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The name na>.«/jr/*>i 2i/ei'«, II.
ii. 193 ; literature on geography
of, I. i. 16-20 ; maps and atlases,
L i. 19 f. ; coins, l. i. 25-28 ;
inscriptions, i. i. 31-34 ; politi-
cal relations and spread of
Jewish population in beginning
of MacciiU-an age, i. i. 186-192;
political condition in time of
lioman procurators, i. ii. 43-79;
lomp. also on Palestine as
Roman province, "Judea;"
fMipulatiou of, in time of Christ,
II. i. 1-7; boundaries according
to views of Rabbis, i. ii. 10 f. ;
we also Galilee, Idumca, Judea,
Perea, Samaria.

Palaestina tertia, with Petra afi its
capital, I. ii. 362.



Palermo, Jews residing there, n. iL

242.
Palilia, Roman festival, I. ii. 393.
Pallas, wife of Hei-od, I. ii. 20.
Pallas, favourite of Claudius, L iu

175, 183, 184.
Palm, see Date Palm.
Palma, see Cornelius.
Palmyra, inscriptions, T. i. 30, 31 ;

customs tariff in time of Hadrian,

L ii. 67, 70 ; Jewish inscription

with beginning of Shema, eJ. by

Landauer, I. i. 31 ; calendar, I. ii.

373.
Pamphvlia, Jews residing there, ii.

ii. 221, 222.
Pan, worsh ip of, in Caesarea Philippi,

n. i. 21, 132 f.
ni»£/o», I. i. 196 ; II. i. 21, 132,134.
Panemos, see Months,
Pani;is, district of oountrv, ii. i. 132 ;

I. i. 453, il 12, 333.
Panias, city, li. i. 132-135 ; i. ii.

14 ; see also Caesarea Phili]ipi.
Pantikapaion in the Crimea, Jewish

inscriptions there, ii. ii. 58, 69,

226.
Papias, Rabbi, I. ii. 370.
Papias' etatements about the mil-
lennium derived from Apocalypse

of Baruch, ii. iii. 91.
Papias not translated by Jerome, i.

i. 99.
Papiscus and Jason, dialogue, i. L

70-72.
Pappus, general under Antigonus,

I. i. 396.

Pappus, a Jew in Laodicea, i. ii.

286.
Papyrus Parisiensis, n. 68 on the

Jews, I. i. 72 f.
Para, Talmud ic tract, I. i. 125.
Paradise, ii. ii. 183.
Paragaudion, II. i. 44.
Paralipomena of Jeremiah, li. iii.

92.
Pareshioth, II. ii. 80.
Pareosh, family, ii. i. 252.
Paros, Jews residing there, IL ii.

232, 258.
Parseeism, influence of, on Judaism,

II. i. 350; influence of, on Es.'«enes,
II. ii. 216 ; in the West, ll. ii. 302.

Parties, Jewish religious, see Chasi-



D. NAMES AND SLTJECTS.



69



dees, Essenea, Pharisees, Saddu-
cees, Sicarii, Zealots.
Paithia, Jews residing in, ii. ii. 221,

222.
Parthians, literature on the history
of, I. ii. 3.5 ; campaign of Antiochus
Epiphanes against, i. i. 214 ; of
Demetrius Nicator, i. i. 268 f. ; of
Antiochus Sidetes, i. i. 279 ; cam-
paign of Crassus, i. i. 332 ; raids
upon Syria in Asia Minor, i. i.
333, 340, 389-395 ; campaigns of
Antony against, i. i. 340, 402 ;
described by Dellius, i. i. 53 ;
later relations with Romans, i. i.
354 f., ii. 33 ; wars of Trajan
against, i. ii. 281 f.; the Arsacidae
call themselves fi>i'Ai'A?.ri-yi:, I- i.
292 ; used the Greek calendar, I.
ii. 371.
Passover to be eaten only by those
who are clean, n. ii. 322 ; pre-
scriptions about, in tiagic poet
Ezekiel, n. iii. 227 ; when to be
celebrated, according to Aristo-
bulus and Anatolius, ii. iii. 241 ;
I. ii. 370.
Pater syna^jogae, ii. ii. 252 ; see

Abba.
Paternus, see Claudius Patemus.
Patrae, Jewish inscription there, ii.

