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scribed by the early mesmerists, especially by W. Greg-
ory. Certain of our contemporaries believe they ex-
plain this phenomenon by connecting it with X-rays.
At least, the following despatch from New York to the
Daily Chronicle appeared in Le Matin, in March,
1913:

A little girl, ten years old, named Beulah Miller, possesses,
according to Dr. John Quackenbos, a member of the Academy
of Medicine who examined her thoroughly, an X-ray vision.
She can see through opaque bodies ; and had no difficulty, during
the experiments, in telling what the assistants had in their
pockets, in reading a certain page of a closed book, and in de-
scribing objects placed in closed boxes.

Here are some details upon these facts reported by
W. Gregory:

The experiments were made by Major Buckley, with
persons whom he had put into a state of clairvoyance,
and who could, in this state, decipher written mottoes
enclosed in nutshells. The statistics upon this subject
are very curious. Out of eighty-nine persons made
clairvoyant in the waking state, forty-four were capable
of reading in this way. In a state of hypnotic sleep,



CLAIRVOYANCE 241

the number of readers was raised to one hundred and
forty-eight. The written mottoes contained in four
thousand eight hundred and sixty nutshells have been
read; and about thirty-six thousand words understood.

In a small number of cases they were deciphered by
thought-reading, the persons who had put them in the
shells being present; but in the majority of cases the
words were not known to any of the assistants, and,
consequently, they had to be read by direct clairvoy-
ance. Every precaution was taken. The nuts enclos-
ing the written mottoes had been purchased in forty
different stores, and had been sealed until the moment
of the reading.

The following case will give a more precise idea of
this experiment :

Sir Wiltshire had carried away with him a " nest of boxes "
belonging to Major Buckley, and he had placed in the innermost
box a small piece of paper upon which he had written a word.
A few days later he brought back the boxes, with the paper
sealed inside, and asked one of Major Buckley's clairvoyants to
read the word. The Major made a few passes over the boxes;
and the clairvoyant said that she saw the word " Concert."

Sir Wiltshire declared that the first and last letters were
right, but that the word was different.

She persisted, however, that the word was " Concert " ; and
then he told her that the word was " Correct."

In opening the boxes, it was found that the word actually was
" Concert'*

" This case," said W. Gregory, " is very remark-
able; for if the clairvoyant had read the word by
thought-reading, she would have read it according to



242 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

Sir Wiltshire's belief. He either had had the inten-
tion of writing ' Correct,' or else in the interval had
forgotten that he had written ' Concert,' for he cer-
tainly believed that the word was ' Correct.' "

Let us go a step farther and we find ourselves in the
presence of the phenomenon of vision at a distance,
which is generally called second sight or lucidity.
With this, it seems that space does not exist, and that
one can perceive in an instant what is happening in
places very far distant: a sort of teleopsy, natural even
though inexplicable, a phenomenon comparable in its
nature to wireless telegraphy or telephony. The
books of the early mesmerists abound in descriptions
of facts of this order.

We quote from an article in the Revue philosophique
(1889) upon the observations of Dr. Dufay, of Blois,
in his experiments with a young servant, who presented
the phenomenon of second sight in the highest degree.

When Dr. Dufay's friend, Dr. Girault, was invited
by a relative, Madame D., to witness the phenomena
of clairvoyance exhibited by her young servant Marie,
Dr. Dufay had asked to be permitted to arrange the
program of the seance, by wrapping up many small ob-
jects, in a way that would conceal their nature, and so
that he might not he able to know one from the other
himself. These small packages were to be given to
the somnambulist, and she had to discover by clairvoy-
ance what each contained. The matter was arranged,
and the day fixed.

This is Dr. Dufay's description of the seance:

I laid aside a few objects that were not in ordinary usage,



CLAIRVOYANCE 243

so that chance guessing might be eliminated, when there reached
me from Algeria a letter from the chief of a battalion of in-
fantry, whom I had known in the garrison at Blois. The
commandant told me many episodes of his life in the desert,
and spoke especially of his health, which had become very poor.
He had slept in a tent during the rainy season, and that had
developed in him, as in most of his comrades, violent dysentery.

I placed this letter in an old envelope, without address or
postmark, and carefully sealed it. Then I put this into a second
envelope, of a dark color, and sealed it as the first one.

