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edited by Montfaucon, Cotelier, Hody and Pitra (see p. 126). For more on
the different titles, see Volkmar, Das vierte Buck Ksra, p. 3. Hilgenfeld,
Messias Judaeorum, pp. xviii.-xxi. •

Use aiHlliicjh repute of the hook in the Christian Church. — It is probable
that it is this work that is referred to in the following passage in the
Epistle of Barnabas, chap. xii. : ' O,uoi'u; 'Tvu'hfj -TrBpi tov arxvpov opi^si lu aTiXoj
v p (P >} r 'yj 'hkyovTi' K«i '776riTUurot.avuTi'hi(T6'/'i(jiTott; 'Aiyn x,vpioi' "Orctv ^vXou
K'KiBi ycoi'i oLvccarrt.! x.a,\ orenu Ix, I^TKiti cii^a, arx^^. Comp. Fourth Ezra,
iv. 33 : Quomodo et quando haec? ... v. 5: Si de ligno sanguis stillabit.
It is true that here the first half of the quotation is wanting, but for all
that Le Moyne and Fabricius (Cod. pseudepigr. ii. 184) were undoubtedly
correct in tracing it to Fourth Ezra. Comp. further, Cotelier, Hilgenfeld
and Harnack in their editions of the Epistle of Barnabas ; Hilgenfeld, Die
apostol. Vdter, p. 47. It is also extremely probable that we are indebted to
Fourth Ezra for the legend to the effect that, when the Holy Scriptures had
perished on the occasion of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchad-
nezzar, Bzra completely restored them again by means of a miracle. So
Irenaeus, iii. 21. 2. Tertullian, De cultufemin. i. 3. Clemens Alex. Strom.
i. 22. 14 9. Comp. Fourth Ezra xiv. 18-22 and 37-47. Fabricius, Codex
pseudepigr. i. 1156-1160. Hilgenfeld, Messias Judaeoriim, p. 107. Strack
in Herzog's Eeal-Enc. 2nd ed. vol. vii. 414 sq. (art. "Kanon des A. T.'s").

The first express quotation occurs in Clemens Alex. Strom, iii. 16. 100 :
Aioi ri yxp oiix. iyivtro i] f4,'/irpct rijg /unrpog fiCjv rotfo^., hx f^'/i ioij tov //.ox^ov
Tcu 'Iax6j/3 x,xl TOW Konvov TOV yivovg lapx'/i'K; "Eaopxs 6 tt po(p'/iTYi;
"Kkyit. Com]). 4 Ezra v. 35. Our book is repeatedly used and quoted as
prophetical, above all by Ambrose.' See the passages in Fabricius, Cod.
pseudepigr. ii. pp. 183, 185 sqq. Hilgenfeld, Messias Judaeorum, p. xxii. sq.
Le Hir, Etudes Bihliques, i, 142. Bensly, The Missing Fragment., pp. 74-76.
It is also quoted as propheta Esdras in the so-called Opus imperfectum
in Matthacum printed among Chrysostom's works (ed. Montfaucon, vol. vi.),
Ilomil. xxxiv. 5. fin. Jerome, who maintains a critical attitude toward the
Apocrypha generally, is the only one who expresses himself unfavourably.
See the passage quoted above from the Praef. in version, lihr. Ezrae,



110 § 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITEKATUnE.

and especially Adv. Vi(jilautium, cliap. vi. (^Opp. ed. Vallarsi, ii. 393) : Tu
vigilans dormis et dormiens scribis et proponis mihi librum apocryphuni.
qui sub noniiue Esdrae a te et similibus tui legitur, ubi scriptum est, quod
post mortem nullus pro aliis audeat deprecari, quem ego librum numquam
leg!. Quid euim necesse est in manus sumere, quod ecclesia non reccpit.
But although our book continued to be excluded from the canon, it neverthe-
less enjoyed a wide circulation, especially in the Middle Ages. Bensly has
proved by actual verification that it finds a place in mare than sixty Latin
manuscripts of the Bible (Bensly, The Missing Fragment, pp. 42, 82 sqq.),
and this without taking into account scarcely any of the Italian libraries. As
we have already mentioned, it appears in the official Vulgate as an appendix.
It also finds a place in not a few German editions of the Bible, Lutheran
and Reformed as well as Catholic (for the evidence in regard to this, see
(iildemeister, Esdrae liber quartus arahice, 1877, p. 42). On the history of
the use, comp. further, Fabricius, Codex pseudepigr. ii. 174-192. Idem,
Cod. apocryph. Nov. Test. i. 936-938. Volkmar, Das vierte Buck Ezra,
p. 273 sq. Hilgenfeld, Messias Judaeorum, pp. xviii.-xxiv., Ixix. sq.

