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the Essenes, II. ii. 216 f. ; on

Philo, II. iii. 364.



Q



Quaclran.% li. i. 40.

Quadratus, see Ummidius Quad-

ratus.
Quasten, see Zizith.
Quietus, see Lusius Quietus.
Quinctilms, P. Varus, i. i. 351, 462,

ii. 2, 5 ; mentioned in Assumptto

Mosis, II. iii. 76 ; Polevios shel

Varos, I. ii. 5.
Quirinius, see Sulpicius Quirinius.



R



Ral)ba of the Ammonites = Phila-

del])hia, ii. i. 119.
Rabbatamana, ii. i. 119.

Rabbi, title, ll. i. 315 ; duo rehhites
in Venosa, ii. ii. 269.

Rabbi = R. Judah ha -Nasi, see
Judah.

Rabbinical literature, i. i. 117-166 ;
lexicons and grammars, i. i. 138 f.

Rabbis, see Scribes.

Rabboth, Midrashim, i. i. 145-153.

Rabel, Rabilus, Arabian king, i. ii.
360 f. ; an older king of same
name, i. ii. 352.

Ragaba, fortress, i. i. 304.

Raguel in Book of Tobit, li. iii. 37 f.

Rahab, ii. i. 344.

Ramathaim (Rama) down to B.C.
145 belonging to Samaria, sub-
sequently part of Judea, i. i. 190,
191, 245 f. ; situation of, I. i. 246.

Rammius, Martialis, governor of
Egypt, I. ii. 282.

Raphael in Book of Tobit, ii. ni.
38.

Raphana = Raphon, city, il. i. 105 ;
belonging to Decapolis, ii. i. 95.



/ o



D. NAMES AND SU15JECTS.



]!;i]ili.ineia in Svria, ll. i. lOfi.

Kaphia, ir. i. (io f. ; i. i. 2US, 300,
3:23 ; coins and era, li. i. G7 ;
worship, II. i. 12.

Itavenna, Jews residing there, ii. ii.
■24-2.

Reading, instruction in, ii. ii. 47 f. ;
desk in synagogue, ii. ii. 75 ; of
Scripture in synagogue worshij),
II. ii. 76, 7!J-8i.

Rogeb, I. i. 305.

Jie(/es socii, legal standing of, i. i.
448-451, ii. 122-127.

llckcm, proselytes living there, ii.
ii. 326

J.'rlujio Ikita, n. ii. 260, 268.

lleligions, heatlien, in Palestine, il.
i. 11-23; Oriental in the We.st,
ii. 300-303; blending of, see
Syncretism.

Hdlqaa rcrhorum Baruchi, ii. iii. 92.

Ivejientance as necessary, ]irepara-
tion for coming of Messiah, ii. ii.
163 ; for want of it he is still con-
cealed, II. ii. 164.

Resurrection, belief in doctrine of,
among Pharisees, ii. ii. 13 ; of
the righteous, ii. ii. 174 ; general,
II. ii. 179-181 ; see also Immor-
tality.

Retribution, doctrine of, ii. ii. 91-
93, 301 ; according to Philo, II.
iii. 347.

Revelation according to Philo, ii.
iii. 366, 368 ; see Canon, Law,
Prophets, Scripture.

Rewards as chief motive in Jewish
legislation, ii. ii. 91-93.

Rhodes, Jews residing in, ii. ii.
221 ; Apollonius Melon residing
there writes against them, ii. iii.
252 ; buildings of Herod there, i.
i. 437.

Rinokorura, i. i. 306.

