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future destruction of the world by fire was therein predicted.
In the Pracdicatio Petri et Pauli cited by Clemens Alex, it is
asserted, that Hystaspes plainly referred to the Son of God,
and to the conflict of Messiah and his people with many
kings, and to his stedfastness {viroixourj) and glorious appear-
ing {■napova-la). Lastly, according to Lactantius the destruc-
tion of the Eoman Empire was foretold in it, and also that in
the tribulation of the last times, the pious and believing
would pray to Zeus for assistance, and that Zeus would hear
them and destroy the ungodly. Lactantius finds fault here
only with the circumstance, that what God will do is
ascribed to Zeus, and at the same time laments, that in con-
sequence of the deceit of the daemons, nothing is here said of
the sending of the Son of God. From these notices it is
evident, that the work was of an apocalyptic and eschato-
logical tenor. Since Lactantius expressly says, that the
sending of the Son of God to judge tlie world is not men-
tioned in it, we must regard it as rather Jewish than Christian.
The choice too of Zeus as the name of God, corresponding
more with the literary usages of Hellenistic Judaism than
with those of Christianity, speaks for its Jewish origin.
What the author also of tlie Pracdicatio Petri ct Pauli says
concerning the appearance of the Messiah prophesied of in
Scripture, does not go beyond the framework of Jewish
expectation. The apparent contradiction between his state-
ment and that of Lactantius may be explained by remem-
bering, that Lactantius only misses the co-operation of the
Messiah at the day of judgment. Yet it may be also possible


that the author of the Praedicatio Petri et Pauli had an inter-
polated copy before him. The limits of the date of composi-
tion are fixed by the appearance on the one side of the Roman
Empire as the power hostile to God, on the other by Justin's
acquaintance with the work.

Justin. AjJol. i. 20 : Ka! 'S.l^vXXa 8s xai 'TffTaf'zri; y£vr,aiffSai
tHjv (pdaprSuv dvuXuaiv dia 'xvpoc 's:paaav. Comp. also C. 44.

Praedicatio Petri et Paidi in Clemens Alex. Strom, vi. 5.
42-43 (comp. Lucke, Pinl. in' die Offenh. Joh. p. 238; HilL,^enfeld,
Nov. Test, extra canonem rec. fasc. iv. 2nd ed. pp. 57, 63 sq.) :
AaSiTi -/.at ra.;' 'E/.y.Tiir/.ag (SiiSXov:, IrriyvooTi 2//3y>.Xai', ug hr^7.(j7 'i\a
6sov Kai TO, /x;/.?.ovra irricSai, xui rlv 'Xffra ffT^ji/ }.al36vTsg avdyiuri, xai
t'jp'^ffiTi 'zoX'aui TtiXavysSTipov xal eatp'isnpov yeypafM/LVJOv rhv v'lov roZ
6ioZ, y.ai zaOdjg 'jrapdrat.i'J '::oir,ffouci tm Xpiarui ?7oXXo/ jSaoi/.sTg iMieoZvng
avrhv xal rovg (popovi/rag ro ovofMa ahroZ '/.ai rove cr/ffroij auTou xai rr,v
iTO/xovriV y.ai rriv rrapoxteiav ahroZ.

Lactantius, Inst. vii. 15. 19: Hystaspes quoque, qui fuit
Medorum rex antiquissimus . . . admirabile somnium sub
interpretatione vaticinantis pueri ad memoriam posteris tra-
didit, sidilatuTn iri ex orhe imperium nomcnqiie Romamim, multo
ante praefatus, quam ilia Troiana gens conderetur. Ibid. vii.
18. 2-3 : Hystaspes enim, quem superius nominavi, descripta
iniquitate saeculi hujus extremi, pios ac fideles a nocentibus
segregates ait cum fletu et gemitu extensuros esse ad coelum
nianus et imploraturos fitlera Jovis ; Jovera respecturum ad
terram et auditurum voces hominum atque impios extincturum.
Quae omnia vera sunt, praeter unum, quod Jovem dixit ilia
facturum, quae Deus faciet. Sed et illud non sine daemonum
fraude subtractum est, missum iri a patre tunc tilium Dei, qui
deletis omnibus malis pios liberet.

Comp. in general: "Walch, "DeHystaspe" (Comment ationes
sodctatis scientt. Getting, vol. ii. 17'80). Fabricius - Harles,
Bihlioth. graec. i. 108 sq. A. G. Hoffmann in Ersch and
Gruber's Allgem. Encyhl. § 2, vol. xiii. 183G, p. 71 sq. Liicke.
Einl. in die Offcnharimg des Johannes, 2nd ed. pp. 237-240.
Otto's Anmcrlung zu Justin as above (iu his edition of the
C&i'jous apologet.).