Care must be taken not, to confound the Fourth Book of Ezra with the
Christian work entitled the Apocalypse cf Ezra which Tischendorf has
edited (Apocalypses apoci-yphae. Lips. 1800, pp. 24-33). On this comp.
Tischendorf, Stud. 7i. Krit. 1851, p. 423 sqq. Idem, Prolcgom. to his
edition, pp. 12-14. Le Hir, Etudes Bibliques (Paris 1869), ii. 120-122.
By the '"Ed'hooc, xvox.a.'Kv^t;, which occurs in the list of the Apocrypha
edited by Moutfaucon, Pitra and others, it is possibly the Fourth Book of
Ezra that is meant (see p. 126). On the Ezra-Apocryjjha, comp. also
Fabricius, Cod. pseudepigr. i. 1162. On the later additions to the Fourth
JJook of Ezra (chaps, i.-ii. and xv. xvi.), which in the manuscripts appear
as yet as separate Books of Ezra, and which came for the first time to be
blended with the main work in the jirinted text, see Dillmann in Herzog's
lUal-Enc. 2nd ed. vol. xii. 356, and Bensly, The Missing Fragjntnt,
pp. 35-40.

The texts of the Fourth Book of Ezra that have come down to us are the
following : —

(1.) The old Latin version, which is the most literal, and therefore the
most important of all. The vulgar text, as it had long been printed, was
extremely inaccurate. In the edition of Fabricius (Codex psiudcpigraphus
]'et. Test. vol. ii. 1723, pp. 173-307) the Arabic version, which was given to
the public through Ockley's English translation in 1711, was collated
throughout with the Latin text. Sabatier was the first to lay the founda-
tion for the critical restoration of the text by his publication of the variants
of the important Codex Sangerma)icnsis (Sabatier, Bibliorum sacrorum
Latinae rersiones antiquae, vol. iii. 1743, pp. 1038, 1069-1084). Numerous
emendations based upon the Codex Sangermanensis, .and the Ethiopic version
published by Laurence in 1820, were proposed by Van der Vlis (Disputatio
critica de Ezrae libro apacryjiho vnlgo quarto dicto, Amstelod. 1839). The
first critical edition was published by A'olkmar (llandbuch der Einleitung in
die Apocryphen, second part : Das vierte Buch Ezra, Tiib. 1863). In this
edition Sabatier's collation of the Cod. Sangermanensis and a Ziirich manu-



