Emilie Poulsson.

In the child's world; morning talks and stories for kindergartens, primary schools and homes online

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roundings, a storm set in. All day the sky was dull and dark
with clouds, and at night there was not a star to be seen. Linda
was turning away from the window in disappointment when she
heard a rattling sound outside, and a strong light flashed into
the room. Looking out again, Linda saw a man right at the
side of the house and on the level with her window, and the light
came from a lamp which was fastened to the house, and which
he had just lighted.

In a moment he was down on the sidewalk and hurrvinff across


tlie Street with liis little hulder on his shoulder. Linda looked
after him with great interest. She could see only a little way
into the darkness of the stormy night, but soon another light
flickered through the mist, half-way up the block, on the other
side of the street. Linda ran to the window in the next room,
from which she could see farther; — yes! there was another light
beyond, and there, still anotherl '' motherl Isn't it beauti-
ful? See the lights I Did you know there were lamps in the
street? And mother, see how light the lamp outside makes my
room I I shall not need any other light to go to bed by. Are they
lighted every night, mother? *' '• Xot in this city, ''answered her
mother. •' Here they are only lighted on stormy nights, and
nights when there is "'no moon," as we say — that is, when we
cannot see the moon.

The next night was also stormy and Linda was (juite ready to
go early up stairs, to see the street lamps lighted.

Soon she saw a light far down the street, — then another
nearer, — and yesi that was the rattle of the ladder against the
liouse; and there, suddenly, was the lamplighter himself, right
beside her window again! Linda clapped her hands and laughed
outright, and what do you think? The lamplighter looked up
at the window and smiled at her.

This was the beginning of an acquaintance. Linda called him
her lami)lighter, and Avas always on the watch for him on dark
nights. She had many questions to ask him about the city lights;
and from what he told her of their number, and from noticing
herself how many street lamps there were everywhere about,
Linda began to see what a great work it was to light a whole
city. She did not forget the moon and stars, though, even when
she did not see them. She would look from the street lamps
up to the clouded sky, realizing more and more the power and
beauty of the far-off heavenly lights — the millions of sparkling
stars, and the wondrous moon which, with its glorious, silvery
radiance, could light not only the whole city as no lamps could,
but sea and land far and wide besides.

Emilie Poulsson.


On this and the following subjects of Wool, Cotton, Linen and Silk, the
suggestions to the teacher and "The Talks" are combined.

(Sing some of the Tnide Songs, and then ask the children
what kinds of work their fathers do. Let each trade be repre-
sented by a child, and by one whose father works at that trade,
as far as possible. Unless in the region of silk, cotton or woolen
mills, the weaver will usually not be mentioned by the children.
To bring out the necessity of his work, the teacher and the other
children play that they need new clothes, and ask each of the
tradesmen in turn to make some cloth. Each tradesnum tells
what he can do, but owns that he cannot make cloth.)

Just think! witli all these workmen there is not one who can
make cloth for us I What shall we do? Some one must have
made the cloth for all these clothes we have I Let us see if we
can find out how it is made. (Take coarse material of any kind —
cloth, toweling, flannel — and let the children ravel out some, and
discover that it is made of threads. Now how are these threads
put together? If the children do not find out from the cloth
that the threads are woven, a coarse piece of
ingrain carpet will show it very plainly. After
seeing the "under and over" in a coarse fabric,
the children should be shown that the finer
fabrics are made of woven threads, too.) All
the cloth from wliich clothes are made has Ijeen
woven of some kind of thread. Can you guess the name of the
workman who weaves the threads together?

Did you notice that the threads in the cloth run two ways —
some up and down, and some left und riglit? Do you see how
that is like a paper mat with the st:ri[)s woven through it? (The
warp and woof, the separation of Uie alternate threads, and the
way the shuttle, carrying the thread, is passed through, and this

-408 IN THE child's world.

thread pushed down, can all be shown very well with a large
weaving mat — one with narrowest strips is best.

Let the children name all the articles they can upon which the
weaver has worked, and lead them to notice that heavy carpets
and finest linens and silks are the products of the loom.)