On the appointed day I arrived at Madame D.'s a little late.
Marie was already asleep; therefore she was ignorant of my
presence, knowing only that I was expected. The ten or twelve
persons gathered in Madame D.'s salon were astonished by the
somnambulist having recognized, without mistake, the contents
of several packages prepared by them. I also had prepared
some small packages, but I left mine in my pocket ; and, in order
to break the monotony of the experiment, it occurred to me to
slip my letter into the hand of one of the assistants, motioning
to him to pass it to Dr. Girault. The doctor received it with-
out knowing that it had come from me, and put it into the
hands of Marie.

I did not notice whether her eyes were open or closed ; but,
in a case of this sort, it was of little importance.

" What is it that you have in your hand? " Dr. Girault asked
the subject.

" A letter."

" To whom is it addressed ? "

" To Dr. Dufay."

"By whom?"

" By a military man whom I do not know."

" Of what does this military man speak in his letter? "

" He is ill. He speaks of his illness."

" Can you tell what the illness is? "



244 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

" Oh, yes! Very easily. It is the same as that of the old
man of Mesland, who is not yet cured."

" Very good ... I understand . . . dysentery. Listen,
Marie! I believe that you would give Dr. Dufay great pleas-
ure if you were to go to see his friend, the military man, so that
you might bring back with you some news of him."

" Oh, it is too far! It would be a long trip! "

" Never mind ! Leave at once. We will wait for you."

(After a long silence.) " I cannot continue my journey.
. . . There is water, a great deal of water."

"And you cannot cross the bridge?"

" But there is no bridge! "

" There is perhaps a boat that will take you across, as be-
tween Onzain and Chaumont."

(The Chaumont bridge over the Loire had not then been
built.)

"Boats . . . yes; but this Loire frightens me ... a real
flood!"

" Go on. Take courage and embark."

(A prolonged silence, agitation, pallor of the face, a little
nausea.)

" Will you soon arrive ? "

" I have arrived ; but I have been very tired, and I do not
see any one on shore."

" Disembark, and you will find some one."

" Voila, voila! I see many people . . . nothing but women
in white. But, no! On the contrary, they all have beards."

" All right ! Go up to them and ask them to show you
where you will find the military man."

(After a silence.) "They do not speak as we do. I have
had to wait until they called a little boy with red trousers, who
has been able to understand me. He has conducted me him-
self, and with very quick steps, because we walk in the sand."

" And the military man? "



CLAIRVOYANCE 245

" There he is. He has on red trousers and an officer's cap.
But he looks ill, and is thin! "

" Does he tell you what caused his illness? "

" Yes; he shows me his bed — three planks upon some stakes,
above damp sand."

" All right. Thank you. Tell him to go to the hospital,
where he will have a better bed, and you return to Blois."

I then asked my confrere to open the letter and read it. And
he was not the least satisfied among those in the salon ; for the
success of the seance had surpassed all his expectations.

Dr. Dufay had a new proof of the clairvoyant pow-
ers of this young somnambulist a few days later. He
says:

Marie, in a state of natural somnambulism, had put her mis-
tress's jewels out of their customary place, and had been accused
of stealing them. I called at the prison in Blois, where she was
detained, and, by inducing her into artificial somnambulism,
awakened her memory and thus proved her innocence; but,
because of judiciary formalities, she was not immediately per-
mitted to leave the prison.

Early on the following day I was called to investigate a sui-
cide which had taken place. A prisoner, accused of murder,
had strangled himself with his necktie, by attaching one end of
it to the foot of his bed, which was fastened to the floor. Lying
flat on his stomach, on the floor of the cell, he had had the
courage to push himself backward with his hands until the slip-
knot of the tie had produced the strangulation. The body was
already cold when I arrived, simultaneously with the attorney
and the magistrate.

The attorney, to whom the magistrate had related the scene
with the somnambulist the preceding day, wished to see Marie.
I then suggested that I question this young girl about the crim-



246 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

inal who had taken justice into his own hands; and the magis-
trate accepted my proposition eagerly. Accordingly, I cut off
a small piece of the necktie, and wrapped it in several sheets of
paper, which I tied up securely.

Arriving at the women's quarters, we went to the dormitories,
and asked the woman in charge to let us use her room.