Rome, Oriental I'orms of worship
there, ii. ii. 301 f. ; foreign reli-
gions down to the second Chris-
tian century allowed only outside
of the pomaerium, il. ii. 248, 260 ;
Jews residing there, ii. ii. 232-
241 ; number of Jews there in
time of Augustus, ii. ii. 235 ; their
expulsion in time of Tiberius, n.
ii. 235 ; their expulsion in time



of Claudius, ir. ii. 237 ; relation
of Jews with imperial court, ii.
ii. 238 ; dwelling and burying-
places of Jews, ll. ii. 239, 240 ;
sepulchral inscriptions, i. i. 31-
34 ; constitution of Jews in, ii. ii.
246-252 ; synagogues of Jews in,
II. ii. 74, 247, 260, 283 ; protection
of Jews there by Augustus, ii. ii.
260 ; have civil rights of fieed-
men, II. ii. 276 ; Jews there
send gifts to Jerusalem, ii. ii.
288 ; journey of four famous
scribes to Rome, ll. i. 370; "God
fearing" (pro'^elytes) in Rome, ii.
ii. 308 ; Christians in, see Flavins
Clemens.

Roma, worship of, in connection
with that of Augustus, ii. i. 16.

Romans, their relations with the
Jews before Pompey :

(a) Under Judas, i. i. 231.
(/') Under Jonathan, i. i. 249.

(c) Under Simon, i. i, 266-268;
II. ii. 233.

(d) Under John Hyrcanus, i. i.
277.

Roman supremacy in Judea in the

time of the Procurators :

(a) The administration of law,

I. ii. 43-79.
(h) History, I. ii. 79-105, 166-
191.
Roman emperor and people, offei'-

ings for, at temple of Jerusalem,

II. i. 302.
Roman citizens in Jerusalem are

subject to the temple law, i. ii.

74 ; II. i. 188 f., 265 f. ; see also

Heathens.
Roman senate, decrees of, and other

edicts in favour of the Jews. i. i.

90 f., 109, 266, 277, 378, 388, ii.

168 ; II. ii. 257 ff., 275.
Roman citizenship of Jews, ii. ii.

276-279; equestrian rank of

Jews, II. ii. 281.
Romati writers, their estimate of

Judaism, ii. ii. 291-297.
Romans understood by the Raljbis

to be meant by the " Edomites "

of the Bible, ii. iii. 99.
Romulus = ArmiIus, the Antichrist,

II. ii. 165 ; see Index vol. p. 94.



D. — NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



77



Puisli l)0tli-din, II. i. 184.

llosli Hashana, Taliuudic tract, I. i.

122.
Rulinup, rei^utecl translator of Jose-

phus, I. i. 99 f.
Rufus, officer of Herod, i. ii. 51.
Rufiis, see Annius Rufus, Cluvius

Rufus, Tineius Rufus.
Ruth, Midrash on, i. i. 148.
Rutilius Lupus, governor of Egypt,

I. ii. 281 f.



Sabaoth as name of God, ii. ii. 234.
.Sabazius, ii. ii. 233 f., 300.
Sabljath :

(1) Offerings in temple, ii. i. 291,
ii. 103 ; synagogue services, II.
ii. 75-83, 282 ; afternoon ser-
vice in synagogue, ii. ii. 83 ;
prayer on, see Musapli-prayer
and Shemoneh Esreh ; lights
kindled on, ii. ii. 30G ; not a
fast day as many Romans
wrongly supposed, i. i. 322, 323,
398 f. ; beginning and end of
l)roclaimed by trumpets, il. i.
273, ii. 75 ; Habdala, fornr of
prayer for close of, ii. ii. 88.

(2) Strict observance of Sabbath
rest, II. ii. 96-105 ; by the
Essenes, ii. ii. 199, 209 ; evasion
of law, II. ii. 120-122 ; no
court lield on Sabbath, ii. ii.
190; Jews not required to
appear before heathen tiil)u-
nal, II. ii. 265 ; no battle
except in case of need, ii. ii.
105 ; Jerusalem taken on
Sabbath by Pompev, Heix)d,and
Titus (?), I. i. 322 f., 398, ii.
244 (Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 16,
xlix. 22, Ixvi. 7) ; also by
Ptolemy Lagus, according to
Josephus, Antiq. xii. 1, c.
Apion, i. 22 fin.

(3) Sabbath festival of Jews in
the Dispersion protected by
magistrates, ii. ii. 258 f., 265,
28-i

(4) Value and significance of the
Sabbath accordiii'' to Aristo-



bulus, II. iii. 240, 270 ; accord-
ing to Philo, II. iii. 269 ; verses
of Hesiod, Homer, and Linus
on, II. iii. 302.

