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Progr. 1832 (see above). Gfrbrer, Das Jahrhnudert des Heils, 1838, i. p.
65 sqq. A. G. Hoffmann, art. " Jesajas," in Ersch and Gruber's Allg. EncycU
sec. ii. vol. xv. (1838) pp. 387-390. LUcke, Einleitiuig in die Offenharung
des Johannes, 2ud ed. 1852, pp. 274-302. Bleek, Stud. u. Krit. 1854, pp.
994-998. Keuss, Gesch. der heil. Schriften Neucn Testaments, sec. 274.
Ewald, Gesch. dts Volkcs Israel, vii. 369-373. Langen, Das Judcuthum in
Paldstina (1866), pp. 157-167. Dillmann in his edition (1877). Idem, in
Herzog's Real-Enc. 2nd ed. vol. xiL 359 sq. Renan, L\'gUse chre'licnne
1879), p. 628 sq.

8. The Lost Legendary Works.

Ina manner similar to thatwhichwe have just seen exemplified
in the case of Isaiah, pretty nearly the whole of the prominent
personages belonging to the hallowed days of old were laid hold
of by the legendary spirit for the purpose of throwing around
them a halo of glory. The plain narratives of Holy Scripture
were far too simple and unadorned to satisfy the tastes and
the needs of later times, A desire was manifested to know
more about those men, above all to know something regarding
them of a more piquant and edifying character than was
furnished by the canonical records. Accordingly we find that
it is the lives of the three great heroes, Adam the progenitor
of the human race, Abraham the father of Israel, and Moses


the great lawgiver, that have been most elaborately embellished
by fictitious legends. And there are many other men of God
besides whose lives have been subjected to a similar treatment
(comp. in general voL i Div. ii p. 341 et seq.). Then
Christians have laid hold of the existing Jewish legends, and
elaborated them with equal, nay if possible with greater zeaL
Consequently, as in the case of the Apocalypses so also here, we
often find it impossible to distinguish with any certainty
between what is Jewish and what is Christian. The founda-
tions of the legends themselves are in most cases undoubtedly
Jewish. But it is not improbable that the earliest writings
of this class are also to be ascribed to Jewish authors. This
holds true above all of the three great founders of new epochs,
Adam, Abraham and Moses, to whom therefore we will here
confine ourselves.

1. Books of Adam. A variety of tolerably voluminous
Christian works on the life of Adam have come down to us,
an Ethiopic one, a Syriac one, another in Syriac and Arabic,
one in Greek, and another in Latin. Although the whole of
these are unquestionably of Christian origin, and although
there is not one of them that can be regarded as based upon a
Jewish original, still it is probable that they have drawn upon
Jewish material A Jewish Booh of Adam is mentioned in
the Talmud. The Constitutiones apostol. vL 16 mention an
apocryphal ^ASdfi along with the Apocrypha bearing the names
of Moses, Enoch and Isaiah. Again, in the list of the
Apocrypha published by Montfaucon, Pitra and others, ABdfj,
finds a place among the rest of the Jewish Apocrypha
(see p. 126). Indeed at an early period . there already
existed Gnostic diroKoXin^L^ rev ^ABdfi (Epiphanius, Hacr.
xxvi. 8). In the Dccrdum Gclasii there occurs a Liber, qui
appellatur Poenitentia Adae (Credner, Zur Gesch. des Kanons,
p. 219).

Editions of the Christian lools of Adam : (1) DiUmann published a
German translation of an Ethiopic Bcok of Adam (Ewald's Jabrbb. der
bibl Wissensch. vol. v. 1853, pp. 1-144), The Ethiopic text was published


by TrutDfp (Transactions of the Akadcmie der Wi'^sensch. of Munich,
philosopho-philol. department, vol. xv. 1879-1881), and an English version
by Mulan (Book of Adam and Eve, also caVcd the Conjiict of Adam and
Eve with Satan, trandated from the Ethiopic, London 1882). (2) Akin to
the above and, if we are to believe Uillmann, possessing a greater claim to
originality, Ls a Syriac work, entitled " the treasure hole " {i.e. the hole in
which the treasures of Paradise were kept), which as yet is known only
through a German version published by Bezold {Die Schatzhohle, aus dem
si/r. Texte dreier unedirter Handschriften in's Dcntache uhersetzt, Leipzig
1883). (3) Another Syriac and Arabic work entitled, " The Testament of
Adam," has been published by Renan, in the Syriac text accompanied with
n French translation {Journal asiatique, fifth series, vol. ii. 1853, pp. 427-71).
(4) Tischendorf published a Greek Book of Adam under the title Apoca-
lypsis Mosis {Apocalypses apocryphae, Lips. 1800), and which was also
jiublished by Ceriani {Monum. sacra ct prof. v. 1). On this comp. p. 81.
(.")) Nearly allied to this Greek work, in fact to some extent identical
with it, is the Latin Vita Adae et Ecae, published by Willi. Meyer
{Transactions of tJie Munich Academy, philos.-philol. department, vol. xiv.

Comp. in general Fabricius, Codex psciidepifjr. Vet. Test. i. 1-94, ii. 1-43.
Zunz, Die gottcsdienstlichen Vortrmje der Judcn, 1832, p. 128 sq. (the
Jlabbinical quotations here). Dukes in Fiirst's Literaturhl. des Orients,
1849, coll. 76-78. Comp. also ibid. 1850, pp. 705 sqq., 732 sqq. Lucke,
Einl. in die Offenharumj des Johannes, 2nd ed. p. 232. Ilort, art. "Adam,
Books of," in Smith and "\V ace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, vol. i.
1877, pp. 34—39. Renan, EtgHse rhrdienne (1879), p. 529 sq. Dillmanu
in Uerzog's Real-Enc. 2nd ed. xii. 306 sq.