§ 82. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE. Ill

script collated by Volkmar himself were made use of. These manuscripts
however were not collated with sufficient care, as the subsequent editions of
Hilgenfeld (Messias Judaenrum, Lips. 1869) and Fritzsche {Libri apocryphi
Vet. Test, graece, Lips. 1871) have shown. Both these writers give the
Latin text according to three different manuscripts : (o) the Cod. Sangcr-
manensis saec. ix., collated anew for Hilgenfeld's edition by Zotenberg;
(i) the Cod. Turicensis saec. xiii., also collated anew for Hilgenfeld's
edition by Fritzsche ; (c) a Cod. Dresdensis saec. xv., collated by Hilgen-
feld. Jn the whole of those editions a considerable fragment is wanting
letween chaps, vii. 35 and vii. 36, which could only be supplied from the
Oriental versions. This fragment was first discovered, so far as the Latin
text is concerned, by Bensly in a manuscript at Amiens (formerly at Corbie
near Amiens) in the year 1875 (Bensly, The Missing Fragment of the Latin
Translation of the Fourth Book of Ezra, discovered and edited ivith an
Introduction and Notes, Cambridge 1875. Comp. Theol. Literaturztg. 1876,
p. 43 sq.). After this it was also published by Hilgenfeld (Zcitschr. fur
wissensch. Theol. 1876, pp. 421-435). Two years after this again the same
fragment was edited from a Madrid manuscript (formerly in Alcala de
Henares) by Wood, and from among the remains of John Palmer the
Orientalist (f 1840), who had transcribed it as early as the year 1826
(Journal of Philology, vol. vii. 1877, pp. 264-278). Besides the manuscripts
hitherto mentioned, Bensly (pp. 42, 82 sqq.) has verified some sixty others
(f the Latin text.^^ Those of them in which there is the large hiatus in
chap, vii., and this holds true of probably the whole of them, at all events
of the Turicensis and the Dresdensis, as also of the printed vulgar text, are
of no value, for the hiatus in the Cod. Sangermanensis was due to the cutting
out of a leaf, so that all the manuscripts and texts in which precisely the
same hiatus occurs must have followed that codex (as from a letter
addressed to Bensly, Gildemeister appears to have already noted in the year
1865). Consequently in the case of any future edition consideration will
be due, in the first instance, only to : (a) the Cod. Sangermanensis (now in
Paris), dating from the year 822 a.d. (Bensly, p. 5) ; (6) the Amiens
manuscript, also belonging to the ninth century, and independent of the
Cod. Sanger. ; and (c) the Madrid manuscript. At the same time we may
observe that the Latin manuscripts of tJie Bible in the majority of the Italian
libraries have not yet been examined in connection with our book.

(2.) Next to the Latin the best and most trustworthy version is the
Syriac, which has been transmitted to us in the large Peshito manuscript
of Milan (Cod. Ambros. B. 21, Inf.). It was published for the first time by
Ceriani first of all in a Latin version (Ceriani, Monumenta sacra etprofana,
vol. L fasc. 2, Mediol. 1866, pp. '99-124), then in the Syriac text itself
(Ceriani, Mon. sac. et prof. vol. v. fasc. 1, Mediol. 1868, pp. 4-111). This
latter is also given in the photo-lithographed facsimile of the whole manu-
script (Translatio Syra Pescitto Veteris Testamenti ex cod. Ambr. photo-
lithographice, ed. Ceriani, 2 vols, in 4 parts, Milan 1876-1883 ; comp. vol.

*i On two Parisian and two Berlin manuscripts, see Gildemeister, Esdrae
liber quartus Arabice, 1877, p 44 fin.



112 § 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE.

iii p. 92). Ililgenfelfl has embodied Ceriani's Latin version in liis Mcssiaa
Judaeorum (Lips. 18G9).

(3.) The Ethiopic version, which is also of importance for the reconstruc-
tion of the original text. It had been previously published by Laurence,
accompanied with a Latin and English version, but only from a sin(/Ie
manuscript, and not quite free from errors (Laurence, Primi Ezrae libri,
qui apud Vidf/atam appilhitur quartns, versio Aethinpica, mine privio in
medium prolata et Lotine Angliceque reddita, Oxoniae et London! 1820).
Numerous corrections have been made by van der Vlis (Disputalio ci-ilica
de Ezrae libra apocrijpho vidgo quarto dicto, Amst. 1839). A collection of
the variants in the other manuscripts has been furnished by Dillmann in
the appendix to Ewald's dissertation in the Alhandlungcn der GiJtlingcr
GcselUch. der Wissensch. vol. xi. 1862 - 1863. Then, in the last place,
Pratorius, availing himself of Dillraann's collection of variants, and also
collating with a Berlin manuscript, has made various emendations in the
Latin version which Hilgenfeld has embodied in his Mcssias Judaeorum
(Lips. 1869). A critical edition is still a desideratum. Among the
Ethiopic manuscripts of the so-called Magdala collection, which some years
ago were forwarded to the British Museum at the close of the war between
the English and King John of Abyssinia, there happen to be no fewer than
eight of our book (see AVright's catalogue in the Zeitschr. der DMG. 1870,
p. 599 sqq., Nos. 5, 10, 11, 13, 23, 24, 25, 27. Bensly, The Missing Frag-
ment, p. 2, note 3).

