Emma E Walker.

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Beauty
Through
Hygiene



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Zbc Moman'0 Ijome Xibrari?

XJ

EDITED BY MRS. MARGARET E. 8ANQ8TER

A Series of Praotioal Books on Prao-
TioAL Subjects by the Best Authorities

EAOH SMALL I2MO. OLOTH. ILLUSTRATED. SLOO NET.

1-WOMEN'S WAYS OF EARNING MONEY

BY OYNTHIA WESTOVER ALDEN

PflUIDCNT-QCNCRAk OP THE INTCRNATIONAL SUNSHINI SOOIITY

2-THE MOTHERS' MANUAL

By cmelyn l. ooolidqe. m. d.

ViaiTiNO Phvsioian op the Out-Patient Department op the

Babies* Hospitau, N. Y., Eto.

3-BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

OOMMON Sense Ways to Beauty and Health

BY EMMA E. WALKER, M. D.

Member op the N. Y. Aoademy op Meoioine, Ito.

4-HOUSE AND HOME

A PRACTICAL BOOK ON HOME MANAOEMENT
BY MISS M. E. CARTER

6-THE COURTESIES

A Handbook op etiquette

BY MISS ELEANOR B. OLAPP

6-CORRECT WRITING AND SPEAKING

By miss MARY A. JORDAN

FBOnSSOB OW BNQU8H LmBATU&B, SMITH Ck>Li;.BeB

Afrs. Sangster's Series constitute the most helpful and
suggestive practical home library which has been planned.

B. S. 3Batne6 &. Company

156 Fifth Avenu* New York

ix n



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8



§
8






THE WOMAN'S HOME LIBRARY
Edited by Margaret £. Sangstbi

rr




Beauty
Through Hygiene



COMMON SENSE WAYS
TO HEALTH FOR GIRLS



By
Emma E. Walker, M. D.

Member of the
New York Academy of Medicine, etc.



ILLUSTRATED






NEW YORK



A. S. Barnes & Company



1904



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KT? I d^4r







Copyright, 1904,
Bt a. S. BARNES & CO.

September



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To my

Father and Mother

and Alice



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XJ PREFACE



XJ

The author takes this opportunity to acknowl-
edge the kindness of many friends who have
rendered much assistance in the preparation of
this little book.

Many thanks are due to Dr. R. A. Sands, Dr.
C. W. Cutler, Dr. Royal Whitman, Dr. J. C.
Edgar, Dr. W. S. Bryant, Dr. E. E. Smith, Dr.
C. W. Allen, Miss Ellery and Miss Park, for
reviewing and criticising the chapters dealing
with their specialties. Thanks are also due to
the Curtis Publishing Company for the kindly
loan of cuts and for permission to use extracts
from " Good Health Talks to Girls."

The author has not hesitated to borrow
material from many of the best and latest
authorities, and to them all she now presents her
acknowledgments.



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CONTENTS



I.


Deep Breathing


II


II.


Exercise for Healthy Girls 33


III.


Sports ....


• 43


IV.


Poise ....


. 69


V.


The Fat Girl


• 77


VI.


The Thin Girl


. 89


VII.


G>RRBCTivE Exercises


. 104


VIII.


Exercises in Housework


. 114


IX.


Massage or Passive Exercis


E 121


X.


Care of the Skin .


. 131


XI.


Complexion


. 137


XII.


Perspiration


. 155


XIII.


Constipation .


. 165


XIV.


The Periodic Illness


. 178


XV.


Bathing ....


. 185


XVI.


Care of the Hair .

7


. 204



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8 CONTENTS



CHAPTEK PAGB

XVII. Care of the Eyes^ Nose^ and

Ears 219

XVIII. Care of the Mouth and

Teeth .... 232
XIX. Care of the Hand and

Foot 246

XX. Clothing .... 264

XXI. Digestion and Diet . .271

XXII. Relaxation and Sleep . 279

XXIII. Cheerfulness . . . 288



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tJ EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION XJ

XJ

The purpose of the author, a physician who
has given much thought and study to her theme,
and whose opportunities for practical knowl-
edge have been extensive, is indicated in the
comprehensive title of this book. Dr. Walker
insists that beauty in women is to be obtained,
heightened, and held for a lifetime, through the
instrumentality of hygiene. Here is the fabled
fountain of youth, an everyday modern reality.