I then, without speaking a single word to Marie, beckoned
her to follow us. After putting her to sleep by a simple appli-
cation of the hand against her forehead, I took from my pocket
the package I had prepared, and put it into her hands. In-
stantly, she jumped out of her chair, and threw the package
away from her with horror, crying angrily that she did not want
" to touch that."

Now, it is well known that in prisons, suicides are kept secret
as long as possible. Nothing had been said in the prison, about
the suicide of the criminal, even the attendant being ignorant
of it.

" What do you think this package contains? " I asked Marie,
when she had calmed somewhat.

" It is something that has been used to kill a man ! "

"A knife, perhaps? Or a pistol?"

" No, no! A cord ... I see. ... It is a necktie ... he
has hanged himself. But tell that man who is behind me to sit
down, for he is trembling so much that his legs cannot support
him." (It was the magistrate, who was so strongly affected by
what he was witnessing that, actually, he was trembling vio-
lently.)

" Can you tell me where this has taken place ? "

" Right here . . . you know very well. It is a pris-
oner . . ."

" And why was he in prison ? "

" For having killed a man who had asked him to get into
his cart."

"How did he kill him?"

" With a goueU"



CLAIRVOYANCE 247

Gouet is the name of a sort of hatchet, with a short handle,
and a broad and long blade curved at the end like the beak of
a parrakeet. It is an instrument in common use in the country,
especially by coopers and woodcutters. And it was, actually, a
gouet that I had mentioned in my medico-legal report as being
probably the weapon with which the murder had been com-
mitted.

Up to this point Marie's answers had told us nothing that we
did not already know. But just then the magistrate drew me
aside and whispered in my ear that the gouet had not been
found.

" And what has he done with his gouetf " I asked the subject.

"What has he done? . . . Listen! . . . He has thrown it
into a pool. ... I see it very clearly at the bottom of the
water."

And she indicated the location of this pool exactly enough
to enable the authorities to go to it that same day, accompanied
by the chief of police, and to find the instrument of the crime.
We did not know of this result until that evening; but already
the skepticism of the magistrates was greatly shaken.

To satisfy their curiosity, I asked the woman in charge of
the prisoners to borrow from them some small articles that
belonged intimately to them, such as a ring, an earring, etc.,
and tie them up into little packages, entirely disguising the
nature and shape of the article. Marie told us exactly what
had caused the imprisonment of each of the women to whom the
objects belonged." 2

Second sight is a phenomenon so extraordinary,
which so violently shakes all admitted beliefs, that I
may be pardoned if I cite many examples.

2 In the same issue of the Revue philosophique appears an article
by the director of the Normal School of Gueret, upon a young student
of his school who presented marked phenomena of clairvoyance during
periods of natural somnambulism.



248 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

Here is one that has been told to me recently, by the
man who experimented, and who, at my request, has
written down the incident. He is Mr. Jean B., school-
master in one of the principal schools of Perpignan. I
shall give his version without changing anything except
the proper names, of which I shall give only the initials.

In the month of August, 1892, when I was schoolmaster at
Ceret, a professional hypnotist gave a performance of hypnotism
in a cafe of that village. The subject was a young boy of
eighteen, Raymond S., employed in the barber-shop of Antoine R.

A few days afterward, when I went to this shop for a shave,
the conversation turned upon the experiments to which young
Raymond had been submitted. He then suggested that I put
him to sleep. We were all alone, his employer being away on
military duty for a period of thirteen days at Perpignan.

I did as the boy requested, and I had the satisfaction of suc-
ceeding — a satisfaction all the greater because it was th* first
time I had ever tried to put any one to sleep. Young Raymond
was, however, a remarkable subject, gifted with extreme sensi-
bility and suggestibility. I had no trouble in repeating with
him all the experiments which I had seen the professional
hypnotist make.

I went then very often to the barber-shop, for I was en-
thusiastic about these experiments.

One day it occurred to me to try the phenomenon of second
sight. I had read articles about it, but they had left me very
skeptical. It was on a Thursday, at about five o'clock in the
afternoon. The owner of the shop, Antoine R., had not yet
finished his period of thirteen days, having been gone only about
a week ; he was, therefore, still in Perpignan.