(4.) The two Arabic versions are of but secondary importance, owing to
the great freedom in which their authors often indulge, (n) One of them,
which is in a manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, was in the first
instance published only in an English version by Ocklcy (in Whitsou's
Primitive Christiaiiitg revived, vol. iv. London 1711). Ewald was the
first to publish the Arabic text {Transactions of the GiJLtingcn Gcsellsch.
der Wissensch. "vol. xi, 1862-1863). Emendations upon Ocklcy's version
and Ewald's text were furnished by Steiner {Zeitschr. fiir wissensch. Theol.
1868, pp. 426-433), with whose assistance Hilgenfeld also composed a
Latin rendering for his Messias Judaeorum (Lips. 1869). The Arabic
version here in question is also found in a Codex Yaticanus, which, though
merely a transcript of the one in the Bodkian library, is nevertheless of
some value in so far as it was copied before the leaf, which is at present
wanting in the Bodleian codex, went amissing (Bensly, The Jlissing Frag-
ment, p. 77 sq. Gildemeistor, Esdrae liber quartus, p. 3 ; this latter supplies
at pp. 6-8 the text of this fragment, which is omitted in Ewald's edition).
{h) An extract from another Arabic version is likewise found in a Bodleian
codex, from which it has been edited by Ewald (as above). A German
version of this extract was furnished by Steiner {Zeitschr. f. wissensch.
Theol. 1868, pp. 396-425). On the extract itself, comp. further, Ewald,
'J'ransactinns of the Oottingen Gesellsch. der Wissensch. 1«63, pp. 163-180.
IVie complete text of this version was published by Gildemeister in Arabic
and Latin from a Codex Vaticanus {Exdrae liber quartus arabice, e codice
Vaticauo nunc primum edidit, Bonnae 1877).

(5.) The Armenian version, which is still freer than the Arabic one, and



§ 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATUEE. 113

is of but little service for the restoration of the original text. It was
published as early as the year 1805 in the edition of the Armenian Bible
issued under the superintendence of the Mechitarists, but Ceriani was the
first to rescue it from oblivion, while Ewald again furnished specimens
of it in a German rendering (^Tramactions of the Gottivgen GctcUsch dvr
Wisse7isch. 1865, pp. 504-516). A Latin version, prepared by Petermann
and based upon a collation of four manuscripts, is given in Hilgenfeld'a
Messias Judaeorum (Lips. 1869). In the older editions of the Armenian
Bible (the first dating as far back as 1666) there is an Armenian version of
our book which was prepared by the first editor, Uscanus himself, and taken
from the Vulgate (see Scholtz, Einl. in die heiligen Schriften, vol. i. 1845,
p. 501. Gildemeister, Esdrae liber quartus arahice, p. 43. This may be
made use of for the purpose of correcting Bensly, p. 2, note 2).

German versions of our book have been published by Volkmar {Das vierte
Buck Usra, 1863) and Ewald (Transactions of the Gottingen Gesellsch. der
Wissensch. vol. xi. 1862, 1863), while Hilgenfeld attempted a rendering
back into the Greek (Messias Judaeorum, Lips. 1869).