3 Forged Verses of Grceh Poets,

Both Jewish and Christian apologists repeatedly appeal to
the most eminent GrceJc poets to prove, that the more intelligent
among the Greeks held correct views concerning the nature


of God, Ilis unity, spirituality and supramundaue character.
Many such quotations, especially in Clemens Alexandrinus,
are really taken from the genuine works of these poets, and
have been skilfully selected and explained by the apologists.^^
But among these genuine quotations are also to be found not
a few which have been palpably forged in the interest of
either Jewish or Christian apologetic. The works where such
forged verses have been discovered are chiefly the following :

1. Aristobulus in Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica, xiii. 12.

2. Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom, v. 14 ; also given in Euseb.
Praep. evang. xiii. 13; com p. also Protrcpt. vii. 74. 3. The
pseudo - Justinian Cohortatio ad Graecos, c. 15 and 18.
4. The pseudo-Justinian work, De monarchia, c. 2-4 (the two
latter in Otto's Corpus apologetarum christian, vol. iii.). The
authors to whom the verses are ascribed, are : the great tragic
poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides ; the writers of comedies,
Philemon, Menander, Diphilus ; a large fragment is ascribed
to Orpheus ; and certain verses on the Sabbath to Hesiod,
Homer and Linus (or Callimachus).

In forming a judgment concerning the origin of these pieces
the following considerations are of importance. Almost all
the portions, which come under notice, are found both in
Clemens Al. Str. \. 14. 113-133 ( = Eus. Pr. xiii. 13. 40-
62, ed. Gaisford), and in the pseudo- Justinian work, De
monarchia, c. 2-4. Aristobulus and the Cohortatio ad Graecos
have only single verses and such as are found in the others
also. Both in Clement and in the work De monarchia how-
ever, the suspicious portions stand pretty thick together; in
the De monarchia indeed almost without other accessories. It
is thus clear that either one made use of the other or that

'* So e.g. the celebrated commencement of tbe Phaenomena of Aratu3
(third century B.C.) : 'Ex A(&V dp-^af^iaScn, tov oiSswor' oiu^psg luatu oippriTov,
etc., from -which is derived the sayiug quoted, Acts xvii. 28: tow yoip x.xl
•yivog ia^iv. The Jewish philosopher Aristobulus (in Euseb. Praep. evaTtr/.
xiii. 12. 6, ed. Gaisford) already quotes this verse ; also Theophilus, al
Autol. ii. 8. Clemens Alex. Strom, v. 14. 101=Euseb. Praep. evang. xiii.
13. 26.


both drew from a common source. A strict observation shows
iiowever that the former supposition cannot be accepted.
For though the pieces quoted are ahnost all identical, they
are more completely and accurately given now by one now
by another.^" It is then indubitable that both drcio from a
common source, in which all the suspected jiieces were probably
found together. What this source was moreover we are
directly told by Clement: it was the work of the 2^seiulo-
Tlccataeus on Abraham. For Clement introduces the first of
the suspected quotations, a supposed portion of Sophocles,
with the words (Strom, v. 14. llo = Eus. Pr. xiii. 13. 40, ed.
Gaisford) : ' O fiep ^o(f)OK\,}]]). 11-16. 73-85. Loheck,Afflao2)hamus,i. 433-405
(the most thorough investigation). Gfrorcr, PliUo, ii. 74 sqq.
Diilme, Geschichtliche Darstellung der jLld.-alcx. Rcligionsphilu-


Sophie, ii. 89-94, 225-228. Abel, Orphka, pp. 144-148 (the
text). On Orpheus and the Orphean literature in general :
Fabricius, BiUioili. grace, ed. Harles, i. 140-181. Gottir, Her-
mann, Orpliica, Lips. 1805 (collection of the text and fragments).
Lobeck, Aglaopliainus sive de thcologiae mysticae Chxiccorum
causis, 2 vols. Eegim. Pr. 1829 (chief work). Klausen, art.
" Orpheus," in Ersch and Gruber's Allgem. iJnajdopddie, § 3,
vol. vi. 1835, pp. 9-42. Preller, art. "Orpheus," in Pauly's
Beal-Enc. v. 992-1004. Bernhardy, Grundriss der griech.
Literatur, ii. 1, 3rd ed. 1867, pp. 408-441. Nicolai, Ch^iech.
Literaturgesch. i. 445-447, iii. 330-335. Abel, UrpMca, Lips.
1885 (texts and fragments). Still more literature in Engel-
mann's Biblioth. script, class, ed. Preuss.