Not by cosmetics, or other artificial make-
shifts, by the use of doubtful remedies, or by any
means beneath the dignity of a self-respecting
woman, can beauty be achieved. Speaking
from a professional viewpoint. Dr. Walker ad-
vocates the building of tissues, the control of
nerves, and the symmetrical development of the
body, through the agency of intelligent hygiene.
She believes that every woman may have bright
eyes, a clear skin, a cool hand, a steady head,
and possess to the full the charm of unbroken
health, and a calm equipoise, if she will but obey
a few simple rules, and follow Nature's laws
with precision and forethought.

Sleep, bathing, diet, exercise, the conservation
of force, the prevention of waste, the restraint



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lo EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION

of hysterical emotion, and the cultivation of
cheerfulness are among the topics Dr. Walker
has ably treated. We are told how to have a
beautiful hand, and a beautiful foot, how to care
for every member of the body, and for the body
as a whole. The directions are simple, wo-
manly, and safe. No young girl who reads,
marks, and inwardly digests this book will be-
come vain thereby, but every girl who assimi-
lates its teachings will be more wholesome, in-
teresting, and attractive. Why part with the
woman's birthright of beauty through ignorance,
when here is a sisterly hand held out to guide
into its fair domains?

This manual has been lyritten with the direct
purpose and deliberate intention to help Ameri-
can women to a better understanding of their
physical life and endowments.

Various forms of nervous exhaustion and de-
pression menace busy women. The home-
daughter and the young girl at college, or earn-
ing her living, alike need information that only a
physician can give, on points that may affect the
entire life. This book, at once popular and
scientific, minute and delicate, appeals to all
women and should win lasting favor.

Margaret E. Sangster.



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CHAPTER ONE



DEEP BREATHING



Effects of deep breathing. Vedanta phikNophy. Efiiectt of seden-
tary life. Syihptonis of sluggish circulation. Walking.
Longerity. Week-end holiday. Summer racation.



IT is always more helpful to build up than
to criticise, and in the arrangement of this
book the constructive part is placed first.
For the most part the later chapters deal with
the correction of defects.

Of all constructive features of hygiene one
of the most important is the simple matter of
breathing.

Would you like to hear how one of the pio-
neer teachers of physical culture in this country
gained her inspiration for this work? I have
heard her story from the lips of a close friend.

Her home was in a country village, where she
taught school for her living.

She belonged to a " consiunptive " family.
She had no thought ol correct position or of
deep breathing. Her back was weak, and her



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12 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

lungs were weaker. She met with scorn any
suggestions from her family to sit up straight.

This young woman was under the constant
care of a physician, and one day he told her that
her case was hopeless; he didn't want to take
her money, for he could give her no further
help. She could live for only a short time
longer, at the best. Other physicians confirmed
this opinion.

The verdict irritated and aroused her. She
made up her mind not to die.

As she went back and forth to school every
day, she was so weak that she could take but a
few steps at a time without holding on to the
fence for support. As she crawled along slowly,
step by step, it came to her that deep breathing
was her only resource. She made desperate
efforts to straighten up and to take a deep
breath.

In telling her story, she says that no one
knows the agony she suffered in making use of
those poor, neglected muscles and contracted
lungs. But the whole force of her being was
roused, and she persevered.

In two weeks there was a remarkable change.
She could stand fairly straight, and her breath-
ing was more nearly normal,



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DEEP BREATHING 13

That was many years ago. And this woman,
who had been given up to die by her physician,
is now at the head of a large school for physical
culture in an Eastern city. She stands as a
living example of the curative power of deep
breathing.

Breath is indeed life itself.

You are probably very weary of hearing so
much about deep breathing. But have you ever
faithfully tried it? If you have, you will realize
so keenly the wonderful benefits that come from
this practice that you will feel, as we always do
when we have found a treasure, that you must
share it with someone else. You never will feel
this way until you have tried it faithfully enough
to know what a wonderful help to your health
and strength it is.