ii. 232.
Patriarch, highest official over the
Jews in the days of the later
Roman empire, n. ii. 270 ; see
also Ethnarch.
Patriarchs, treatment of their liis-
torv, see especially Book of Jubi-
lees, Testam. XII. Fair., and the
Hellenistic writers Demetrius,
Eupolemus, Artapanus, etc., also
Philo and Josephus ; on TesUim.
XII. Pair., see Testaments.
Patripassian Christoloav in Te-^tavi.
XII. Pair., II. iii. 118 ; in Book-
of Baruch, n. iii. 193.
Paul the Apostle, literature on
chronology of his life, i. i. 23 :
home in Cilicia, see Cilicia ;
cKr.-jo-^oio^., n. i. 44 ; his Roman
citizenship, n. ii. 277 ; made use
of Greek Bible, ll. ii. 285 ; used
the Wisdom of Solomon, ii. iii.
234 ; persecutes the Christians, ii.



IL 262 ; flies from Damascus, ii.
i. 66, 98 ; I. ii. 354, 357 ; scourged
five times by the Jews, n. ii 262 ;
imprisonment of, L ii. 55 ; trial
of, I. ii. 59, 74; n. ii. 278; history
and chronology of his imprison-
ment, I. ii. 181-185 ; meeting
with A.L^rippa and Berenice, i. ii.
198 ; Gen. xlix. 27 applied to him
by the Church Fathers and bv the
Te.'^am. XII. Pair., ii. iii. 119,' 123.

Pea, Talmudic tract, i. i. 121.

Pekiin, place so named, li. i. 371.

Pella = Apamea on the Orontes, IL
i. 114.

Pella in Decapolis, n. L 11.3-115 ;

I. i. 196, 304, 307, 319, 320, 323 ;
belonging' to Decapolis, ii. i. 95,
115 ; era and coins, n. i. 115 ;
wrongly named among toparchies
of Juciea, n. i. 157 ; flight of
Christians thither,!, ii. 230; home
of Aristo, I. i. 69 f.

Peloponnesus, Jews residing there,

II. ii. 222 ; see also Sparta.
Pelusian Unen, ll. i. 43.
Pentecost, difference in reckoning

between Pharisees and Sadducees,
n. ii. 37.
Perea, east of Jordan, mainly non-
Jewish in population during the
earlier part of the Maccabean age,
I. i. 192 ; Medaha conquered by
John Hyrcanus, l. i. 279 ; con-
quests of Alexander Jannaus, i. i.
297, 301, 304, 306; Macharus in
possession of Jews since time of
Alexander Jannaus, i. ii 251 :
comp. I. i 372; Amathus, site of
a Jewish Sanhedrim, i. i 373;
Pheroras, brother of Herod, te-
trarch of Perea, I. i 409, 453;
Callirrhoe visited by Herod, L i.
463 ; extent and population in
first Christian century, n. i 2-4;
ou the boundary to the East, i. i.
304 ; see also Ragaba ; also Ra-
gaba Zia, ii. i 121 ; frontier strife
of Jews of Perea ^^ith the Phila-
delphians, i. ii 167 ; Vespasian
subdues Perea, I. ii. 231 ; see also
Ammonites, GUead, Moabites.
Perek schalom, Talmudic tract, L i
144.



70



r. NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



Pergannim, Jews resi*lius, writing of, on the

JeAvs, I. i. 74 ; ii. iii. 304.
Philocrates, brother of Aristeas,

II. iii. 307,
Philodemus of Gadara, philosopher,

II. i. 29, 103.
Philosophers, Greek, who belonged

to Palestine, ii. i. 28 f.
Philosophy : —

(a) Palestinian- Jewish or
Gnomic wisdom, ii. iii. 23-
32.
(6) Hellenistic - Jewish, ii. iii.

228-248, 321-381.
(c) Greek, its influence on the
Jewish, see Aristotle, Plato,
Pythagoras,Stoics. The Greek
philosophers derived their
wisdom from Moses, ii. iii.
239-241, 265, 368.
Philostephanus, Egyptian general,

I. i. 296.
Philoteria, town on the Lake of

Gennesaret, i. i. 196, 306.
Phineesos, see Phannias.
Phineus, worship of, in Joppa, ii. i.

