P., instituted August 10, 1848, has a large membership, and is in a
prosperous condition. Emma Colfax Lodge, No. 15, D. of E., was organized
September 3.3, 1869, with forty-seven charter members, and was the pioneer lodge
in the county. Covington Preceptory, Local Assembly, No. 300, K. of L., was
organized in September, 1881. Washington Camp, No. 636, P. 0. S. of A., was
organized December 38, 1891^ and now contains forty-two members.



CHAPTEE LII.

BLOSS TOWNSHIP.

Oeganization— Physical Features— Streams— Forest Growth— Mineral De-
posits—Limited Agriculture— Justices of the Peace— Changes in Area and
Population— The Blossbueg Coal Company— Arnot — Churches — Socie-
ties— Landrus.



BLOSS township, taken from Covington township, and named in honor of Aaron
Bloss, the founder of Blossburg, was organized in June, 1841. As originally
created it embraced the area included in the Blossburg borough limits, and a large
portion of that of Hamilton township, the one organized in August, 1871, and the
other in December, 1871. The area included in the present boundaries embraces
about twenty square miles, being four and three-fourth miles from east to west and
four and one-fourth miles from north to south. The township is rough and rugged,
the altitude varying from 1,400 feet in the Johnson creek valley to 3,000 feet on the
mountain summits. The streams of the township are small, the principal ones
being Johnson creek and Bellman run in the east and southeast; Babb's creek in
the southwest; Sand run in the northwest, and a small unnamed run or branch in
the northeast. The original forest growth of the township consisted principally
of pine, hemlock, beech, birch and maple. The pine has been all cut down and



BLOSS TOWNSHIP. 605



manufactured into lumber, and the hemlock nearly so. Large quantities of hemlock
and beech are also used in the mines for props, etc. Nearly the whole of the area
of this township is underlaid by three workable Yeins of semi-bituminous coal, known
as the Seymour, Bloss and Bear Eun veins. The Bloss vein is the one that is being
mined both at Arnot and Landrus. There is also an extensive deposit of fire clay
of the very finest quality, as well as of potter's clay, and a clay from which a good
mineral paint can be manufactujed. In all of these resources the township is ex-
ceptionally rich.

"With the exception of a limited area in the northwest comer, occupied by the
farms of H. D. Wood, J. E. and C. M. Henry, Daniel Davis, Selah Phillips, "William
Eeese and a few others, the township is composed of wild land, the property of
the Blossburg Coal Company, whose business is confined to the mining of coal, the
manufacture of lumber, and the shipping of tan bark.

Although containing a mining town, which at one time had a larger population
than any other place in the county, no effort to secure a borough charter has ever
been made, and the entire township, including the villages of Arnot and Landrus,
is under township government. The ofiice of justice of the peace has been filled as
follows: Evan Harris, 1843; re-elected, 1845; Francis Welch, 1843; re-elected,
1845, 1863; Martin Stratton, 1844; John Evans, 1849; re-elected, 1854; George
Jacquemin, 1850; John James, 1854; re-elected, 1859; Isaac M. Bodine, 1859;
E. J. Bosworth, 1861; Lewis B. Smith, 1866; re-elected, 1871; J. P. Monell, 1867;
Eichard WiUiams, 1869; Peter Cameron, Jr., 1873; James Heffron, 1873; Matthew
Waddell, 1874; Eeuben E. Howland, 1874; David T. Evans, 1879; D. C. Waters,
M. D., 1879; re-elected, 1887, 1892; Samuel Heron, 1884; Jonathan E. Hutchin-
son, 1884; John McKay, 1886; W. E. Logan, 1889; James Bonnell, 1894, and
D. C. Waters, 1897.

In 1871 Blossburg was made a borough, and in 1873 a part of Bloss township
went to make up the new township of Hamilton. This gave a reduced territory and
population in 1880, the number of inhabitants being 3,814, all but 31 being resi-
dents of Arnot. In February, 1883, the township area was enlarged by the addition
to it of that part of Charleston lying between it and Duncan. In 1890 it contained
3,550 inhabitants, of which 644 resided on farms and in the village of Landrus.