Critical inquiries. For the earlier literature, see Fabricius, Codex
pseudepigr. ii. 174 sqq. Liicke, Einl. p. 187 sqq. Volkmar, Das vierte
Buck Esra (1863), pp. 273-275, 374 sqq. Hilgenfeld, Messias Judaeorum,
p. liv. sqq. Corrodi (also spelt Corodi), Kritische Geschichte des Chiliasmus,
vol. i. (1781) pp. 179-230. Gfrorer, Bas Jakrhundert des Ileils (al&o
under the title, Geschichte des U7-christe7ithums, vols, i., ii.), 1838, i. 69-93.
Liicke, Versuch einer vollstdndigcn Einleitnng in die Offenharung des Johannes
(2nd ed. 1852), pp. 144-212. Bleek, Stud. u. Krit. 1854, pp. 982-990
(review of LUcke's Einl.). Noack, Der Ursprung des Christenthums, vol.
i. (1857) pp. 341-363. Hilgenfeld, Die jiidische Apokalyptik (1857), pp.
185-242. Idem, Die Propheten Esra vnd Daniel, 1863. Idem, Zeitschr.
fur wisse7isch. Theologie, vol. i. 1858, pp. 250-270; iii. 1860, pp. 335-358;
vi. 1863, pp. 229-292, 457 sq.; x. 1867, pp. 87-91, 263-295; xiii. 1870, pp.
308-319 ; xix. 1876, pp. 421-435. Gutschmid, "Die Apokalypse des Esra
und ilire spatereu Bearbeitungen " (Zeitschr. fir wissensch. Theol. 1860, pp.
1-81). Dillmann in Herzog's Beal - Enc. 1st ed. vol. xii. 1860, pp.
310-312; 2nded. vol. xii. 1883, pp. 353-356 (art. " Pseudepigraphen ").
Volkmar, Handbuch der Ei7ileitung in die Apokryphen, second part : Das
vierte Buck Es7-a, TUb. 1863. At a previous date by the same author. Das
vierte Buck Esra und apokalyptische Geheimnisse ubei'haupt, Zurich 1858.
"Einige Bemerkungen iiber Apokalyptik" (Zeitschr. fur wisse7isch. Theol.
1861, pp. 83-92). Ewald, " Das vierte Esrabuch nach seinem Zeitalter,
seinen arabischen Uebersetzungeu und einer neuen Wiederherstellung "
(Transactions of the Royal GescUsch. der Wissensch. of Gottingen, vol. xi.
1862-1863, histor.-philol. section, pp. 133-230. Also as a separate
reprint). Idem, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, vol. vii. 3rd ed. 1868, pp.
69-83. Ceriani, "Sul Das vierte Ezrabuch del Dottor Enrico Ewald"
(Estratto dalle Mcmorie del R. l/istitnto Lombardo discienze e lettere), Millano
1865. Langen, Das Jude7iihum in Palastina, 1866, pp. 112-139. Le Hir,
"Du IV.e livre d'Esdras" (Etudes Bibliques, 2 vols. Paris 1869, i. 139-250).
Wieseler, "Das vierte Buch Esra nach luhalt und Alter untersucht" (Slud,
DIV. II. VOL. IIL H



114 § 32. TIIK PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE.

u. Krit. 1870, pp. 2G3-30-4). Keil, Lehrb. der histor.-krit. Einlcitung in die
kanon. und apokr. Schri/ten des A. T. 3rd ed. 1873, pp. 758-764.
Hausratb, Neutestamentl. Zeitgesch. 2nd ed. iv. 80-88 (1st ed. iii. 282-289).
Renan, " L'apocalypse de I'an 97" (Revue des deux Mondes, 1875, March,
pp. 127-144). Idem, Les evangiles, 1877, pp. 348-373. Drunimond, The
Jewish Messiah^ 1877, pp. 84-117. Reuss, Gesch. der heiligen Schri/ten
Alien Testaments (1881), sec. 597.



6. TJie Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.

In the pseiidepigraphic prophecies which we have hitherto
been considering, revelations and predictions — and therefore
the apocalyptic element — chiefly predominated. But just as
these revelations themselves had practical objects as their
ultimate aim, such objects as the strengthening and comfort-
ing of the faithful, so alongside of them there was also
another class of works in which the exhortations and encour-
agements were more directly expressed. We have a pseud-
epigraphic prophecy of this description in The Testaments of
the Twelve Patriarchs, which is chiefly composed of such direct
exhortations. This somewhat extensive work has come down
to us in its entirety m the Greek text, which was published for
the first time by Grabe (1698), although, from the beginning
of the sixteenth century, a good many printed copies of a
Latin version prepared in the thirteenth by Eobert Grossetest,
Bishop of Lincoln, had been in circulation.