15.
Phocvlides, didactic poet, II. iii.

313-316.
Phoenicia as taxation district during
the age of the Ptolemies, i. i.
190 ; trade of, ii. i. 37 ; minting
of coins in, ii. i. 40 ; see also
coins, Tyre, Sidon.
Phraates, king of the Parthians, i.
i. 269.



72



D. NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



riirvj,'ia, Jews residing there, ii. ii.

•2-2-2 ; Jewish colonists i)laced there

by Antiochus the Great, ii. ii.

226 ; see also Apamea, LaoJicea.
Phylacteries, II. ii. 113.
Pi kite, see Pontius Pilate.
Pilgrimages of Jews to Jerusalem,

II. ii. 51, 290 ; numbers of, going

to the feast, il. ii. 290.
Piiichas, high priest, see Phannias.
Pinchas, chief custodier of the robes,

II. i. 268.
Piiathon, place so named, see

Pharaton.
Pirke Aboth, or simply Aboth,

tract of Mishna, i. i. 124 ; ii. iii.

30.*
Pirke de-Pabbi Elieser, I. i. 151.
Piso, legate of Pom])ey, l.i. 321.
Piso, L., prat'/i'dus urfn, died A.D. 32,

I. i. 3G0-362, ii. 15,3.

Piso, another prarfedus iirhi about

A.D. 36, I. i. 361 f., ii. 153.
Piso, see Calpurnius.
Pitholaus, I. i. 375.
Placidus, I. i. 220, 231.
Plancus, see Munacius.
Plato, influence of his philosophy

on the Jewish, ii. iii. 233 f., 363 f.';

(J/XdJv/^s; II. iii. 364 ; dependent

on Moses, ii. iii. 240 ; a 'Muvo?,;

ecTTiKt^uv, II. iii. 319.
Plato of "Gerasa, ll. i. 29, 119.
Pleiades, I. i. 275.
Pliny the elder, had a place in the

army of Titus in the war against

the Jews, i. ii. 236 f. ; on Moses

and other magicians, ii. iii. 150 ;

on the Essenes, ii. ii. 192, 193 f.
Plough used at the founding and at

the overthrow of a citv, i. ii.

.308.
Plutarch, life and works, i. i. 112 ;

on the Jews, ii. ii. 295.
Pluto, worship of, in Ptolemais, ii.

i. 18.
Poetry, see Epic Poetry, Psalms,

Proverbial Wisdom.
Polemics, heathen, against the Jews,

II. ii. 291-297, iii. 249-262;
Jewish, against the heathen, ii.
iii. 262-270.

Polemon of Cilicia, I. ii. 195, 197 ;
II. ii. 308 f.



Polemon of Pontus, I. ii. 159.

Polio, a Pharisee, ii. i. 358 ; i. i. 419,
444.

Police, see Temple Police.

Pollio, see Asinius.

Polybius, life and works, i. i. Ill ;
his character of Antiochus Epi-
phanes, i. i. 199 f.

Polygamy permitted among the
.Jews, I. i. 455.

Pomaeriura of the city of Rome, ii.
ii. 248.

Pompeius Sextus, I. i. 343.

Pompeius Falco, governor of Judea,
I. ii. 260.

Pompeius, Longinus, governor of
Judea, I. ii. 259.

Pompeius Trogus, see Justin.

Pompey makes Syria a Roman
province, i. i. 184, 328 ; frees the
frontiers of Palestine from Jewish
rule, I. i. 323 ; II. i. 61 ; nou.Tr,ius
Tctlocoii;, II. i. 102 ; era of, see
Era ; subdues the Jews, i. i. 317-
325 ; carries Jews away to Rome,
I. i. 324 ; II. ii. 234 ; mentioned
in Psalms of Solomon, il. iii. 20 f. ;
secures power in Rome, Trium-
virate and civil wars, i. i. 328-335 ;
death, i. i. 376.

Pom])onius, L. Flaccus, governor of
Syria, i. i. 361-364, ii. 153.

Pondinn, see Dupondius.

Pontius Pilate, i. ii. 20, 30, 78, 81-
86 ; * period of office, l. ii. 81 f. ;
character, i. ii. 83 ; acqueducts,
I. ii. 84 f. ; death according to
Christian legends, i. ii. 86.

