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etc. (1 Mace. ii. 24). Observe the designation of our book as the First Book of
Maccabees, precisely as in the case of Jerome in the passage already quoted
and in that of Eusebius, Demonstr. evang. viii. 2. 72, ed. Gaisford. Cyprian
quotes several passages from the book in his Tcstimonia, and always with
the formula, in Machabacis {Testi7)ion. iii. 4, 15, 53). For the further
history of the book in the Christian Church, see the various works and
dissertations on the history of the Old Testament canon, also Jahn'a
Einleilung in die (jijitl. Biicher des Altcn Binidcs, 2nd ed. Part ii. § 3 and 4
(1803), 1st and 2ud supplements, and likewise my article " Apokrypheu
des A. T.," in Herzog's Rcal-Enc. 2nd ed. L 485-489. As is well known,
it has been the practice in the Protestant Church to follow Jerome in
applying the designation " Apocrypha " to such books as are not included
in the Hebrew canon, and it so happens that our book is one of them.

From the history of the book just given, it will be seen that the Greek
text has been transmitted to us only through the manuscripts of the Greek
Bible. The Books of Maccabees being omitted in Codex Vaticanus, 1209,
the most important manuscripts here are the Codex Sinaiticus (quoted in
Fritzsche's edition of the Apocrypha as x.), and the Codex Ale.vandrinus
(known in Fritzsche, as in Holmes and Parsons before him, as No. iii.) ; next
to these comes a Codex Vcnetu^^ (known in the critical apparatuses as
No. 23). All the other manuscripts are miuusculi. For more precise
information on this point, see my article "./Apocrypha," in Herzog's lieal-
Enc. 2nd ed. i. pp. 489-491. The text of our book, in common ^\ith that
of the so-called Apocrypha generally, is to be found in the majority of the
editions of the S(}ituagint. The received text is borrowed from the Sixtine
edition ( Vctus Testamnitum juxta Scptuaginta ex auctoritate ^ixti v. Pont.
Max. editum, Romae 1587). The most copious criticiil ajiparatus we have
is to be found in the ]'^etus Testamcntum Graecum, edd. Holmes et Parsuns,
5 vols. Oxonii, 1798-1827 (the whole of the Apocrypha are given together
in the fifth volume). We have a handy portable edition in the shape of
iheVetus Testamentum Graece juxta LXX. interpretes, ed. Tischcndorf, 2 vols.
Leipz. 1850 (Gth ed. 1880). Ti^:chendorf as well as Holmes and Parsons
follow the Sixtine text. Among the separate editions of the Apocrypha we
may mention the Libri Vet. Test. Ap cnjiihi, teitum i/raecum recognovit,
Avfjusti, Lips. 1804, and the Libri Vel. Test, apocryphi graece^ accurate


recngnitos, ed. Apel, Lips. 1837. The latest and best of such editions,
although even it fails as yet to satisfy every requirement, is the Libri
apocryplii Veteris Testamenti graece, recen.mit et cum eommentario critico,
edidit Fritzsche, Lips. 1871 (Fritzsche gives a recension of his own based
upon the materials furnished by Holmes and Parsons, and upon the recently
acquired Codex Sinaiticus as well as the fragments in the Codex Ephraemi).
So far as some of the books are concerned, Fritzsche had not as yet
collated them with the most important of the manuscripts, the Codex
Vaticanus, there being no complete collation in Holmes and Parsons. It is
true no doubt that this manuscript had been already made use of for the
Sixtine edition, so that so far it helped to shape the received text. But the
text of the Vaticanus could not be said to be known to any trustworthy
extent till the issue of the new Roman edition (Bibliorum Sacrorum Graecus
Codex Vaticanus, edd. Vercellone et Cozza, 6 vols. Rome 1868-1881 ; comp.
Theol. Litztg. 1882, p. 121). The edition of Mai ( VetKS et Novum Testa-
mentiim ex antiquissimo codice Vaticano, 5 vols. Rome 1857) is unreliable.
Nestle has added to the latest edition of Tische'ndorf's Septuagiut, a col-
lation based upon the edition of Vercellone and Cozza (also published sepa-
rately under the title, Veteris Testamenti codices Vaticanus et Sinaiticus cum
textu recepto collati ab E. Nestle, Lips. 1880).^ For more on the editions
see Herzog's Real-Enc. 2nd ed. vol. i. 494 sq.

Of the early translations the following are of interest in connection with
the history of the transmission of the text : (1) The Latin of which there
are two, (a) the one that was incorporated with the Vulgate, and {b) another
which, as far as chap, xiii., has been preserved in a Codex Sangermanensis,
both being given in Sabatier, Bibliorum sacrorum Latinae versioncs antiquae,
vol. ii. Remis 1743. (2) The Syriac in the Peshito (separate edition,
Libri Vet. Test, apocryphi Syriace, ed. Lagarde, Lips. 18G1). In the great
Peshito manuscript of Milan reproduced in photo-lithograph by Ceriani
(Translatio Syra Pescitto Veteris Testamenti ex codice Ambrosiano, ed.
Ceriani, 2 vols. Milan 1876-1883), we have, as far as chap, xiv., a Syriac
translation which deviates from the printed received text ; see Ceriaui's
prolegomena ; and Nestle, Thenl. Literaturztg. 1884, col. 28. For more on
the early translations, see Herzog's Real-Enc. i. 491-494. Also the texts
in the London Polyglot, vol. iv.

Exegetical Aids. (1) Special lexicon : Wahl, Clavis librorum Veteri

Online LibraryEmil SchürerA history of the Jewish people in the time of Jesus Christ .. (Volume 2 pt.3) → online text (page 2 of 51)