The book, as we now have it, contains a great many direct
allusions to the incarnation of God in Christ, for %vhich reason
almost all modern critics look upon' it as the production of a
Christian author. But it is extremely doubtful whether this
is a correct view of the matter, and whether we ought not
rather to assume that tiie work in its original form is of Jewish
authorship, and that the passages that are of a Christian
character were interpolated at some later date. As is indicated
by the title itself, tlie book consists of the spiritual " testa-
ments " which the twelve sons of Jacob left behind them for
th(;ir descendants. In each of those testaments three different
elements may he distingvAshed. (1) The patriarch in each



§ G2. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE. 115

instance rehearses in the first place the hidory of his own life,
in the course of which he either charges himself with sins he
has committed (as is done hy the majority of them), or on
the other hand hoasts of his virtues. The biographical notices
follow the lines of the Biblical narrative, although, after the
fashion of the Haggadean Midrash, they are enriched with a
large number of fresh details. (2) The patriarch then pro-
ceeds to address to his descendants a number of appropriate
exhortations based upon the preceding autobiographical sketch,
urging them to beware of the sin that had been the cause of
such deep distress to their ancestor, and in the event of his
being able to boast of something redounding to his credit,
recommending them to imitate his virtuous behaviour. The
subject on which the exhortations turn is, as a rule, one that
happens to have a very intimate connection with the biogra-
phical notices, the patriarch's descendants being warned
precisely against that sin or, it may be, to imitate that virtue
which had been exemplified in his own life. (3) But besides
this, we also find toward the end of each of the testaments
(with the exception perhaps of that of Gad, where this point
is only briefly hinted at) certain predictions regarding the
future of the particular tribe in question, the patriarch for
example predicting that his descendants would one day
apostatize from God or, what sometimes appears to amount to
the same thing, sever their connection with the tribes of
Levi and Judah, and thereby involve themselves in misery,
and especially the evils of captivity and dispersion. This
prediction is frequently accompanied with an exhortation to
adhere to the tribes of Levi and Judah. On the other hand,
these predictions are interspersed with a large number of very
direct references to redemption through Christ.

The circles of thought in these " testaments " are of a very
heterogeneous character. On the one hand, they contain
a great deal that it seems impossible to explain except on the
assumption that they were composed by a Jewish author.
The history of the patriarchs is amplified precisely in the style



11 Q § 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE.

of the Haggadean Midrash. The author assumes that salva-
tion is in store only for the children of Shem, while those of
Ham are doomed to destruction (Simeon vi.). He manifests
a lively interest in the Jewish tribes as such ; he deplores
their apostasy and dispersion ; he exhorts them to cleave to
the tribes of Levi and Judah as being those which God has
specially called to be the leaders of the others ; ^^ he cherishes
the hope of their ultimate . conversion and deliverance. It is
true, no doubt, that in his positive injunctions he nowhere
inculcates the observance of the ceremonial law, such injunc-
tions being more of a moral character throughout nearly the
entire book, and consisting for example of warnings against the
sins of envy, avarice, anger, lying, incontinency, exhortations
to the love of one's neighbour, compassion, integrity, and such
like. But at the same time he does not fail to speak of the
priestly sacrificial worship, and that even with many details
introduced into it not met with in the Old Testament itself, as
being an institution of divine appointment.^^ On the other hand
again we also meet with numerous passages which can only
have been written by a Christian, passages which teach the
Christian doctrine of the universal character of salvation as
well as that of redemption through the incarnation of God,
nay in one instance there is a distinct reference to the

^" Reuben vi. : Tu yxp Asvl iOuKe Kvpto; rjji/ dpy^viu kccI ra 'Joi/Qcx..
Judah xxi. : Ktx.1 vvv, T^xva, d.yaivfiaa.Ti rou Aivi, 'hoc li^f



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