(5) Heathen opinions about the
Sabbath festival (Tacitus, Ju-
venal), II. ii. 295, iii. 269 f.

(6) Observance of Sabbath fes-
tival forbidden by Antiochus
Epiphanes, i. i. 207 ; alleged
also to have been done by
Hadrian, i. ii. 318.

Sabbath dav's journev, ii. ii. 102,
120-122 flimits fixed at Geser(l),

I. i. 261 f.

Sabbatical year, reading of Deuter-
onomy during, i. ii. 157 ; escape
from prosecution for debt during,
set asi'de by Hillel, ll. i. 362 f. ;
heathen opinions about, II. ii.
295 ; I. i. 42 ; historical witnesses
for the, I. i. 41-43, 224, 274.

Sabbe, a Sibyl, ii. iii. 273.

Sabim, Talmudic tract, i. i. 125.

Sabinus Procurator, i. ii. 3, 4, 5.

Sabinus, Syrian soldier, i. ii. 242.

Sacrifices, see OH'erings.

Sacrificial feasts, ii. i. 231, 236,
240 ; ijvvhiTrvx of Jews allowed
by Caesar, ii. ii. 258 ; of the
Essenes, ii. ii. 200.

Sadducees, ii. ii. 1, 43 ; explanation
of name, ll. ii. 31-34 ; testimony
of Josephus, II. ii. 2-5 ; testimony
of the Mishna, ll. ii. 5-8; formed
the party of the priestly aris-
tocracy, II. ii. 29-34 ; attitude
toward the law, ii. ii. 34-38 ;
m praxi followed the Pharisees,

II. ii. 28, 42 ; detailed difl'erences
in theory of law between them
and Pliarisees, ii. ii. 35-38 ; put
on same level as Samaritans, ii.
i. 8 ; scribes of i)arly of, ii. i.
319 f. ; their dogmatics, ii. ii.
38 f. ; origin and history, ii. ii.
39-43 ; John Hyrcanus on side
of, I. i. 286-290; position in
the Sanhedrim during the Roman
period, ii. i. 174 ; overthrow of,
I. ii. 272.

Sadduk = Zadok, ii. ii. 31, 33.
Sadduk, Pharisee, i. ii. 80 ; li. ii. 31,
32.



78



D. NAMES AXU SUBJECTS.



PafTorine, see Si-pplioiis.

SaL,'an or Se^faii, captain of temple,
ii. i. 2r)7-L'r)9.

Siujam, II. i. 44.

Salamis in Cyprus, destroyed by
rebel Jews, i. ii. 284 ; see Cyprus.

Salampso, daughter of Herod, I. i.
455.

Suliua, see Ale.xandra.

Salkliat, ])lace so named, I. ii. 13.

Salome Alexandra, see Alexandra.

Salome, sister of Herod, i. i. 422,
429, 431, 456, 457, 461, ii. 7, 9 ;
first husband Joseph, l. i. 422 ;
second husband Costobar, i. i.
431 ; her daughter Berenice, i. i.
456 ; held certain towns in Pales-
tine, I. ii. 7, II. i. 62 ; death, i.
ii. 8, 9.

Salome, daughter of Hcrodias, wife
of tetrarch Philip, i. ii. 15, 22,
27 ; afterwards married Aristo-
bulus, son of Herod of Chalcis, i.
ii. 342.

Salvidcnus, governor of Judea, i. ii.
259.

Samaria = Sebaste, cit}', ii. i. 123-
127;* Alexander the Great
settled Macedonians there, i. i.
196 ; II. i. 123 ; destroyed by
John Hyrcanus, i. i. 283 ; de-
livered by Pompey, l. i. 323 ;
given to Herod, i. i. 404, 428 ;
rebuilt by Herod, l. i. 434, II. i.
125 ; era and date of rebuilding
by Herod, i. i. 405 f. ; ii. i. 125 ;
coins, II. i. 125 ; worship, ii. i.
22.