As for the threads which the weaver uses — " that \s. another
storv. "'


Description of Loom _ . . . _ Encyclop(vdia

Silas Warner, - . . . . . _ George Eliot

The Betrothed, . _ . . . w_ Scott

A New England Girlhood, - - - Lucy Larcom

Spipning "Wheel Song, - - - - - J. F. Waller

Sheep Shearing (from " The Seasons ■■ — Spring), - Thomson

The Unused Loom (" New Lights on Old Paths "), - Charles Foster
The Emperor's New Clothes. - - Hans Christian Andersen

The Weaver's Song, - - - - - B.* W. Proctor
My Sunflower's Fan, - - - - - " St. Nicholas,'' 1879


New Work for Pense ("Each and All"), - - - Jane Andrews
What Happened to Muslin ("Stories for Kindergarten

and Home " ).
Cloth and Paper Story (" Kindergarten Stories and

Morning Talks"'), - - . - . S. E. Wiltse



''Annie,"' said a lady to a little girl who was visiting her,
'' would you like to go wuth me to the weaver's to-day? "

''Oh, yes!'' said Annie, " I would like it very much. I never
saw a weaver at work."

So they set out. As they were walking along, the lady told
Annie the story of " John's Trousers," so that by the time they
reached the house of Mrs. James, the weaver, Annie knew not

iisr THE child's world. 40C

only where the wool came from, but also what had to be done
to it before it was ready for weaving. N'ow, there are carding
mills and cloth mills in which the carding and spinning and
weaving are done by machinery; but the weaver whom Annie
was going to see, wove in the same way that John's mother and
sisters did when they made his trousers.

The story had taken so much time that they reached the
weaver^s house soon after it was ended.

" Good morning, Mrs. James," said the lady; ■' I have brought
a little friend to see you weave, if you have no objection."'

'"No, indeed," said Mrs. James; "I shall be very glad to
show her how the work is done. Have you ever seen a person
weave, little one?''

''Only in kindergarten," replied Annie. "'We weave there;
but we weave mats with paper, or leather, or flannel list, or
braid, or tape. I never saw any one weave cloth or carpet."'

'' I never saw any kindergarten weaving," said Mrs James,
'*but I can show you how my loom works. The warp, as we
call the yarn that is stretched on this frame, is first wound
around that great beam overhead and then drawn tightly on the
loom. We always measure three or four yards more than we
want for a piece of cloth because some of the length is taken up
in the weaving."

''Why, there are two sets of threads," said xlnnie.

" Yes; half of the threads go through one set of loops and half
through the other," said Mrs. James.

"Oh! I see,'^ said Annie; " and that thing that is full of yarn
is your shuttle, is n't it? '"

"Yes. Now see what happens when I press down one of
these treadles with my right foot,'" said Mrs James.

" Oh!" exclaimed Annie quickly, "half the threads are lifted
up, and you throw the shuttle with your right hand so that it
goes under those threads and over the others. That is like our
weaving — only we have to lift up our strips one at a time, instead
of all together. Now do you press down the other treadle with
your left foot?'"

" Not yet; the cloth would be too open if I did not draw the
' strip,' as you call it, close up to the last one I put in. See!


I pull this bar toward me and it pushes the strip closely in place.
In carpet weaving it is really a strip that is put through.*'

''We push our strips up close, too/' said Annie, '' but we use
our fingers instead of a bar."

" That would do very well for paper weaving," assented Mrs.
James, ''but not for making cloth or carpets."

" No," said Annie, " I see that; for you pulled the bar very
hard and used more strength than you could with your hands
alone. What comes next?"

" I press down the other treadle with my left foot, as you
said, and throw the shuttle with my left hand," said Mrs.
James; " then, the threads that the shuttle went over before are
lifted up, so that the shuttle can pass under them this time."

"And then you pull up the bar again, don't you?" asked

"■ Yes," answered Mrs. James. "And now I will show you
how much I can do in ten minutes. I have been working slowly
so that you might see how the work was done, but now you
shall see me rmlhj work I ''

Then Mrs. James made the shuttle fairly fly back and forth
fur awhile, and Annie watched her with wonder, making her
own little feet and hands go just as Mrs. James did hers, though
not so fast.

After that Annie and her friend thanked Mrs. James for all
her kindness and said " Good-bye."

Josephine Jarvis.

Cubden, 111.


{A True Story.)

More than a hundred years ago our country was at war with
another country called England, thousands of miles away. One
morning, just after the war h;id begun, John told his mother
that the troops were out and that he must join them early the
next day.

