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BY

EMERS



CH




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE









Ex Libris
[ C. K. OGDEN



THE SOWING




3

a



JP



THE SOWING



.. A "YANKEE'S" VIEW
OF ENGLAND'S DUTY TO HERSELF
AND TO CANADA

By

Emerson Hough

in

Author of '''The Mississippi Bubble'"''

11 The Way To The West"
11 54-40 or Fight, " etc.




CHICAGO. LONDON. TORONTO:

VANDERHOOF-GUNN CO., LIMITED

WINNIPEG

1909



COPYRIGHT 1909 BY

VANDERHOOF-GUNN COMPANY, LIMITED



Entered at Stationer's Hall, London, Engr.



All rights reserved.



TO

The Workers

THE MEN WHO MAKE THE WORLD

THIS BOOK
WITH DEEP RESPECT. IS DEDICATED



"No praises of the past are hers,

No pains by hallowing time caressed,
No broken arch that ministers

To Time's sad instinct in the breast.

"She builds not on the ground but in the mind
Her open-hearted palaces ....

"Her march the plump mow marks, the sleepless
wheel ;

The golden sheaf, the self -swayed common weal;

The happy homesteads hid in orchard trees, . . .
"What architect hath bettered these?

With softened eye the western traveler sees
A thousand miles of neighbors side by side;
Holding by toil-won titles, fresh from God,
The land no serf or seigneur ever trod. 1 '



CONTENTS



CHAPTER PAGE

i. THE VERY POOR . . . . ... 1

ii. THE BLIND LEADING THE BLIND . . . .19

in. THE MASTER OF DESTINY . . . ' . " . 30

iv. CANADA . ... . . . . 36

v. NATIVE DAYS IN CANADA WEST . 47

vi. CATTLE DAYS IN CANADA WEST ... . .52

vn. ON THE NEW FRONTIER . . . . .59

vin. OVER SEAS . . . . . . . .71

ix. HIT OR Miss PHILANTHROPY . . .75

x. THE VIEWPOINT OP A JURIST . . . .86

xi. THE VIEWPOINT OP A GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL . 91

XH. THE VIEWPOINT OF AN IDEALIST . . . 102

xin. THE VIEWPOINT OF A BUSINESS MAN . . .114

xiv. THE VIEWPOINT OF A GOVERNOR-GENERAL. . 123

xv. THE VIEWPOINT OF A STATESMAN . . . 134

xvi. THE VIEWPOINT OF A GOVERNMENT MINISTER . 153

xvn. THE VIEWPOINT OF AN ENGLISH EMISSARY. . 160

xvin. THE AMERICAN INVASION . . . ' . 168

xix. THE TRANSPLANTING . . 184



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

The Question ....... Frontispiece



PACING
PAGE



The City . . 8

As They Live in London . 12

What Son for this Father? . . . 16

What Daughter for this Mother? . 24

The Farmer's Holiday . . . . . . -32

Before Bridges Came ..... 40

Native Days ...... -48

Cattle Days . . 52
Au Large ....... 56

Leaving the Old World . . 64

In Sight of the New World . .72
The Royal Alexandra Station at Winnipeg
H. M. Howell, Chief Justice of Manitoba

Bruce Walker 96

William Pearson . . . 104

Home . . .112

Colonel A. D. Davidson ... . 120

Earl Grey . . . .124

Toronto's Bread Line A Transferred Problem - 128

Clifford Sif ton . ... .136
The North American Type .. .... 144

Frankf Oliver 156

Peaceful Invasion ...... 168

Long Live the King ... . 184

The First Home in the Bush . . 192
The Beginning on the Prairie ..... 196

Close to the Soil . .200

The Real Empire 208

The Answer of the Harvest. . 216



AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

THE sweep of wide skies, the breath of the wind
across unbroken spaces, the touch of new lands not
yet taken over amid these things and in these
themes any man may find profit and pleasure. The
author, at least, has found in such scenes, now growing
rare in his own country, soon to be impossible in
any country as the new lands pass, so much interest
that he has taken for granted the interest of others
in certain conclusions which seem to be attendant
on current phenomena to be observed in the only
portion of the American continent now entitled to
be called the West.