Samaria, district of country, taxa-
tion district in time of Ptolemais,
I. i. 190 f. ; conrpiest by John
Hyrcanus, i. i. 280 ; further his-
tory, see Samaria (city) and
Samaritans.

Samaritan, uoum', Ephiaim, Lyilda,
and liaiiiatiiaim joined to Judea
in B.C. 145, I. i. 190, 191, 245.

Samaritans, ii. i. 5-8 ; literature
about, II. i. 5 f. ; are Jews though
heterodox, ll. i. 2, 5 ; relation of
Pliarisaic Judaism to them, ii. i.
8 ; on the history of the, I. ii.
87, 172, 173 ; their synagogue at
Neapolis, ii. ii. 72 ; Hellenistic



writers from among the, ll. iii.

211, 225 ; in Egypt, II. ii. 230 ;

in Rome, ll. ii. 241.
Sambethe, a Sibyl, ii. ii. 69, iii.

273.
Sameas, a Pharisee, ii. i. 358 ; i. i.

384, 420, 444 ; .see also Shemaiali.
Samos, Jews residing there, ii. ii

221.
Samosata, i. i. 341, 395.
Sampsame, Jews residing there, ii.

ii. 221.
Sampseans, ii. ii. 213.
Sampsigeram of Emesa in time of

Pompey, I. i. 184 ; another in

time of Claudius, i. ii. 159.
Samuel the little, interpolates tlic

birkath ha -minim into the

Shemoneh Esreli, II. ii. 88.
Samuel, Mar, in Nehardea, i. ii. 372.
Sanliallat, ii. i. 7.
Sandals, ii. i. 44.
Sanhedrim, the Great, ii. i. 163-19.").

(1) History, ll. i. 165-173; live
Sanhedrims of Gabinius, i. i.
372 ; II. i. 168 f. ; court of
Jamnia after destruction of
Jerusalem, i. ii. 275-277.

(2) Its composition, ii. i. 174-
184 ; number of members, ii.
i. 175 ; sending out of the o/x«
TrpwT-o/, II. i. 179 ; presidency,
II. i. 180-184.

(3) Its jurisdiction, ii. i. 184-
190 ; limited the power of
Roman procurators, ii. i. 187-
190.

(4) Time and jdace of meeting,
^ II. i. 190-193 ; see also Lish-

kath hagasith ; legendary
account of the transference of
place of meeting to the
Chnnuth, II. i. 192.

(5) Judicial procedure, ll. i. 193-
195.

Sanhcdrin, Talmudic tract, i. i.

123.
P"nn3D, use of word, ii. i. 32, 169,

172.
Sanherib, chronology according to

Demetrius, ii. iii. 202.
Saphin, see Zophim.
Saphorim, Sapori, Sapphuri, see

Sepphoris.



D. NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



•79



Sarah in Book of Tobit, ii. iii. 37.
Sarah, a female jn'oselyte, ii. n.

308.
Saramel, i. i. 265.

Sardis, Jews residing there, ii. n.
258, 263 ; Jews in, have citizen-
ship, II. ii. 273; the Roman
citizenship, li. ii. 277; see also
Lydia.
Sarepta, purple dyeing at, ii. i. 41.
Sarcophagus, Jewish, inscriptions

on, I. i. 31 f.
Sattu, family of, ii. i. 252.
Saturninus, see Sentius Saturninus,

Volusius Saturninus.
Saul, relative of Agrippa II., i. ii.

189.
Saul, see Abba Saul.
Sauromates, king of the Bosphorus,

I. ii. 162.
Saxa, see Decidius Saxa.
Scaurus, see Aeniilius Scaurus.
Sceva or Skeuas, high priest, ii. i.

203.
Scholars of the learned, ii. i. 323 ff.
Schools, high, of scribes, ii. i. 323-

326 ; elementary, ll. ii. 47-52.
Scipio, see Metellus Scipio.
Scodra, i. i. 340.
Scutella, II. i. 45.
Scopus, the so-called, in Jerusalem,

I. ii. 213.
Scourging of Roman citizens not

allowed, il. ii. 278.
Scribes, ii. i. 306-379 ; names,
titles, respect, ii. i. 313-317 ;
labours of, gratuitous, ii. i. 317-
319.