'• What shall we do?" exclaimed the patriotic mother: "John
must have a new pair of trousers, and we have n't a bit of cloth
in the house!"

A Weaveu at HEit Loom.

41'^ TX TlIK child's would.

" Xor any yarn, either! " added Deborah, " I used the last in
weaving the cloth for Charlie's jacket,"

'' Something must be done,"said the mother. " Perhaps we can
get the trousers done, even if Ave have to spin and Aveave them.
Let us try our very best! ''

" Charlie and I will cut the wool,'' said Mary, the youngest girl.

'•'I am afraid you cannot catch the sheep," said tiie mother.
'•' They are in the pasture."

"We'll take some salt," said Mary. "We can coax them
with that."

When they reached the pasture, Mary pointed out a black sheep
and told Charlie to hold the salt toward it. Charlie did so and
the sheep came running to him at once. While the sheep was
licking the salt, Charlie put his arm around its neck and held it
still while Mary cut oflf some of its wool with the shears. Then
they caught a white sheep and sheared some of its wool in the
same way. With this black and white wool in the basket which
she carried, Kate ran back to the house so that her mother and
Deborah might begin carding it at once. Mary and Charlie kept
on with their shearing — first a black sheep and then a white one —
until plenty of wool had been cut.

After the wool is cut from the sheep, it is usually waslied and
dried; but now there was no time to spare for that process.
The cards used were blocks of wood nearly square, with a handle
and slanting iron teeth. The wool was combed by these cards
until it was made into soft, long rolls, when it was ready
for spinning.

After Kate and Mary came back from the shearing, they said
they would do the carding so that their mother and Deborah
could commence to spin. They owned two pairs of cards, and
had borrowed an extra spinning wheel from a neighbor.

As soon as yarn enough was spun the loom was jjrepared, and
the weaving of the cloth begun. They all took turns at the
loom, and, when the cloth was made, all helped in the sewing ;
so that by working all night the trousers were finished in good
season, and put in the bundle which John's mother packed for
him the next morning.
Cohden, III. Josephine Jakvis.


(A picture of sheep, some wool in its natural state, worsteds
colored and white, very coarse white flannel, other woolen goods,
the eraser, the worsted balls, and cotton and silk for contrast,
would be a good equipment of objects for this talk. Like the
cow, the sheep is less familiar to our city children than its pro-
ducts, so we take the products as the starting point.

Exercise the sense of touch, distinguishing wool by its rough-
ness. Let the children find out which articles of their clothing
are of wool.) At what season do we wear woolen clothes most?
AVhy? They keep us warmer. Yes, the heat of our bodies is
kept in better by woolen clothing than by any other. Can you
tliink of other things which are made of wool? Blankets,
carpets, etc.

(Fringe out the coarse flannel to show the threads of which it
is woven, and untwist the threads to show the hair-like fibers.
The children will see the similarity to the '' raw wool " better
with undyed material; afterwards speak of the dyeing. I have
seen a good color exercise in this connection, the teacher show-
ing first white worsted, then worsted of some color, and asking
what must have been the color of the dye used.

Having traced the woolen clothes, etc., back to the wool, ask
where the wool grew. Descrilie the washing and shearing of the
sheep, not forgetting to tell the children that the sheep would
shed much of the wool anywiiy and tire more comfortable Avitb-
out it for the summer season.)

414 IN lUK (IJll.D's WOItl.I).


{From the German.)

There lived one time u poor widow who had seven children,
and all must eat; so the poor mother had to go out to work all
day, and onl}' in the winter evenings could she spin and weave
shirts for her children, that they might not go naked. Each
child had but one shirt, and when the largest had outgrown his,
it went to the next in size. 80 it happened that the shirt that
came to the youngest was always so thin that the sun shone
through it.

The youngest child M'as a happy little fellow four years old,
who had a wondrous love for animals and flowers. Whenever
he saw a lamb he ran to find fragrant leaves to feed it; when he
found a young bird that had fallen from the nest he carried it
home and fed it until it was grown, then let it fly away. He
was fond of the spiders, too, and when he found one in the
house he would carry it out of doors, saying: ''This little
creature shall also live."' But one time his little shirt had be-
come so thin and old that it fell from his body, and as it was
summer and his mother must go to her day's work, she could not
make him another. So he ran about just as the dear God had
made him.