2. Abraham.. A short apocryphal book of ^A^padfi (con-
sisting of 300 verses) occurs in the Stichometry of Nicephorus
and the Synopsis Athanasii (see p. 125). And as in these
lists it is found in the very heart of the Jewish Apocrypha,
it is of course a different book from that of the o-Tro/caXui/ri?
MySpaa/i which was in use among the Sethites (Epiphanius,
llaer. xxxix. 5). On the other hand, it is no doubt the
former of these that Origen has in view in the case of those
statements regarding Abraham which he borrows from a
certain apocryphal work.

Origen, In Lucam homil. xxxv. init. (de la Rue, iii. 973; Lommatzsch,
V. 217) : Legimus, si tamen cui placet Imjuscomodi scripturam recipere,
justitiae et iniquitatis angelos super Abrahami salute et interitu disceptantes
dum utraeque turmae suo enm volunt coetui vendicare.

Comp. also LU(;ke, Einl. in die OJfenb. Joh. p. 232 ; and for the Abra-
Uaiiiio legend generally, see vol. i. Div. ii. p. 343 ; and Fabricius, Cod.


pmidep'igr. i. pp. 341-428, ii. p. 81 sq. B. Boer, Lelen Ahrahams nach
Auffassung der Jiidischen Sage, Leipzig 1859.

3. Moses and his time. The apocryphal literature regarding
Moses himself has been already considered at p. 80. But
among the books referring both to himself and his time
there is still another work to be mentioned, the theme of
which was a single episode in the lawgiver's life, we mean
the Book of Jannes and Jamlres, the two Egyptian magicians
who, according to Ex. vii. 8 sqq., wrought miracles before
Pharaoh equal to those of Moses and Aaron, but were never-
theless beaten in the end. The names are not mentioned in
the Old Testament, but they occur at a comparatively early date
in the legends, and they were known not only in Jewish, but
in Gentile and Christian circles as v^ell, as the names of the
two famous Egyptian magicians in question. The orthography
fluctuates exceedingly. In the Greek texts the prevailing
spelling is ^lavvi)^ Kal 'Iafx^prj). Josephus


informs us that this monarch composed and bequeathed to
posterity certain incantations by means of which demons
could be restrained and so effectually expelled that they
would never re-enter the man again. By way of showing
the efficacy of those incantations he tells a very amusing
story about a Jew of the name of Eleazar who, on one
occasion and in presence of Vespasian and his sons and
several Eoman officers, drew out a demon through the
demoniac's nose by holding a magic ring under this organ
and, repeating at the same time the incantations of Solomon,
forbade him ever to enter again. At length, to prove that the
demon was actvuilly expelled, he ordered this latter to overturn
a vessel of water that was near at hand, which order was at
once complied with (Joseph. Antt. viii, 2. 5). From the way
in which Josephus speaks of the Solomonic incantations we
feel constrained to assume that they must have been embodied
in special books. Origeu distinctly alleges as much. Those
books survived, although only after having undergone a variety
of adaptations, till far on into the Middle Ages. We still hear
of one of the name of Aaron being at the court of Manuel
Comnenus, and who was in possession of a ^lJ3\ov Xo\o-
ficovretov by means of which whole legions of demons
could be exorcised. This literature also found its way into
Christian circles. The Dccrdum Gelasii knows of a Con-
tradidio Salomonis, while a Christian Testamentum Salomonis
is still extant. And it is through popular Christian works
of this sort, that the knowledge of the efficacy of Solomon's
magic spells has come down to more modern times and
found its way into Goethe's Faust (the exorcising of the
poodle : "Fiir solche halbe Hollenbrut 1st Salomonis Schliissel

Official Judaism did not of course quite approve of those
books of magic, although the Babylonian Talmud itself is full
of superstition. According to a tradition, which is found both
in the Mishna and in certain Byzantine writers (Suidas,
Glycas), we learn that the pious king Hezekiah ordered the


suppression of Solomon's " Book of Cures," because the
people trusted it so much that they neglected to pray to

On the subject of magic in the ancient world generally, an abundant store
of material is to be found in Georgii's art. " Magia," in Pauly's Real-Encyc.
der class. Allerlhumsicissensch. iv. 1377-1418. On tlie same amoncj the Jews,
Gee the article " Zauberei," in the Bible dictionaries of Winer, Schenkel.
and Eiehm. On this subject in Talmudic Judaism again, see Brecher,
Das Transcendentale, Macjie vnd magische Heilartcn im Talmud, Wien
1850. Joel, Der Aherglauhe und die Stellung dcs Judenthums zu demselben,
1st part, Breslau 1881.

On Solomon, see Fabricius, Codex pseudepigr. Vet. Test. L 1032-1063.
The Crijptn uhi Salomon dacmones torquehat were still seen at Jerusalem by
the pilgrim of Bordeaux in the fourth century a.d. (Tobler, Palaestlnae
descriptioncs, 1869, p. 3).

Joseph. Antt. viii. 2. 6 : 'E-Truhx; n cf »T«|«,Msi/of «7j Trupri'yopeiToe.i tu.

Online LibraryEmil SchürerA history of the Jewish people in the time of Jesus Christ .. (Volume 2 pt.3) → online text (page 16 of 51)