THE BLOSSBUBG COAL COMPANY.

The successful operation of the coal mines at Morris Eun and Fall Brook, and
the increasing demand for Blossburg coal — the name given to the product of these
mines — drew the attention of capitalists to Tioga county, led to extended explora-
tions in Bloss township, and to the discovery of a large deposit of coal on Johnson
creek, four miles southwest of Blossburg. In order to develop this new coal field,
the Blossburg Coal Mining and Eailroad Company was formed, and was duly in-
corporated April 11, 1866. The incorporators were Constant Cook, John Arnot,
Charles Cook, Henry Sherwood, Franklin N. Drake, Ferral C. Dininy, Henry H.
Cook and Lorenzo Webber. Financially, this company was a strong one, and was
composed of men noted for their energy, enterprise and public spirit.

A tract of several thousand acres of land, embracing nearly the entire area of
Bloss township, having been purchased, preparations were made for developing the



606 HISTOEY OP TIOGA COUNTY.

new coal fields and marketing the coal. An office was opened in Blossbnrg, and a
wagon road, from the coal openings, cut through the forest to the Williamson road,
a distance of two miles, for the transportation of materials and supplies to the site
of the new village, which was named Draketown, in honor of Franklin N". Drake,
the first president of the company and a leading spirit in the enterprise. F. C.
Dininy was the general superintendent; James E. Cameron, mining superintendent,
and E. K. Mandeville superintendent of the outside and lumber department.

A village site was selected and cleared, a saw-mill built, and Nicholas Schultz —
now the outside foreman of the company, placed in charge as head sawyer. A
number of dwellings and a store building were also erected. This gave employment
to a large number of woodsmen, carpenters and other mechanics, and created a scene
of activity, evidencing the earnestness and energy of the company. A railroad was
also completed from Blossburg during the summer of 1866. In the meantime.
Drift No. 1 was put in by James E. Cameron, John Dunsmore and others. Drifts
ISTos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 were afterwards opened under Mr. Cameron's direction. Drift
No. 6, three miles southwest, was opened by J. J. Davis, under the direction of S.
B. Elliott, and a narrow gauge railroad built to it in 1880. A weighing office was
established in Blossburg, with M. G. Lewis as weighmaster and shipping clerk.

The encouraging results following the opening of the mines and of the explora-
tions carried on during 1867 and 1868, led the company, in the latter year, to
purchase the Tioga railroad, extending from Lawxenceville to Blossburg and Morris
Eun. This gave the company thirty-four miles of road, including the four miles
from Blossburg to Draketown, and connection with the "Erie" at Corning, New
York.

In 1868 the office of the company was removed from Blossburg. In March, of
that year, H. J. Landrus was appointed cashier, and in 1874 was made manager.
He resigned May 1, 1876, and was succeeded by S. B. Elliott, who resigned Sep-
tember 1, 1881, having been promoted to chief engineer. From 1876 to 1880, when
he resigned, John J. Davis was superintendent of mines, during which period he
re-opened the lower drift, experimented with the coal and demonstrated its coking
qualities. In 1881 Mr. Landrus again became manager, and held the position until
1886, when he was succeeded by Prank J. Lyon. In 1890 Mr. Lyon was succeeded
by the late Eichard T. Dodson, who died in December, 1896. The present manager
is Edward E. Loomis.