Pontus, Jews residing there, ii. ii.

95)1 90.-) 90g

^WA, ^A.^, ^-\J.

Pontus Polemoniacus, see Polemon.
Popilius Laenas, i. i. 205.
Popjiaea, Empress, i. i. 78, ii. 183,

190, 197; II. ii. 238, 308.
Population of Palestine in time of

Christ, II. i. 1-8.
Porcius Festus, procurator, I. ii. 183-

187, 196.
Porphyry on the history of the

Sele'ucidae, I. i. 170 f . ; on the

Essenes, ii. ii. 201 ; on the

Egyptian priests, ii. iii. 255.
Porto, near Rome, Jews residing

there, ii. ii. 240.



D. NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



Poseidon, worship in Ascalon, ii. i.
14 ; in Caesarea, ir. i. 17.

Posidonius, historian, I. i. 47-50 ;
against the Jews, ii. iii. 262.

Potestas gladii, I. ii. 57.

Predestination, see Providence.

Praedicatio Petri et Pauli, II. iii.
294.

Pracfedus as title, i. ii. 45 f.

Praeses as title, I. ii. 46.

Praetorian rank of Roman vassal
kings, I. i. 450, ii. 153, 203, 342.

Pretorium at Jerusalem, i. ii. 48 ;
see also Palaces.

Prayer, casuistical revolutions re-
garding, II. ii. 115-118 ; washing
of hands before, ii. ii. 70, Index
vol. p. 93 ; not necessarily in
Hebrew, ii. i. 10, ii. 284 ; straps
(Tephillin, Phylacteries), li. ii.
113 ; standing at, and looking to
Jerusalem, ii. ii. 78 ; looking not
to sun, but to temple, ii. ii. 214 ;
spitting not in front or to the
right during prayer, ii. ii. 211 ;
the three hours of prayer, ii. i.
290 ; Shema (for morning and
evening), see Shema ; Shemoneh
Esreh, thrice a day, see Shemoneh ;
at table, ii. ii. 17 ; in synagogue,
II. ii. 78 ; see also Musaph-prayer ;
public prayer in open places,
siiecially on sea-shore, ii. ii. 72 ;
prayer and offerings for heathen
rulers, i. ii. 76 f. ; ii. i. 302 f., iii.
191 ; Onias' wonderful power in,

I. i. 316 ; of deceased saints for
the people, ii. iii. 214.

Prayer of Azariah and song of the
Three Youths in the furnace, ii.
iii. 183 f.

Prayer of Joseph, apocryphal writing,

II. iii. 127-129.

Prayer of Manasseh, ii. iii. 188.
Preaching in the synagogues, ii. ii.

82.
Precepts of Noah, ii. ii. 318.
Pre-existence of the Messiah, ii. ii.

161 ; of the soul according to

Wisdom of Solomon, ii. iii. 2.33 f. ;

according to Philo, ii. iii. 377 ;

according to the Essenes, ii. ii.

205 ; of the law according to Book

of Jubilees, ii. iii. 137.



Presbyters, see Elders.
Priests, the Jewish generally, xi. i.
207-305.

(1) The priesthood as a distinct
order, ii. i. 207-229 ; pedi-
grees, II. i. 210 ; marriages,
II. i. 210-213 ; purity, li. i.
213 f. ; freedom from physical
defect, II. i. 214 f. ; age for be-
ginning service, IT. i. 214 f. ;
consecration, il. i. 215 ;
twenty-four courses, ii. i. 216-
221; heads of these, il. i. 221.

(2) Emoluments, ii. i. 230-254 ;
gifts from the offerings, ii. i.
2.30 f. ; from first-fruits of tlie
field, II. i. 235, 236 ; from the
ea(iiificial victims, ii. i. 237-
245 ; first-born of man, ii. i.
243 ; revenues from general
offerings, ii. i. 245 f. ; gifts
for maintenance of worship,
II. i. 249-254.

(3) The various functions of
the priesthood, li. i. 254-273 ;
the high priest, il. i. 254 f. ;
see also article High Priest ;
captain of the temple (Segan),
II. i. 257-259 ; treasurers, ii.
i. 260-264 ; temple-police, ii.
i. 264-268 ; officials conduct-
ing the worship, ii.i. 268-273.