The intent of this work is to view from different
angles, personal, governmental, philosophic and
utilitarian, the question of bringing civilization to
the wilderness. No writer justly can claim wisdom
sufficient to solve the age-old problems which to-day so
greatly complicate the question of colonization. The
only answer to such problems lies in the years. None
the less, we may not deny the vital interest to-day of



xiv. THE SOWING

the whole question itself. A history of the United
States, so full of splendid successes and deplorable
mistakes, but transfers a keener interest in the
history of Canada, where such mistakes yet may be
avoided.

It is not merely a glib bid for interest which
prompts any thinker or writer of to-day to say that
Canada is the hope of the world. There is serious
truth in that. Any study of Canadian colonization
touches the notion of the expansion of an empire.
Far more deeply must it be concerned with the wish
to extend comfort and content to all those who, under
any flag, are weary and heavy-laden. The author
hopes to indicate that business and human kindness
are not incompatible in private, governmental or
national policies. In the affairs of a great govern-
ment, a great people, they indeed are inseparable, the
one indispensable as the other.

Necessarily, in any discussion of colonization two
sides appear, the business and the idealistic. Which
should preponderate? Were it not possible for the
latter to do so, perhaps one might not so much have
cared to undertake this labor. Since the theme may
hold both, and since fundamentally and disinterest-
edly it has to do with taking human beings out of



AUTHOR'S PREFACE xv.

doors, into a wider and more useful human life, and
placing them under wider and bluer skies affording a
better human horizon, the work offers sufficient
interest to enlist the soberest thought of any man.
It has afforded keen delight to the author.

It should be added that, since the initial publica-
tion of this work in serial form in CANADA MONTHLY,
some of the measures suggested have been put in
force. For instance, the well-meant labors of the
charitable Emigration Societies now are under juris-
diction of the Canadian Immigration Department.
Similar events in these days of swift change have
required certain emendations and alterations 4n the
matter of the original text. The theme has grown
upon the author. No theme is greater ; none is so
great. Would some bigger and better man might
handle it.

EMERSON HOUGH.
May 10, 1909.



THE SOWING



THE SOWING



CHAPTER I.

THE VERY POOR.

"LET there be light!" was the mandate. It
could not count cost, could not qualify. There has
been light. Sometimes humanity has burned in its
own lamp.

Net resultant of many warring forces, there has
come what we have been pleased to call progress,
what we call civilization. Under these the race as
a whole may or may not have been benefited, the
species may or may not in part have deteriorated.
Certainly it may be held true that at times civilization
needs to correct itself. It needs to look to it that
overmuch precious oil be not expended in its flame.

Civilization at any rate has come. It has been
ours. We have not cared to evade it, but have
sought it blindly, with all our energy, in all the ages
of the world. We are what we are, human units,



2 THE SOWING

some of us strong, many of us weak, all of us funda-
mentally and rightly disposed to be selfish. We
have blindly pressed on, few asking why, toward
what we have conceived to be a state of greater
comfort, under social systems continually growing
more complex. The tribal gathering, loosely formed
for the sake of mutual protection, has evolved into
the so-called immutable governments of the civilized
nations.

We have in one way or another always set above
our communities, our tribes, our nations, some sort
of government; and then, as time has passed, we
customarily have found fault with that government,
sometimes have execrated it, sometimes have over-
thrown it, usually have modified it; always because
of abuses of the great idea that humanity and the
common good is, after all, the greatest of all things.

Sometimes, confusing government with conditions
which arise under government, we have, seeking to
set the world tribal again that is to say, to turn back
the stars in their courses gone to the desperate
extreme of socialism, saying that since governments
oppress we should have none, but should divide the
products of the world equally, the weak with the
strong the step from socialism to anarchy being an



THE VERY POOR 3

easy and natural one, after touch is lost with the old
idea of the survival of each unit through its own
efforts, up to its own measure of fitness. This
doctrine is on its face absurd, and is one neither for
a sane man who has read history nor a strong man
who has not.

But certainly we have always, at this or that stage
of the earth ferment, had the strong and the weak,
the rich and the poor. Finally, in the recent swift
development of what we call civilization, we have
come upon a transient time of utter selfishness and
forgetfulness, a time of unbridled greed. Business
triumphs, human kindness fails, the wolf -pack is set
on again. And now we have, more than at any time
in the world's history, the very poor. Now, indeed,
civilization needs to correct itself.