I told Raymond what I intended to try; and he agreed read-
ily, being as curious as myself to know the result of these experi-
ments. I at once put him to sleep, and ordered him to " see "



CLAIRVOYANCE 249

his employer. It must have been, then, about quarter past five.
After a few moments of silence, the subject said :

" I see him."

"Where?" I asked.

" He is in a cafe."

"Which one?"

" In the Cafe de la Mairie."

"What is he doing?"

" He is drinking absinthe."

"Is he all alone?"

" No ; he is with two other comrades."

" Do you know them? "

"No; I do not know them." Then, changing his mind:
" Ah, yes ! One of them I have seen here, for Saint-Ferreol."

Having exhausted the questions I had to ask him concerning
Mr. R., I told the subject to go to his home; and he said that
he saw his mother attending to household matters, his brother
sitting in the kitchen, etc. — in brief, mere banalities. I did
not insist further; for I did not know how I could verify his
statements. I woke him then, and told him all that he had said
to me. He was greatly astonished ; for he remembered nothing
of it.

A few minutes afterward, I put him to sleep again, and sent
him once more to look for his employer.

" Do you still see Mr. R.? " I asked.

" He is no longer in the cafe," the subject answered.

"Where is he, then?"

" He is walking."

" Is he still with his two comrades? "

" One of them has left him."

"Which one?"

" The one who was here for Saint-Ferreol."

" Follow them as they walk. Where are they going? "

" I do not know."

" Very well. Tell me as soon as you know."



250 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

There followed a silence of about one minute. Then, sud-
denly, the subject exclaimed:

" They are going to have supper! "

" How do you know? "

" They are entering the Boule d'Or."

I did not persist any further, but woke my subject, who
appeared to be very tired.

There now remained for me to verify the exactness of the
facts which he had revealed. I knew that Mr. R. would re-
turn two days later for a twenty-four-hour permission. I
decided to wait for him at the railway-station, and to ask him,
as diplomatically as I could, how he had spent the time between
five and six o'clock that Thursday afternoon. And that I did.
On the way, I said to him :

" Last Thursday, at about quarter past five, I saw you at
Perpignan. You were in the Cafe de la Mairie, drinking ab-
sinthe with two of your friends."

Mr. R., looking at me, said simply: "Why did you not
come over to speak to me? We should have been glad to have
you with us."

" I feared that I might intrude," I answered him. " Besides,
I was in a hurry; I did not have time."

" I am sorry. It would have pleased me to have you at least
speak to me."

" By the way," I asked him, " who were your two friends?
Has not one of them been here in Ceret? "

" My comrades were F., who comes from here, but no longer
lives here, and Charles M., a pastry-cook in Perpignan."

" Which of the two was here for Saint-Ferreol? "

" Oh, that was my friend Charles. I had invited him for the
fete."

" Then it was he who had left you when you went for supper
with F. at the Boule d'Or?"

At this question, Mr. R. looked at me in astonishment, ex-
claiming:



CLAIRVOYANCE 251

"How do you know? You followed me, then? A few
moments ago you told me that you were in a hurry ! "

I could not keep from laughing, and so was obliged to tell
him how I had obtained the information.

There was no doubt of the fact that Mr. R. had no idea
whatever of hypnotic phenomena, for he did not believe me.

" You are joking! " said he. " You are making fun of me! "

I tried very hard to convince him that I had learned in no
other way how he had passed his time ; but I could not succeed.

" Well," I then said to him, " the essential thing for me to
do now is to make you believe that what I have told you is true.
As for the rest, since you are incredulous, I shall make you see,
one of these days. I hope, then, that you will be convinced."

"Oh, if I see it, I shall believe it," he replied; and we
separated.

The following Saturday, Mr. R. returned definitely to Ceret,
his term of thirteen days having expired. When I went to his
shop that day, he himself reminded me of my promise, and we
made an appointment for Monday evening, after eight o'clock.

I was careful not to miss the appointment. At eight o'clock
I arrived at the barber-shop, and found, besides himself and
his employee Raymond, three other persons.

I put Raymond to sleep, and made him carry out different
suggestions, to the astonishment of the assistants, who had
never witnessed anything of the sort. Then I woke him.