After the purchase of the Tioga railroad, the output of the mines was largely
increased, and there was a corresponding increase in the number of employes until
1882, when there were 1,400 names on the company's pay roll. In the summer of
1881, the Arnot and Pine Creek Eailroad Company, composed mainly of stock-
holders of the Tioga and Elmira State Line Eailroad Company, was formed. The
officers of the company were: L. H. Shattuck, president; D. S. Drake, secretary
and treasurer; S. B. Elliott, William Hull, A. S. Spicer, J. B. Niles and M. F.
Elliott, directors, and Eansom Dupuy, chief engineer. This company built a
standard gauge railroad from Arnot — ^the new name of Draketown — ^to Hoytville,
a distance of twelve miles. It was completed in 1883, in which year the Blossburg
Coal Mining and Eailroad Company established a saw-mill on Babb's creek, five miles
southwest of Arnot, around which soon grew up a village to which the name of Lan-



BLOSS TOWNSHIP. gQ7



drus was given, in honor of H. J. Landrus, manager of the company. In 1888 the
company opened up mines a short distance above Landrus, on Eabb's creek.
These are known as the Bear Eun mines.

As the result of strikes, the financial depression of the last few years, and the
opening up of mines in other parts of Tioga and Clearfield counties, the working
force of the company has decreased somewhat and the annual output of the mines
fallen off. When running full force the mines at Arnot have a production of 1,400
tons of coal a day, and those at Landrus 635 tons a day. In 1894 the mines at Arnot
produced 190,035 tons, and those at Landrus 86,871 tons. The manufacture of
lumber and the shipping of tan bark form an important part of the company's
business. It has a saw-miU at Arnot, with a capacity of 35,000 to 40,000 feet of
lumber per day; one at Landrus, with 60,000 feet per day, and one at Morris —
including seven miles of narrow gauge railroad — with 50,000 feet per day. The
mills at Landrus and Morris produce 15,000 feet of lath per day. A mill at Bloss-
burg, producing 20,000 feet of lumber per day, was dismantled in the summer of
1895.

The officers and foremen at Arnot and Landrus are as follows: Edward E.
Loomis, successor to the late Eichard T. Dodson, superintendent; Frank H. Dartt,
assistant superintendent; A. P. Eowler, chief clerk; H. W. Meyers, mining en-
gineer; Eichard Simpson, mining foreman, at Arnot, and Joseph Maxwell, at
Landrus; Mcholas Schultz, outside foreman, at Arnot, and George "Watson, at
Landrus.

In 1885 the control of the roads owned by the Blossburg Coal Mining and
Eailroad Company passed into .the hands of the "Erie," and were embraced under
the title of "The Tioga and Elmira State Line Eailroad." At this time, also, the
name of the company was changed to the Blossburg Coal Company, the words
"Mining and Eailroad" being dropped.

AENOT.

In 1867, when Nicholas Schultz came to Draketown as head sawyer, there
were but three houses in the place. In the following year a postoffiee was estab-
lished and the name changed from Draketown to Arnot, in honor of John Arnot,,
a well-known banker and financier of Elmira, ISTew York, and one of the incor-
porators of the company. The first postmaster was James E. Cameron, and his
successors have been Delos Bodine, J. L. Higgins, H. J. Landrus, F. J. Lyon and
P. H. Dartt. Dr. Charles S. Logan is the assistant postmaster.

Arnot increased rapidly in population and soon became the largest place in
the county. In 1883 it contained between 3,500 and 4,000 inhabitants. School
houses and churches had been erected, lodges and societies organized, and an indus-
trious, thrifty and prosperous community established. ISTotwithstanding strikes,
business depression, etc., it still remains the leading mining town in the county,
its churches, schools, lodges and other societies being well maintained.