It is of no use to turn away from the truth. The
civilization of the Occident now sadly resembles and
parallels the older civilization of the Orient. Suffer-
ing and famine we of the Caucasian races also have
known in the past. That was as naught to what now
faces us in all the proudest capitals of the white man,
alike in the Old World and the New.

The Caucasian has progressed in one sense of the
term. He has brought into use many and wonderful



4 THE SOWING

discoveries of science; he has developed to an un-
dreamed extent the possibilities of happiness and
comfort. But alas, doing this as it were with one
hand, with the other he has taken away from the wide
majority of human beings all hope of reaching and
enjoying such possibilities. He has developed to
still greater degree the possibilities and the certainties
of human misery and suffering, of torture and doubt
and dread; and he has put these things within
reach of all! These things make the lives of many,
of the majority.

Nowhere in any part or period of the world were
the two social poles farther apart than now; and
this nowhere so much as in the lands we call the most
advanced. The world was never quite so rich, nor
half so poor as now.

It is our privilege and our duty to study our own
time and to advance with it; but it is none the less
our privilege and duty for our own sake to study the
story of other ages of the world, to compare our own
times with others. No record is more vivid and vital
than that of things dead and gone. The hordes of
Genghis Khan made history in their day a story of
savagery and glut of blood and little human kindness,
but of many new-made maps. The slow splendour



THE VERY POOR 5

of the Byzantine Empire is a thing of august beauty
to-day, as once it was. The stories of Rome, of
Greece, of Venice in her time of flowered opulence;
the story of the Phoenicians and their adventurings
afar ; the history of the French kings ; and the steady
and manful story of the rise and dominance of the
men who came out of the ancient forests of northern
Europe and spread across the world all these are
things which citizens of any nation should know.
They teach humility as well as pride.

These are stories of governments and conquests;
but at no stage of any conquest, whether of force or
peace, was there ever stilled the irrepressible conflict
within each government, each nation, each society,
each and every collection of those who have given up
some individual rights for a common good, and who
have in time seen these rights usurped or misused
by those who took them over in trust for society.
Never has there ceased the war of the individual
with the government. No government nor any code
of laws ever has remained unchanged. New con-
ditions of society continually have arisen for adjust-
ment, and they always will; and adjustment will
always come.

Never, let us say with pride, has there ended the



6 THE SOWING

old war born of the Saxon's insistence that he is a
man, that some individual rights he surrenders
to no government and to no set of men. Here,
then, indeed is war. Here, then, indeed is a great
problem.

Strongest of men, this old forest-dweller has done
more good and more harm, has scored more progress
and more retrogression, has gone higher and fallen
lower, achieved more and failed more than any other
man of the earth's days. His one virtue is that,
having failed, he still will try to set right his own
wrong deeds. He always is ready to give ear to the
demands of justice.

The measure of the Saxon's failure to-day is the
total of human suffering in his great cities, here or
there, on this or that continent. He has the most
splendid cities in the world; and yet they house the
largest numbers of the poor. No race has developed
so strongly, or is now so threatened with decadence.

Yet each of these poor is a human being. Each
has deserved his chance if he could find it. Upon
the least of these was laid the iron rule that he could
be no bigger than his environment. Heredity can do
little for a plant if it have no soil. If a man be
starved, he can obtain no stature, mental or bodily.



THE VERY POOR 7

A distinguished American economist, Professor
Thomas H. Macbride, thus voices that old truth:

"It is a commonly accepted dictum among
naturalists that every organism, every plant and
every animal, is, to some extent, at least, a creature
of his surroundings. Every creature has come to
be what it is through long use of a particular, stable,
or only slowly changing, environment. Conformation
to his environment makes him successful, makes him
happy. It is thus the fish swims in the ocean, the bird
floats in the upper air. Each in the long course of
the world's history has come to be perfectly adjusted
to the life it leads, and is in so far happy.

