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proportion as now one now the other was embraced, has he
been designated at one time a Platonist, at another a Pytlia-
gorean}^^ He might just as correctly be called a Stoic, for the
influence of Stoicism was at least as strong upon him as that
of Platonism or ISTeo-Pythagoreanism."^

Notwithstanding however this profound appropriation of

^''^ A list of Greek classics quoted by Philo is given by Grossmaun,
Quaestioncs Philoncae, i. p. 5. Siegfried, Philo, p. i;37 sqq.

^08 j)e providcntia, ii. 42, p. 77, ed. Aucher (Richter, Sth small vol.).
Comp. also Quod omnis probiis liber, ii. 447, Manrrey (Richter, Sth small
vol.), where, according to the cod. Mcdlceus (one of the best manuscripts),
Tov lipuTXTOv TLTiXTcoi/x Is tlic reading instead of rov 'hiyvpa-xTov Tl'hd.ruua..

1"^ De providcntia, ii. 48, p. 79, ed. Aucher (Richter, Sth small vol.) :
Pai'menides, Empedocles, Zeno, Cleanthes' aliiqne divi homines ac vchit
verus quidam proprieque sacer coetus. Comp. Qnod omnis prohiis liber, ii.
444, Mang. (Ricliter, Sth small vol.): tov tuu llvfixyopitui/ iepurxTOi/ Slxaov.

^i** A Platonist in the well-known proverb : >J H'hoc.zuv (pi'Ac^vil^u ») /A(yy
'TT'hetTuvH^ii (llieronymus, vir. illustr. c. 11. iSuidas, Lex. s.v. c migratione Abrahami, L 4G6,



§ 34. PHILO THE JEWISH PHILOSOPHER. 371

perfection in the creature is derived solely and only from
Him."'

2. The Intermediate Bcings}^^ God, as the absolutely
Perfect, cannot enter into direct contact with matter. All
contact therewith would defile Him."* An acting therefore
of God upon the world and in the world is according to Philo
only possible through the intervention of intermediate causes,
of interposing powers who establish an intercourse between
God and the world. For the more precise definition of
these intermediate beings, four notions, suited to this
purpose, offered themselves to Philo; two belonging to the
philosophical, two to the religious region. These were the
Platonic doctrine of ideas, the Stoic doc^trine of active causes,
the Jewish doctrine of angels, and the Ch'eeh doctrine of
daemons. All these elements, but chiefly the Stoic doctrine
of powers, were used by Philo in constructing his peculiar
doctrine of intermediate beings. Before the creation of this
world of the senses, he teaches, God created the spiritual types
of all things."* These types or ideas must however be con-
ceived of as active causes, as powers which bring disordered
matter into order."' It is by means of these spiritual powers

Mang. (Richter, small vol. 2). — De somniis, i. 630, Mang. (Richter, small
vol. 3).— Gfrbrer, i. 123 sqq. — Dahne, i. 282 sqq.

^^^ Legum allcg. i. 44, Mang. (Richter, small vol. 1) : Yluvirxt ydp

(ivhiTTon 'T^atuv 6 ho;, kXA' uaTrtp ihiov to x,xiiiv ■srt/jSoV, *«' x'*""? ''"^ "^^Xi-^^i
oi/ra x,»i Siov to •ttohiW kxI ttoTw ye [/.ocKhov ., oau Kxi TOt; oi'K'hoi; oiT^ctaiv
dpx'^ ToD opoiv uartu.

132 Comp. Gfrbrer, i. 143 sqq. Dalme, i. 161 sqq., 202 sqq. Zeller, iii.
2, pp. 360-370. Keferstein's above-named Monograph.

133 j)g victimas offerentibiis, ii. 261, Mang. (Richter, small vol. 4) : 'E^
ix.il i/ri; yoip [t^j vTijIs] "kocvt iyivvnaiv 6 diog, oiix, kipx-Trrof^ivos uutos' ou yeip
^v 6i^ii oc-JTilpov Kul "TrafvpfcivYi; v'Kyi;,-ipxv£iv tou I'd/aovx x.»t fioix,ccpiov.

13* De mundi opificio, i, 4, Mang. (Richter, small vol. 1) : TLpoT^xficov ydp

6 6iOi UTi SiO;, OTt fllfCYl/^X KX'KOS) OVX, oil/ -TTOTi yiVOITO KXhW ^1%* 'TTOl.pxhily-

/icxTO;, oi/^s ri ruv eciadriTUV ccwttxitiov, o fivi Trpog oLpy^i-rvudv x»l uoyityiv ioixv
d-TritKOviaSn, fiov'h-ndils rou opxrov rovrovl noafcov ^nf^tovpyiiaui,
"Trpoi^iTVTrov rou uoyitov, "iv» )CPUfievos daufixru) x,xl dionCiarciru vxpx-
diiyfiXTt, TO!/ acofiXTiMv TOVTOV ccTTipyccayiTXi, 'Trpia^vTipov viurepov xTrnKoviafix,
ToaxvTX 'TTipii^oi/TX xldSfiTX yiUYi, oaxTTip Iv iKiivu voT/xx. Couip. the work
De mundi opificio.

135 De victimas offerentibiis, ii. 261, Mang. (Richter, small vol. 4) : T«



Online LibraryEmil SchürerA history of the Jewish people in the time of Jesus Christ .. (Volume 2 pt.3) → online text (page 37 of 51)