Shortly after the opening of the mines a company store was established. In
1873 a second building was erected by the company and leased to H. S. Drake,
who stocked it with drugs, groceries, clothing, etc. He died in December, 1873,
and was succeeded by J. K. Tillotson, of Elmira, ISTew York, who, a few years later.



g08 HISTOEY OF TI0G4 COUNTY.



was succeeded by L. H. Drake. In 1886 W. W. Bradbury became manager of the
company's store, and in 1891 became proprietor, a recently enacted law making it
necessary for the company to discontinue that branch of its business. In 1893 the
W. W. Bradbury Company succeeded to the ownership of both stores, Mr. Bradbury
retaining a half interest. He died June 1, 1893, his widow succeeding to his in-
terest. The name of the company remains unchanged. The stores are now in charge
of Mack Scudder and Matthew A. Blair, managers. Mr. Scudder took charge June
19, 1893. Mr. Blair entered the company's employ in 1869; worked in the mines
until September, 1884; had charge of the store at Landrus from 1887 until August,
1893, when he was promoted to his present position. W. E. Logan was head clerk in
the store devoted to dry goods, groceries and notions, from 1871 to 1897. The drug
and clothing store is in a separate building. The Amot Hotel has been in charge of
Frank H. "Welch since 1889. Mr. Welch is also engaged in the livery and under-
taking business. These enterprises, with a feed-mill and a meat market, constitute
the leading business interests of the village.

In 1870 Dr. John Caldwell located in the village. Among the physicians who
have succeeded him were Dr. Byron Smith, Dr. Hunter, Dr. H. L. Davis, Dr.
"William Caldwell and Dr. "Winsor. The profession is represented at present by Dr.
D. C. "Waters and Dr. Charles S. Logan.

As Amot grew, schools were established, until there were four public school
buildings in the village. In 1890 these were replaced by a handsome graded
school building, two stories high, containing eight rooms, and costing $4,000, in
which the different schools, aggregating 600 pupils, were consolidated, and placed
under charge of a principal, that position being filled at present by Charles Frick.
Among the earlier teachers were a Mr. Eockwell, of Troy, Pennsylvania, who first
taught in a dweUing; K. E. Howland and wife; Mrs. David Mclntyre, Frederick
L. Gray and S. A. Gaskill, now a physician of Covington, Pennsylvania.



CHTJECHES.



The First Presbyterian Church was organized October 22, 1868, with the follow-
ing members: James Ellison and wife, Peter and Christina Cameron, James and
Eoxanna Cameron, John and Janet Dunsmore, Eobert and Jane Baird, James and
Elizabeth Nelson, Joseph and Ursula McFeish, "VVilliam and Jane MclSTeish, Henry
and Jesse Smedden, David and Ellen Brown, "William and Catherine "Watchman,
and Mrs. Agnes "Waddle. The first pastor was Eev. Mr. Graves, who was succeeded,
' September 5, 1869, by Eev. David Aiken, who served until September, 1870. His
successors have been: Eevs. George Morton, September, 1870, to ISTovember, 1871;
J. Ludlow Kendall, November, 1871, to April, 1874; S. A. Eawson, July, 1874, to
August, 1875; Eobert Christian, December, 1876, to April, 1878; E. S. Schenck,
March, 1880, to 1885; D. D. Lindley, March, 1887, to June, 1888; E. D. Eawson,
March, 1889, to April, 1893; A. S. Elliott, May, 1893, to March, 1895; W. A.
Brown, May to October, 1895, and J. C. M. Johnston, who took charge November
10, 1895. The first ruling elders of the church were James Ellison and Peter
Cameron, Sr. In 1872 a sightly and commodious church building, costing $3,500,
was erected. The Sunday-school, which is in a flourishing condition, numbers 180
pupils and teachers. It is in charge of Eichard Simpson, superintendent.