In the meantime, Madame R. appeared in the doorway of
the shop. She stood for a moment, amazed, and then, address-
ing her husband, without coming farther into the room, she
said:

" Antoine, you know where I am going."

And without another word she left us.

Then an inspiration came to me.

" Does Raymond know where your wife is going ? " I asked
Mr. R. " Or what she is going to do ? "



2^2 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

" Certainly not. He knows nothing about it, for it is a
matter between my wife and myself."

" Very well," I said to him then ; " if your employee tells
you where your wife is going and what she intends to do, will
you believe that he was able to tell me what you did at Per-
pignan ? "

" Oh, then I shall no longer doubt you."

I put the subject to sleep immediately, and made him sit in
an armchair.

" Follow Madame R.," I ordered him. " Do you see her? "

" I see her. She is going down the Rue Saint-Ferreol."

" Good! Follow her. Tell me what she does."

After an instant's silence, he said : " She has stopped."

"Where?" I asked.

" At the foot of the street."

"What is she doing?"

" She is speaking."

"With whom?"

" With a woman."

" Do you know this woman ? "

"No; I do not know her."

" Do you not know, then, what her occupation is? "

" Yes. She sells wine."

" And where does she live? "

" On the left-hand side, in going down."

Then the idea came to me, since he saw the two women talk-
ing, to make him understand what they were saying.

" Very well," I said to him. " Since they are talking, listen
to what they are saying, and repeat it to me."

" I cannot hear them," he replied.

" Listen ! " I insisted. " You will hear."

" I hear nothing! " he repeated, this time raising his voice,
and with a note of irritation.

" I will you to hear ! " I ordered.

Immediately, the subject's face changed expression. We saw



CLAIRVOYANCE 253

that a violent effort of his will was being made, the veins on
his forehead swelled up; then, suddenly, with his whole body
tense, in a strange, jerking voice, he uttered these two words:

"Argent . . . Espagne!" ("Money . . . Spain!")

At that he dropped back in the chair, as if utterly exhausted.

I woke him immediately, a little frightened; and as he re-
mained as if prostrated, I had to moisten his temples with a
towel — something I had never had to do before.

In the meantime, Madame R. returned, and came into the
shop. I went to her immediately, before any one had a chance
to speak a word to her.

" Madame," I said, " is it true that you have just come from
the foot of the Rue Saint-Ferreol, where you found a wine
merchant with whom you have talked — of money . . .
Spain. . . ."

Madame R. smiled, and explained to me at once:

"Yes; I have just been with Madame T. As I know that
her husband must go to Spain this week, I went to ask him if
he would take some Spanish coins that I have at home."

(The circulation of Spanish copper money had for some time
been prohibited in the department of the Pyrenees-Orientales,
which was literally flooded with it.)

Telepathy, so thoroughly and patiently studied by
the English Society for Psychical Research, has cer-
tainly an affinity with all the preceding phenomena, and
notably with second sight, from which it differs, how-
ever, in two main characteristics : ( 1 ) It is always
produced spontaneously; while second sight is nearly
always provoked by an experimenter. (2) It empha-
sizes rather the action of the object perceived; while
second sight causes us to consider rather the knowl-
edge manifested by the subject who perceives it. It
seems that in telepathy the object goes to find the seer;



254 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FUTURE

while in second sight the seer goes to find the object.
But it can well be understood that in many cases the
shade of difference between telepathy and second sight
is hard to perceive.

Memory, or at least knowledge of the past, can also
assume a supernormal appearance. The name psy-
chometry has been given, wholly improperly, to this
faculty which certain mediums possess of retracing a
sometimes long series of past events, of which they
have no personal knowledge. This may be done in
the presence of the individuals whom the events con-
cern in a more or less direct way; or it may be at the
contact of objects having played some role in the events.
Part of these effects may, it seems, be linked to divina-
tion of thought, whenever the medium can read in the
memory of the individuals, where the recollection of
the events is retained in a latent state. But the case
would appear entirely different, and comparable rather
to a sort of second sight into space or temporal telep-
athy, when the medium, under the sole influence of an
object, or of the place in which he may be, is mentally
transported into the past and takes part in events which
happened long before. This was the experience of
two English women who, visiting Versailles in 1901,
" saw " the Petit Trianon as it was in the time of
Marie- Antoinette.

The future appears undetermined to us, at least so


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