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were only inserted among the allegories at a later period.
And if further proof were needed, we have it in the fact that
in chap. Ixviii. 1, "The Book of the Allegories of Enoch" is
expressly quoted. Those portions have been called Noachian,
partly because they treat of Noah and his time, and partly
because they purport to have. been written by him. Probably
chaps, cvi., evil should also be included among them. Chap.
cviiL is an independent addition inserted at a later period.
It is utterly impossible to say at what dates those various
interpolations were made.

The whole Book of Enoch, which was gradually put
together in the way we have just stated, undoubtedly owes



70 § 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE.

its origin to Palestine (comp. Dillraann, ElnleituTig, p. 51).
But as our present Etliiopic version is taken from the Greek,
it becomes a question whether this latter was the original or
whether it was in turn a translation from the Hebrew or
Aramaic. Certainly the numerous Hebrew names of the
angels point to this latter as probable, to say nothing of the
fact that, in the Hasmonaean age, Greek was hardly ever
used for literary purposes. Consequently it has been almost
universally assumed that the original was composed in Hebrew
or Aramaic." The only exceptions are Volkmar (Zeitschr. der
DMG. 1860, p. 131) and Philippi (p. 126), who feel com-
pelled to adopt the view that Greek was the language of the
original.

For the Enoch-legend generally, comp. (next to Gen. v. 18-24) Jesus
tlie Son of Sirach xliv. 16, xlix. 14 ; Ileb. xi. 5 ; Irenaeus, v. 5. 1 ; Tertul-
lian, De anima, chap. 1. ; Hippolyt. De Christo et Antichristo, chaps, xliii.-
xlvii. ; Evang. Nicodemi ( = Acta Pilati), chap. xxv. ; Historia Josephx
(apucr.), chaps, xxx.-xxxii. Thilo, Codex apocr. Nov. Test. p. 756 sqq.
Rud. Hofmann, Das Lehen Jesu nacli den Apokrypken, p. 459 sqq. Winer.
Realwbrtb. art. " Henoch." Hamburger, Real-Encycl. filr Bihel und
Talmud, Part ii. art. " Henochsage." The Bible dictionaries generally.
The expositors on Revelation xi. For a great number of earlier disserta-
tions, consult Fabricius, Cod. pseudepigr. Vet. Test. i. 222 sq.

To an acquaintance with our book is perhaps to be traced so early a notice
as that of a Jewish or Samaritan Hellenist (probably not Eupolemus, but
some person unknown, see § xxxiii.) which has been transmitted to us by
Alexander Polyliistor, and after him by Eusebius, to the effect that Enocli
was the inventor of astrology (Euseb. Praep. evang. ix. 17. 8, ed. Gaisford :
roiiTou ivpyiyJucct vpuTov t'/iv d.a-pa'Kuyiu.'j). In the Book of Jubilees not only
is our book largely drawn upon, but expressly mentioned (see Ewald's
Jahrhh. der hibl Wissenscli. ii. 24Usq., ili. 18 sq., 90 sq. Rousch, Das Buck
der Jubilaen, p. 40o sqq.). In the following nine passages in the Test.
Xll. Patr. express reference is made to Enoch's prophetical writings :
Simeon v. ; Levi x. 14, 16 ; Judah xviii. ; Zebulon iii. ; Dan v. ; Naphtali
iv. ; Benjamin ix. Further, the mention of the iyp-y^yopi; (watchers=
angels) in Reuben v., Naphtali iii., may also be said to point to Enoch.

Christian testimonies: Epist. of Jade, 14: iTrpoJi'/iTivaeti hi kuI rovroii
sfiho^uo; ccTTo 'Ao«,t« ILvux "^iyuv «.t.A. Epist. of Barnabas iv. : to Ti'Anov
aJca.vOoc'hov ^yyiKiit ttsoI ou yiypx-Trrxi, u; 'llvuy^ "hkyn. Ibid. xvi. : Xiyn
yatp vj ypctipvi (then follows a quotation from the Book of Enoch). Irenaeus

*' For the view that the original was in Hebrew, see in particular
Iliillevi, Journal Asiuliiiue, 1867, April-May, pp. 352-395.