5. The next Jewish piece quoted in De monarcJiia is eleven
verses of Sophocles on the future destruction of the world by
fire, and the different lots of the righteous and unrighteous
C'Earai yap, 'icrai xsTvoc aiuovm y^pmog), De moiiarcMa, C. 3 (Otto's
CoriJ. apol. iii. 136). In Clemens Alex. Strom, v. 14, 121-122 =
Euseb. Pr. xiii. 13. 48, the same verses are cited as words of the
rpayi^bia without naming Sophocles. In Clemens they are also
divided into halves by the remark, xat iht o^.iyct alSig s^Kp'^pBi,
wdiile pseudo-Justin combines the two halves into a whole.
Clement does not give the verses on the different lots of the
righteous and unrighteous in this connection, but in the preced-
ing fragment, which he quotes from Diphilus, where they are
more suitable (Strom, v. 14. 121 = Euseb. Pracp. viii. 13. 47).
Bockh, p. 149 sq. Nauck, Tragicorum Grace, fragm. p. 285 sq.

6. Ten verses of the comic poet Philemon on the certain
punishment of even hidden sins by the all-knowing and just
God (O/'s/ G-j Toii; davovrac), and ten verses of Euripides on the
same theme (" Aipdovov j3iou ijJrr/.oc), De monarehia,c. 3 (Otto's Corp.
apolog. iii. 136-140). Part of the Euripidean verses is genuine,
the rest spurious (see Dindorf's note to Clemens and Nauck).
In Clemens Alex. Strom, v. 14. 121 = Euseb. Pracp. xiii.
13. 47, both pieces are attributed to the comic poet Diphilus.
Theodoret, Grace, affect, curatio, c. vi. {Opp. ed. Schulze, iv. 854
s([.), also gives the text of Clemens in the extract. Valckenaer,
De Aristobulo,ip-p. 1-8. Bockh, pp. 158-160. Meineke, Fragm.
comieorum Grace, iv. 67. Nauck, Tragic. Go^acc. fragm. p. 496 sq.

7. Twenty-four verses of Philemon on the theme that a
moral life is more needful and of more value' than sacrifice (E/
Ti; OS &u(siay '^rpoeppoiv), De moiiarcliia, c. 4 (Otto's Corp. cqjol. iii.
140 sq.). In Clemens Alex. Strom, v. 14. 119-120 = Euseb.
Praep. ev. xiii. 13. 45-46, the same verses are attributed to
j\Ienander. Bockh, p. 157 sq., thinks that the piece is based
upon single genuine verses.


8. Among the other pieces cited from scenic poets in Be,
'iiwnarchia and in Clement there are also a few more suspicious
verses, which are introduced in De monarchia, c. 5 (Otto's Corp.
apol. iii. 150 sq.), by the formula MemvS^o; h AKpiXw. In Clemens,
Strom. V. 14. 133 = Enseh. Praep. ev. xiii. 13. G2, they are ascribed
to Diphilus. They summon to the worship of the one true God.
Comp. Meineke, Fragm. com. Grvaec. iv. 429 sq. Perhaps too
the verses of Sophocles in Clem. Strom, v. 14. Ill = Euseb.
Praep. xiii. 13. 38, in which Zeus is represented in a very
unliatteriug light, are also spurious. Comp. Nauck, Trarjic.
Grace, fragm. p. 285. Dindorf's note to Clemens.

9. Lastly, in this connection must be noticed the verses on
the Sabbath, to whicli Aristobulus and Clement appeal, Aristo-
bulus in Euseb. Praep. ev. xiii. 12. 13-16. Clem. Alex. Strom.
V. 14. 87 = Euseb. Praep. ev. xiii. 13. 34. They are — (a) two
verses of Hesiod ; (h) three verses of Homer ; (t) five verses of
Linus, for whom Clement erroneously has Callimachus. The
verses are a mixture of genuine and spurious. The divergences
in the text between Clement and Aristobulus are but unim-
portant. Comp. Valckenaer, De Aristobulo, pp. 8, 10, 89-125.
Herzfeld, Gcsch. des Vclkes Jisraxl, iii. 568. Schneider, Calli-
machea, vol. ii. Lips. 1873, p. 412 sq.

4. Hccatacus.

Hecataeus of Abdera (not to be confounded with the far
more ancient geographer Hecataeus of Miletus about 500 B.C.)
was according to Josephus a contemporary of Alexander the
(Jreat and of Ptolemy Lagos (Joseph, c. Ajnon. 22 : 'EKaralo^
Be o 'A^BrjpLTrj^, dvijp (juXoaotpa ajxa Kal irepl Ta

Online LibraryEmil SchürerA history of the Jewish people in the time of Jesus Christ .. (Volume 2 pt.3) → online text (page 30 of 51)