One day as he was hunting for berries in the forest, he met a
Lamb which looked kindly at him and said: "Where is your
little shirt?" The little boy answered sadly, ''I have none and
my mother cannot make me one till next winter. Bat no, the
new one will be for my oldest sister and mine will be an old one.
Oh, if I could only once have a new shirt I" Then the Lamb
said: " I am sorry for you, I will give you my wool and you can
have a new shirt made of it."' So the lamb pulled ail his wool
off and gave it to the little boy.

As he now passed by a thorn bush with his wool, the Bush
called, "What are you carrying there?" "Wool," said the
little one, "to make me a shirt." "Give it to me." said the

Shearing the Sheep.


410 IN THE child's would.

Thorn Busli, '' 1 will card it for you." The boy gave liis wool to
the bush, which passed its thorny branches to and fro and
carded the wool most beautifully. "Carry it carefully/" cried
the Bush, " so that you do not spoil it."

So he carried the soft rolls carefully along till he saw the web
of a spider, and the Spider sat in the middle of it and called to
him. '• Give me your Avool, little one. I will spin the threads
and weave them. I see already how it is." Then the spider
began and worked busily with his little feet, and s]nni and wove
the finest piece of cloth yon ever saw, and gave it to the child,
who trotted merrily along with it till he came to a brook, and
there sat a great Crab which called out: " AVhere so fast? What
are you carrying there?'* "^ Cloth," said the little boy, ''for
a new shirt." '' Then you come to the right one," said the Crab.
" Let me take your cloth." And he took it and with his great
shears he cut out a little shirt very nicely. '' There, little one,"
he said, "all that remains to be done is to have it sewed."

The boy took it and went on sadh^, for he was afraid that even
then he could not have his new shirt till winter, when his
mother would have time to sew. But pretty soon he saw a little
bird sitting on a bush, and the Bird twittered, "Wait little one,
let me make your shirt." So the bird took a "long thread and
flew back and forth, working with its little beak, till the shirt
was sewed together. "Now," said the Bird, "you have as nice
a shirt as one could wish."

And the little boy put it on and ran happily home to show it
to his sisters and brothers, and they all said they had never seen
a nicer one.

Translated by Louise Stuart.

The ''Kindergarten Mayaziney


Ever and ever so long iigo, when grandma was only little
Molly Ray, she was one day going through the sheep pasture,
when she saw a wee lamb lying under a tree, too weak even to
cry " baa-a."

IX THE child's world. 417

"Oh! you poor little thing,'' she cried, ''where is your
mother? " and then she took it up in her arms and looked about
the field to see whether the mother-sheep would not come to
her; but the sheep all went on eating grass Just as if nothing had
happened; so grandma, not knowing what else to do, walked on
slowly toward the house with the little wee lamb wrapped snugly
in her blue checkered apron. On the way she met her brother
Ned, and showed him what she had found.

''It's a poor little stray," he said; "you take it up to the
house, Molly, and give it some warm milk, and maybe it will
come to life again — it's almost gone, but mother will know what
to do." So grandma trudged back to the house as fast as she-
could go.

" See, mamma, see! "' she cried, as she burst into the kitchen
where her mother was at work; "some bad mamma-slieep has
gone off and left her lammie, and it's so hungry it can't walk! "

Great-grandmamma was, no doubt, used to this sort of thing,
for she at once set aside her work and brought au old basket
from the shed, and with some soft flannel made a warm bed for
the lamb; then, while grandnui tucked it snugly in, she warmed
some milk which the half-starved creature sucked greedily from
her finger; after eating, it grew stronger and stood up, giving a
plaintive "' baa-a "' that went straight to grandma's heart.

"' You dear little thing! " she cried, " you have n't any really
true mamma now; but I will be a mamma to you, and will love
you and take care of you just as nice^you '11 see! "

And when she asked her father about it, he said yes, that the
lamb should be hers, and when it grew into a big sheep she
should have all the wool for her winter coats and stockings.
But grandma did not care about that part of it; she only thought
of it as it was then — a dear, woolly little playmate, all her own —
and she loved it so well and was so gentle with it that it soon
learned to love her, and would come at her call and follow her
all about the farm; and she took such good care of it that it
grew very fast, and its coat became so soft and fine that the birds
loved to come and carry off bits of it to line their nests with.