(4) The daily service, ii. i. 27.3-
299 ; the several courses re-
lieve one another, ii. i. 273 f. ;
official robes for service, ir.

I. 276 f. ; these remained iu
temple, ii. i. 260, 268 ; use
of wine forbidden during
jieriod of service, ii. i. 278 ;
washings, II. i. 278 ; priest's
benediction in the temple,

II. i. 296, ii. 82 ; in the syna-
gogue, II. ii. 82 ; could be
uttered only in Hebrew, ii.
i. 10, ii. 284.

(5) Other details :

Their political attitude, i. i.
188 ; II. i. 165, 171 (the Upi7;
as third category along witli
uox'-P-'^S ^T^^ yepovaix); posi-
tion in Sanhedrim, ii. i. 174-
184 ; distinguished priests
constituted the Jewish aris-



7-t



D. NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



tocracy, ir. ii. 41-43 ; pre-
cedence generally, ii. iii. 1 ;
precedence over princes ac-
cording to Testam. XII. Pair.,
II. iii. 119; cViief place in
synagogue services, ii. ii. 79 ;
relations with the scribes, ii.
i. 208, 230, 313, 321 ; posi-
tion after (k'struction of the
temple, i. ii. 271-273 ; priests
in temple at LeontopoliS?, ii.
ii. 288 ; pi'iests of the Essenes,
II. ii. 203.
Priests, Egyptian, ll. iii. 249.
I'rivileges of the Jews, ii. ii. 263 f.
J'ro praetore, see Lefjatus Aurjusti.
J'rocoTisuleit = Governors of the

Senatorial provinces, i. i. 347 f.
Procurator as title of Governor of
Equestrian rank, i. ii. 45 ; had the
jus (jladii, I. ii. 4G ; finance, I. ii.
46, G9, 118 f.
Procuratores ad census accipiendos, i.

ii. 118 f., 140.
Piocurators of Judea, legal position
during the term of office, i. ii.
44-79 ; subordinate to the gover-
nor of Syria, i. ii. 46 f. ; residence
of, I. ii. 48 ; military command,
I. ii. 49-57 ; anthovity, jus gladii,
I. ii, 57-65 ; finance administra-
tion, I. ii. -65-71 ; history of the,

I. ii. 79-105, 166-191 ; coins, I.
ii. 77.

Troducis of Palestine, ii. i. 41 f.

rr()])aganda, Jewish, ii. iii. 262-270.

l'roi)hets, the nature of their work
according to Pliilo, ii. iii. 366 f. ;
ecstasy of, ii. iii. 380 ; Cleodemus
or Malchus 6 zrpoXyiTYig, ii. iii.
209 ; Tlu'udas, tboCP-Jityi; h.iyiv
iivxi, I. ii. 168 ; Josephus as a
pioidiet, I. i. 79, ii. 223 ; the
Egyptian xoo^ljjrir}; ihui 'Kiyuv, I.

ii. 180 ; gift prophetic among
Essenes, ii. ii. 204 ; pseudejii-
graphs ])ro])hetic, ll. iii. 44-133 ;
TTpoXiiTeci among Egyptian priests,

II. iii. 255.
Prosbol, II. i. 32, 362 f.
Proselytes, ii. ii. 291-327 ; literature

about them, ii. ii. 304 f. ; great
number and wide B})read, ii. ii.
304-311 ; various grades, ii. ii.



311-319; designations (^o/ioifitvoi,
aii'jui'j'it, gerim, ^oo9-^>vt/Toi, ll. ii.
315 ; of the gate, and of righteous-
ness, II. ii. 316-319 ; rites of in-
itiation and admission, ii. ii. 319-
324 ; baptism of, ii. ii. 321-324 ;
obligations and rights of, ir. ii.
324^327.

Proseuche = Synagogue, II. ii. 68-73.

Proverbial wisdom, ii. iii. 23-32.

Providence, doctrine of among Phari-
sees and Sadducees, ii. ii. 13-17 ;
among the Essenes, li. ii. 202 ;
in ])seu



Online LibraryEmil SchürerA history of the Jewish people in the time of Jesus Christ .. (Volume 2 pt.3) → online text (page 48 of 51)