"Now the case of man himself is not different.
Man, too, has his natural environment. Into it he
has grown; to it he is by nature, we say, adapted;
so perfectly adjusted and adapted that life for him
under other conditions is inconceivable, is impossible;
as much so as for a fish out of water; yea, far more so,
by as much as man's relations to the external world
are so much more numerous, far-reaching and compli-
cated than those of a fish. The fish has a natural
right to water, because he cannot live without it.
Now, if we concede that there are any such things as
natural rights for man at all, we must admit that



8 THE SOWING

these are first of all based upon and determined by
his relation to this external environment. They are
environmental rights. A man is entitled to that
environment which has made him what he is by
nature; he has a right to all those surroundings to
which by virtue of long habit and association he is
so perfectly adapted, the unfolding of daily life in
accordance with the natural conditions of successful
human living."

For the human plant, then, opportunity is as
necessary as the very seed of life. The answer to the
cry of the poor, to the cry of the city, to the cry of
socialism and threatened anarchy is one ; and it is as
easy as it is complete. The answer is: More land;
wider opportunities; in short, colonization. The
new lands of the world offer the only hope as we to-day
are organized, mentally, go vernmen tally, physically.

From time to time Saxon man has found his
opportunity, or taken it, one way or another. In
one way or another he has insisted on his individual
right, or has wrought revenge on those who have
opposed him too far or too long. Guided in good
channels, Saxon strength is useful; pent too long in
wrong ones, it always will be dangerous. Saxon
strength is most dangerous when, clinging to the soil



THE VERY POOR 9

which bore it and which it loves, it finds not soil
enough f orbits own needs, and so dies while it is still
alive !

Do not evade that thought, that word. Do not
evade it, in England, in America. That word is
Decadence.

Opportunity the Saxon man always has sought,
and usually while keeping in his mind the old principle
that men best win while fighting shoulder to shoulder.
He has found his opportunity sometimes in other
lands. Resenting even dictation as to how he should
worship, he found a new continent for his churches.
Followed there by what he fancied was the wrong
notion of being taxed without his own consent, he
took a large part of that continent for his own,
shoulder to shoulder. Differing, as he fancied, from
the old country, he builded in America under the
name of a Republic a vast swift-mingled empire of
his own, and soon shouted to the world to witness the
wealth he had won, and the extent of the misuse to
which he could put that wealth. Not much different,
save through soil and climate and new daily needs,
the American made all the old Saxon mistakes, pretty
much as they have continued to be made in the old
country whence he came. Professing to be the most



10 THE SOWING

humane man in the world, he and his brothers have
shown the world, both sides of the sea, the largest and
most helpless masses of the very poor! In a reckless
and profligate age of unequalled opportunity
and unparalled abuse, he has grown richer and
poorer than ever he was before; more luxurious
and more dangerously wretched; and this on both
sides of the sea. Let not England, Canada nor the
United States seek to evade that truth.

The long list of industrial successes of prideful
America, the vast tally of her balance sheets, the
figures of her inordinate and unscrupulous wealth
what do all these mean to any man who will stop to
think? They spell only the old struggle in a new age,
the old failures where success should have been, the
old misuse of opportunities which belong to humanity
as a whole and not to a few who in one way or another
have grasped them. This sin has been not American
alone, not Saxon alone. New York, Berlin, London,
it is difficult to choose between them.

In the United States, even in these days of false
prosperity, never was life so near being unbearable
for those of middle station, so perilously near to un-
supportable for the very poor. Correction must
come also in America, or there must be one more page



THE VERY POOR 11

written in Saxon history, a page of the same old sort.
The spirit which rebelled against unjust taxation will
rebel again. In these days of close touch of all the
world, it matters little on which continent such
rebellion must come; but certainly America must
pause and ponder, or else soon see revolution. If the
Republic shall not reconstruct, the Republic will
perish. The poor and the very poor will erect again
their place of judgment and of execution. It is not
socialism, and not anarchy which says this. Worse
it is reason! There will be no division of property
equally among the weak and the strong. There is a
difference between Socialism and Saxonism. The
United States need not fear the former. The latter
she well may dread.

In Germany the very poor exist in swarming
thousands. They have little hope, save what offers
across seas. That country, called a monarchy, has
its own laws. Society is still seeking and still fleeing
the centre, in the old way, none the less. Socialism
in Germany is a fact admitted. It is represented in
a political party continually growing. It must be
reckoned with as formulating the human discontent,
the mutiny now brooding over so much of the world.
A Socialist leader in the Reichstag, in a recent



12 THE SOWING

address, showed that in Berlin alone there were over
forty thousand unemployed persons. The unem-
ployed must eat. The others must feed them. What
horror and what menace lie in that term "unem-
ployed" what menace exists in the armies of those
who bitterly feel that life has not given them their
share of opportunity..