§ 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE. 7l

iv. 16. 2: Sed et Enoch sine circumcisione placens Deo, cum esset homo,
Dei legatione ad angelos fungebatur et translatus est et conservatur usque
nunc testis justi judicii Dei. Tertullian, De cultu feminarum, i. 3 : Scio
scripturam Enoch, quae hunc ordinem angelis dedit, non recipi a quibusdam,
quia nee in armarium Judaicum admittitur. Opinor, non putaverunt illam
ante cataclysmum editatn post eum casum orbis omnium rerum abolitorem
salvam esse potuisse. . . . Tertullian then goes on to point out how this
was still quite possible, after which he proceeds as follows : Sed cum Enoch
eadem sciiptura etiam de domino praedicarit, a nobis quidem nihil omnino
rejiciendum est, quod pertineat ad nos. Et legimus omnem scripturam
aedificationi habilem diviuitus inspirari. A Judaeis potest jam videri
propterea rejecta, sicut et cetera fere quae Christum sonant. . . . Eo
accedit, quod Enoch apud Judam apostolum testimonium possidet. Comp.
besides the whole of the introduction to chap, ii., the subject of which is
taken from Enoch. Idem, De cultu feminarum, ii. 10 : (iidem angeli)
damnati a deo sunt, ut Enoch refert. Idem, De idololatr. iv. : Anteces-
serat Enoch praedicens, etc. Idem, De idololatr. xv. : Haec igitur ab
initio praevidens spiritus sanctus (!) etiam ostia in superstitionem ventura
praececinit per antiquissimum propheten Enoch. Clemens Alex. Eclogae
prophet, chap. ii. (Dindorf, iii. 456) : " EvT^oynfcevoc u 6 fi'Ki-Truv alivaaovg,
Kccdvifiivog km Xipovfiifi '' 6 ^nvtTi'K T^iysi 6fio6oi,uv ru 'Eva^ ru dpri>c6ri " x.oci
ttlov Tois v'Koi.; 7r«(;«f." Idem, Eclogae prophet, chap. liii. (Dindorf, iii. 474) :
vjh-rt "hi x.(X.i ^Ev^x (pJiJ'v 70vg ■TrxpxlSoivTK; ccyyi'^ov; Ztox^oii Toiig ecuSpuTrovg
ciaTpouofiictv x,cc\ fAuvTSic^v Kotl rd; oi'h'Kxg rixvot;. Celsus, in Origen, Contra
Cels. V. 52, endeavours to show that Christians would contradict them-
selves were they to maintain that Christ was the only a.yytho'; sent down
into the world by God. As evidence of this he quotes the following
words : iK6{iv yap x.a,\ cch^^ovg "Kiyovat •TiroXKot.x.t; x,ee.l o/xou ys i^'Jix-ovrot i)
'f/3hcfA7}x.ovrei' cvg o^ yiviadxi xctKoii; xocl fcoXx^icdxi ^ea/icoi; ii'7iro(i'hri6iurcts
iv yri' oSiv X.UI rd; Sspfix; T^yiyx-g iiuoct ret iKiivuu Zoocpvoe, k.t.T^, In com-
menting on this passage Origen {Contra Cels. v. 54, 55) remarks that it is
taken from the Book of Enoch. He thinks however that Celsus did not
read it there himself, but heard it from somebody or other, for he does not
mention the author's name. Origen, Contra Cels. v. 64 : iu txI; iy.x.'Knatoe.t;
ov vuvv (fipiTut ag duos, t» iTrtytypxfcpt.ivix, roi 'Evu^ l^ifixloi (observe the
plural). Idem, De principiis, i. 3. 3 : Sed et in Enoch libro his similia
describuntur. Idem, De principiis, iv. 35 : Sed et in libro suo Enoch ita
ait: "Ambulavi usque ad imperfectum " . . . scriptum namque est in
eodem libello dicente Enoch: " Universas materias perspexi." Idem, In
Numcr. homil. xxviii. 2 (de la Eae, ii..384=Lommatzsch, x. 366): De quibus
quidem nominibus plurima in libellis, qui appellantur Enoch, secreta con-
tinentur et arcana : sed quia libelli isti non videntur apud Hebraeos in
auctoritate haberi, interim nunc ea, quae ibi nominantur, ad exemplum
vocare differamus. Idem, In Joannem, vol. vi. chap. xxv. (de la Ene,
iv. 142 = Lommatzsch, i. 241): ug iv rSi 'Evux ysypoivrx:, u tu (p/Aoi/
'Koc.poe.Qi-^iaSxt ug ciyiov to (iili'/uov. Anatolius in Eusebius, Hist. cccl. vii.
32. 19 : Tot/ d£ zov -TrpcL'rou -rxp' 'E./ipxioig ft^vx -wipl Irrrii^ipixv Hvctt,
vxpxaToc.Ttx.ci Kxl TX iv r^ Evu)^ ftxSvifcxTx. Jerome, De viris iUustr.



72 § 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATUEE.

chap. iv. : Jud



Online LibraryEmil SchürerA history of the Jewish people in the time of Jesus Christ .. (Volume 2 pt.3) → online text (page 8 of 51)