One warm spring day, grandma's father said to her: "The
sheep are to be sheared to-day, Molly, and you had better see-



that your Uiiiib is there, for it is (juite time that she was rid of
her winter coat."

Molly did not quite like the idea of her pet losing its snowy
wool, hut she knew that hot summer days were coming, when
the lamb would be much more comfortable without it; and then
the men were always gentle and never hurt the sheep.

So after breakfast grandma called her lamb, which was now
almost as large as a sheep, and they went out to the pasture and
down to a stream, Avhere she found that the sheep had all been
driven into a little pen beside the water, from which the men
took them, one by one, and washed and cleaned their shaggy
coats in the water: — for they had l)ecome quite gray, and were all
tangled and burry — then they took a great i)airof shears and cut
off all the wool.

(irundma's lamlj had a very short bath, for its wool was already
quite clean, and it did not mind having its wool cut very much,
cither, which was a great relief to grandma; and when it was all
olf she gathered it up in her apron and showed it to her lamb,

telling it that the wool that had kept
it warm the past winter would keep her
warm next winter. And so it was, for
grandma's mamma took it to her spin-
ning room one day, and after combing
it out very carefully, grandma Avatched
her make it into long rolls which she
hung across the great spinning wheel;
then she took one in her liand and held
it close to the spindle, turning the big
wheel with her hand. Whirr I went the
wheel round and round, turning roll after roll into nice, fine
Avoolen yarn; then, winding it up on the spindle, her mamma
brought out a buzzy little reel that wound it into great skeins,
and there it was ready to make into balls of soft stocking yarn.
How soft and pretty it wasi And whenever grandma sat down
to knit, as she did in the long winter evenings, she thought of
her dear little lamb in the warm fold, and was so glad she had
found it in time that cold spring morning.

iStories for the Kindergarten and tlie Home.

1 .V 'III i; ciiiLi/s woKLi). 419


Mary had a little lamb,

Which grew to be a sheep;
The wool upon its back became

Too thick and warm to keep.

Then Mary's sheep did with the rest

Down to the brookside go,
And soon again it well could boast
"A fleece as white as snow.''

The shearer came, and with his shears

Cut oft' the heavy wool.
Till every sheep was shorn at last

And all the bags were full.

The wool that came from Mary's sheep

Was spun and woven, dears,
And made into a nice Avarm coat

That Mary wore for years I

Emilie Poulsson.


(Show specimens of calico and
other cotton goods. Contrast with
woolen and let the children find
whether their dresses, aprons, etc.,
are cotton or woolen.)

Who made the cotton cloth?
What kind of threads did the
weaver use? (Ravel enough cloth
for the children to distinguish that
the threads are cotton.) Cotton
cloth is made of cotton threads,
just as woolen cloth is made of
woolen threads.

What are woolen threads made of?
What do you think cotton threads
are made of? (Show cotton bat-
ting. Do not call it '^cotton wool," as that would be a
confusing term.) Where did the wool grow? Now the cot-
ton grew in a very different place. (Show the seed-pod, or
boll of the cotton plant.) Where do you think this grew?
Yes, on a plant. The soft, fluffy cotton is just the covering
which Mother Nature has wrapped about the seeds of the
cotton plant. (Describe the plant and show picture of cot-
ton field.)* Did you ever see cotton growing? It grows

* "Every year, in March or April, the seeds are planted. In a week or ten days the
plants show themselves. By the last of June they begin to bloom. In the morning,
when the blooms open, they are of a light cream color; later in the day they change
to a deep pink. They die and fall off the second day, and then the bolls begin to
form. They gi-ow very fast, and become as large as a small egg."

When the seeds are ripe, the hot sun bursts the bolls open and shows the beauti-
ful, snow-white cotton within. Then (about the middle of September) " the picking
goes on. The fields are alive with busy workers. After that the cotton must be
.packed into bales to be sent away."


only ill the warm countries. Tell me some other things which
grow in the warm countries. Yes; oranges, lemons, bananas —
all these need very hot sunshine. The cotton fields must be
a beautiful sight when the seed-jjods burst open and show
the bunches of snowy cotton. Men, women and little boys
and girls work in the hot fields picking these bunches from the

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