Herr Bebel, the Socialist leader, declares that
these troubles in Germany were wrought largely by
the abolishment of honest competition, by industrial
combines, the prevalence of price agreements, the
old folly of trying to evade the ancient law of competi-
tion; the folly of the present but wholly temporary
tendency toward "trusts." He said that the poor
could not buy food at prices established under such
conditions, declared that Germany was paying the
highest prices known in the world for everything she
used. The loaf of bread which a year ago weighed
four and a half pounds now weighed less than three,
and it cost twice as much now as then. The children
of the cities were starving, not having enough to keep
them strong ; and this was true in those most pitiable
ranks of life too proud to be called pauperdom.
Nearly five thousand school children in Berlin alone
were striving to get some sort of education, and to do



THE VERY POOR 13

this were obliged to study without food, to learn the
dinnerless day. Many more thousands had nothing
better than bread and coffee for any meal. He
knew not where the end would be.

And yet that end is perfectly predicable. The
remedy is certain and easy. It lies in better equaliza-
tion of opportunity cost what that may to a few,
or else it lies in blood ; as in time it will lie in America,
late boaster of opportunities free to all the world and
inexhaustible; as it will lie in Old England, ancient
and strong, but not ancient and strong enough to be
exempt from the law of growth and change.

The story of the pages of history is slow, but very
sure. It says inexorably that those who seek to
govern, those who seek to remain rulers or officers
in any system of organized society, must never
undertake to abolish from the world the ancient law
of fair play; because there are two who can play at
the game of foul play, the oppressor and the oppressed.
This truth is written for all the nations to see, whether
republic or monarchy, despotism or democracy.

In the city of Chicago, in the United States,
second metropolis of that country, and one of the
most swiftly grown capitals of the world, what con-
tinuous rush and bustle goes on! Stately buildings



14 THE SOWING

arise, occupied by those who do great deeds, vaunted
industrial deeds. You and I see these things, but
we know nothing of the life which lies beyond them
and around them and under them. . In the city of
New York conditions are even worse, and the swarm
of unassimilated millions still comes in. America is
no longer a land of opportunities. It is no solution
for the troubles of the poor of Europe to transfer them
to the spawning grounds of the poor of the United
States. That is not to offer opportunity. So much
for a republic.

There are cities worse even than New York. How
about the countries of the Old World ? Take the City
of London, blue focus flame of civilization's blow-
pipe. London annually feeds on charity an army
of eighty to one hundred thousand of the unem-
ployed. She has thirty-five thousand children who
know no such thing as home. She has half that
many criminals who are homeless; more than an
equal number of women on whom sits the worst of
all civilization's curses, the curse of unweddedness,
of denial of motherhood the women sacrificed to
civilization as we know it. There then you have a
picture from which we are accustomed to turn away
our eyes. None the less, that picture exists. It is



THE VERY POOR 15

there. We do not blot it out by turning away our
eyes.

Multiply all these unfortunates by two, and you
do not reach the total of the tenement dwellers who
daily live on the edge of starvation. Each week
London has over one hundred thousand persons in
her hospitals, her workhouses, her prisons, over one
hundred thousand parasites, the unfed and the hopeless.
Each night an army, greater than the entire
military force of the American continent, sleeps
unhoused or crowded in cheap lodging dens in
this one city of London. What hope of life do such
conditions offer ? What can these starving thousands
do, and what chance have they? What is the end?
Why, the end of England, if there be no change.

In these lower classes of humanity the death
average is at twenty-nine years. It is long enough.
But England dies also thus young; and in an equal
torment; and in an equal decadence. Why seek to
evade the picture ? It is true. And of those who die,
twenty-five per cent, die in workhouse, jail, asylum, or
some other place provided by those more fortunate
than the parasites of civilization. Is not this toll of
life a dreadful and terrifying thing? Why deny it?
It is true.



16 THE SOWING

These poor of this ancient city of any ancient
city are little, dwindled, crooked men, with no sap


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