Chief functions :

(a) The careful development
of the law and its systenia-
tization, li. i. 320-323,
330-339 ; l. ii. 275.

(b) Teaching the law, ii. i.
323-326.

(c) Giving sentence in court,
II. i. 326,327; in the great
Sanhedrim, II. i. 178; after
the destruction of Jeru-
salem, I. ii. 275-277.

(d) As theologians, II. i.
327, 328, 329-350.

relations with the high priests, ii.
i. 208, 230, 313 f., 321 ; the most



celebrated down to a.d. 130, ii. i.
351-379.
Scriptures, the Holy, their canoni-
cal dignity, ii. i. 306-312;
Philo's view of, il. iii. 366 ; how
numbered, ii. i. 308 ; miraculous
restoration of, by Ezra, ii. iii.
109 ; touching them defiles the
hands, II. i. 309, ii. 5, 36 ; formu-
lae of quotation in Mishna, il. i.
311 f. ; copies in possession of
private individuals, i. i. 207 f. ;
II. ii. 50 ; copies kept in the
synagogues, ii. i. 74 ; malicious
tearing of, punished by Roman
courts, I. ii. 75, 172 ; exegesis of,
see Haggada, Halachah, Midrash ;
exegesis of, by Philo, il. iii. 367 ;
fourfold sense of, II. ii. 348 ;
reading of, in public worship, ii.
ii. 79-81 ; reading of, in Greek
language, ii. ii. 81, 283 f. ; read-
ing" of Book of Baruch on 10th
Gorpiaios, ii. iii. 193.
Scylax, geographer, ii. i. 80.
Scvthians in Palestine, ii. i. 110 f.
Scvthopolis = Beth - scan, ii. i.
110-113;* I. i. 196, 253, 283,
320, 323 ; belonging to Decapohs,

II. i. 95 ; era, ii. i. Ill, 112 ;
worship, II. i. 196 ; coins, ii. i.

III, 112 ; games, ii. i. 25, 27 ;
linen industry, li. i. 42 ; lin-
guistic affinities (Greek unknown
among people), ii. ii. 82 ; Jews
residing in, ii. i. 113; see also
Beth-sean.

Sea-fight represented in the amphi-
theatre at Gadara, ii. i. 28, 104.
Sebachim, Talmudic tract, i. i. 124.
Sebasmia in Damascus, ii. i. 27.
Sebastes, see Samaria.
Sebastean troops (an ala and five
cohortes Sehastenoruvi), I. ii. 51,
53 ; II. i. 65.
Sebastini in the Jewish Sibyllines,

II. iii. 284.
2s/3«ffToV = Augustus.
Sebastos, harbour for Caesarea, li. i.

85.
Sebonitis, ii. i. 129. _
Secundus, see Aemilius.
Seder 01am rabba, i. i. 164 ; on the
war of Varus, i. ii. 5 ; on the war



80



-NAMES AND SUBJECTS.



of Quir'tu", T. ii. 280 ; on tlio reign

of Ben-Cosilia, i. ii. 311, 'S\-2.
SwIlt Olani sutta, i. ii. 1G4.
S( - g;ui, see Sagan.
Si-Janus, enemy of the Jews, i. ii.

■21, 86 ; occasions their expulsion

from Rome, II. ii. 23G ; writing of

riiilo about him, ii. iii. 349-352,

.see Index vol. jip. 97-99.
Rela = Petra, see Petra.
Selene, daughter of Cleopatra, wife

(jf Antiochus VIII. Grypos, ii. i.

93.
Seleucia in Palestine, on the Mei'oiu

lake, I. i. 304.
Seleucia = Abila, ir. i. 105.
Seleucia = Gadara, ii. i. 103.
Seleucidae, sketch of their history,

I. i. 169-185; genealogy, i. ii.

399 ; coins, i. i. 23 f. ; era of, i.

ii. 393; whether Josephus wrote

a history of the, I. i. 95.
Seleucus I., cities founded by, II. i.