^>^^^e^



BLOSS TOWNSHIP. 609



Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, formerly the Church of the Mediator, dates
the beginning of its history to a meeting held in the old school house on the after-
noon of August 15, 1874, by Eev. John D. Eockwell, at that time rector of St.
Luke's church, Blossburg. The mission was called the Church of the Mediator,
after the church of that name in New York City. These services were continued
until October 3, 1875, when they lapsed, but were resumed May 30, 1877, and con-
tinued without interruption until February 15, 1879, when Mr. Eockwell left
Blossburg. No further regular services were held until December, 1893, when Eev.
A. E. DeWitt was sent by the bishop to this'section and given charge of the churches
in Antrim, Arnot and Pall Brook. Services were held in the Disciples' church, the
building being rented for that purpose. In September, 1894, Mr: DeWitt was suc-
ceeded by Eev. Marcellus Karcher, who also has charge of the churches in Bloss-
burg and Fall Brook. On the afternoon of May 15, 1895, the comer stone of a
new church building was laid, and the name changed from the Church of the
Mediator to Christ Church. The first services were held in this building Sunday,
November 3, 1895. The church has not yet been chartered, nor has the building
been consecrated. This handsome house of worship, erected under the supervision
of E. T. Dodson, F. H. Dartt and Mack Scudder, building committee, is of cut
stone, has a seating capacity of 300, and cost $5,000.

Gethsemane Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1879, with
about forty members. The first pastor was Eev. P. A. Bergquist, who served part
of the year 1881. Eev. A. Kinett served during 1882 and 1883. Between 1884
and 1887 the congregation was served by C. G. Norman, C. J. Bengston, C. J.
Youngberg and S. J. Youngert, theological students from Augustana College and
Theological Seminary, Eock Island, Illinois. Eev. J. A. Einell was pastor from 1888
to 1890, and Eev. S. 0. Olsson from 1890 to 1894. Eev. C. J. Youngberg, the
present pastor, took charge June 34, 1894. The church at present numbers 300
communicants and 188 children. There are sixty pupils in the Sunday-school,
of which Jacob Anderson is the superintendent. The church owns a neat house of
worship, which was erected in 1883 at a cost of $3,000.

St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Church was organized in 1880, and a church build-
ing, 38x45 feet, erected, at a cost of $1,500. This church is under the charge
of the pastor of Blossburg. St. James' Lyceum Hall, erected in 1895, is under the
auspices of this church. It is used for Sunday-school, lectures, etc., and as a meet-
ing place for Catholic societies. This church has a large adult and Sunday-school
membership. It is a mission church and is served by the pastors of the church in
Blossburg. A branch of the Catholic Total Abstinence and Benevolent Associa-
tion, numbering over sixty members, is connected with St. Andrew's.

The Swedish Free Mission was organized in 1885, with ten members, and now
has a membership of twenty persons. The pastor is Eev. C. J. "Wideberg. There are
twenty pupils in the Sunday-school, of which Charles Larsen is the superintendent.
The Puritan Congregational Church was organized in 1887. Eev. J. T. Mathews,
the first pastor, served from 1887 until 1893, when Eev. E. J. Eeese, the present
pastor, took charge. Mr. Eeese also holds regular services in Landrus. Charles
Stickler is the superintendent of the Sunday-school, which numbers 150 pupils.

39



QIQ HISTORY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

A neat church building was erected in 1891 at a cost of $2,000, and a parsonage in
1893 at a cost of $800. The church now numbers seventy-five members.

SOCIETIES.

Amot is the meeting place of a number of secret and benevolent societies. The
earliest organized was Amot Lodge, No. 947, 1. 0. 6. T. It was instituted February
33, 1871, and is now in a flourishing condition. Amot Lodge, No. 465, K. of P.,
was organized June 34, 1880, and now numbers nearly 200 members. Division
No. 1, A. 0. H., which was organized April 7, 1887, now numbers fifty members
of either Irish nationality or parentage. Winterview Castle, No. 330, K. G. E.,
was instituted March 14, 1893. It has a large membership, composed mostly of
young people.

LANDBUS.

In 1883, after the completion of the Amot and Pine Creek railroad from
Amot to Hoytville, the Blossburg Coal Company erected a saw-mill on Babb's
creek, five miles southwest of Amot. Around this mill, which has a capacity of 60,-
000 feet of lumber and 15,000 feet of lath a day, there soon grew up a village which
was named Landrus, in honor of Henry J. Landrus, manager of the Blossburg Coal



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