114; gives Jews citizenshij) in

cities founded by him, ii. ii. 271.
Seleucus IV. Philopater, I. i. 172.
Seleucus v., duration of reign, i. i.

179.
Seleucus VI., duration of reign, i. i.

181.
Scllii of the judge, I. ii. 15.
Semachoth,.Talmudic tract, l. i. 144.
Seniaiah, see Shemaiah.
Sends = ^ as, ii. i. 40.
Senaa, family of, ii. i. 252.
Senate, decrees of Roman, in

Josephus, I. i. 90, 109, 267, 277,

379 ; II. ii. 258 ; decrees of, kept

in Cajjitol, i. i. 90.
Seneca on the Jews, ii. ii. 306, 307.
Si'nnabri.s, village, i. ii. 90.
Sentius, C., Saturninus, in time of

Augustus, I. i. 350, 459, 461.
Sentius, Cn., Saturninus, in time of

Tiberius, i. i. 359.
Sepharvaim, disti-ict of country,

heathen colonists from it to

Samaria, ii. i. 5.
Sephela= lowlands, i. i. 251 f.
Sepher Thorah, Talmudic tract, i. i.

144.
Se])phoris, city, ll. i. 136-141 ;* i. i.

296,372 f.,'ii. 4, 18; destruction

of, by Varus, and rebuiMing by



Herod Antipas, ii. i. 137, 138 ;
its acropolis, ii. i. 139 ; coins, ii.
i. 137, 140 ; capital of Galilee, ii.
i. 139 ; allegiance to Romans
during war of a.d. 66-70, ii. i.
139 ; I. ii. 215, 219 ; subserpiently
called Diocaesarea, ii. i. 140.

Seplimius Severus, emperor, forbids
conversion to Judaism, ii. ii. 268.

Se])tuagint, ii. iii. 159-168 ; origin
of, II. iii. 159-162 ; esteem in
winch it was held, ii. iii. 163 ;
history of text, ii. iii. 164-166 ;
manuscripts, editions, and litera-
ture, II. iii. 166-168; used by
Josephus, I. i. 85, 108 ; used in
jiublic ser\'ices, ii. ii. 283-286 ;
Epistle of Aristeas al)out origin of,
II. iii. 306-312 ; annual festival
in Alexandria in honour of the
translation, see Festivals.

Serapis, worshi]) of, in Caesarea, ii.
i. 17 ; in Ptolemais. ii. i. 18; in
Neapolis, i. ii. 267 ; in Aelia
Caj)it()lina, i. ii. 317 ; in Greece,
II. ii. 300 ; in Rome, ii. ii. 301.

Seron, Syrian general, i. i. 214.

Sertorius Macro, see Naevius.

Severus, see Julius.

Seven men constituted a local court
of justice, II. i. 152 f.

Seventy (71, 72) elders, II. i. 174 f.,
186, 370 ; or 72 translators of
Pentateuch, ii. iii. 159, 307 ;
languages and peoples, ii. i. 344 ;
angels of the Gentile nations, ii.
iii. 64 f. ; palm trees at Elim, ii.
iii. 227.

Sextus, see Caesar, Cerealis, Pom-
jieius.

Sliabbath, Talmudic tract, I. i. 122.

Sliammai, ii. i. 180, 324, 353,
359-362 ; whether - Sameas ? ii.
i. 359 ; Sammai, according to
Jerome = dissipator, i. i. 119 ;
school of, see Hillel.

Shebat, Hebrew month, i. ii. 363.

Shebiith. Talmudic tract, l. i. 121.

Shebuotli, Talmudic tract, l. i. 123.

Shechem, city, its history ])oeticaiiy
described by Theodotus, ii. iii.
224 f. ; conquered by John Hyr-
canus, I. i. 279 ; AlexaiKkr
Janniius defeated neai', i. i. 3



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