I have often felt at the end of a walk, during
which I took deep breaths of fresh air into my
lungs, that I could not go into the house. The
effects of deep breathing upon the general feel-
ing and well-being were so marked that it was
as if I had been taking some tonic which I felt
that I could not give up.

Deep breathing will start your blood dancing
vigorously through your veins. This will make
you warm, and you will be astonished to hear



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14 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

some sluggish companion complaining of the
cold.

It will take practice to make you a devotee of
deep breathing, but when you have once become
as it were addicted to the habit, you will never
give it up, and you will wonder how you ever
lived before. Deep breathing throws off a vast
number of impurities, and it takes in life itself.



Fig. I. — Improves respiration.

It adds buoyancy to your spirits and makes you
feel that you can overcome mountains of ob-
stacles. Until you try it, you will never know
how much it will add to your beauty.

I have been interested for some time in col-
lecting various articles on this subject. These



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DEEP BREATHING 15

clippings have been taken from various sources,
professional and popular. It has simply aston-
ished me, in looking over this collection of years,
to find the immense amount of material that has
been written on this subject from many stand-
points.

One writer would have one object in view,
and another a different one. The lessons they
teach are all so true, yet each one differs from
the other, with varying shades, but at the same
time all embrace the one essential truth — the
great benefit which always comes from deep
breathing.

A woman of many interests — ^indeed she is a
noted writer — is to a certain extent a student of
occultism, which has become a subject of such
general interest since the Swamis, those masters
of the Vedanta Philosophy, came among us.
She says:

" I combine the occult principle with deep
breathing, night and morning, inhaling with the
pure air all of those beautiful qualities of love,
health, wisdom, usefulness, and power for good,
cheerfulness, and opulence, — these seven covering
the whole ground of my desires, — filling the chest
and abdomen fully. In exhaling I get rid of all
the opposite qualities, which would do me an



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1 6 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

injury, such as, prejudice, weakness, folly, pov-
erty, etc. I rise on my toes while breathing in,
inhaling slowly, desiring with all of my concen-
trated power all good to come to me. I also
declare myself for beauty and symmetry in every-
thing, physical, mental, and moral. My mind
being in this attitude I must acquire that which
I reach out for.

" In the same way I repel all that is unbeau-
tiful in mind, heart, and spirit, as well as in
body. In all of the different postures which I
take, either in the early morning or during the
day, I carry out these same impressions that I
am inhaling the best and getting rid of the least
desirable qualities."

A most interesting article that has recently
appeared in one of our medical journals speaks
very clearly of the various remarkable effects
that the breathing of fresh air has upon the or-
ganism.

We all know that girls who lead a sedentary
life, whatever their occupation may be, breathe
very poorly and shallowly. Respiration is
partly suspended, owing to a nervous preoccu-
pation.

The result of this is a scanty supply of oxygen
to the brain, and this condition gradually leads



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DEEP BREATHING



to neurasthenia. All who lead an indoor life
belong to this class.

The girls who are devoted to society are al-



FiG. 2. — Shoulder-nusmg for developing the lungs.

most invariably poor breathers. They become
mentally excitable and physically weak.

An extreme emotion, such as anger or worry,



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i8 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

affects the respiration; it becomes shallow, with
consequent brain excitability, and weakened
physical endurance. If you are depressed or
nervously unbalanced, you may be certain that
there is an insufficient and irregular supply of
oxygen to the nerve centers.

In cases of extreme nervousness, where there
is no organic trouble, the best remedy consists
in two periods each day of vigorous physical
exercise which will supply so much fresh air that
the blood will become properly oxygenated.
The energy that this oxygen supplies to the
entire body finally brings quietness to the brain,
and a full return of power to the body. It pro-
motes sleep and calms all of the nerve centers.

The dark circles under the eyes with or with-
out puffiness, with which so many girls are
troubled, indicate always a certain degree of
passive congestion, that is, sluggishness of the
circulation of the vessels of the brain. When
these brain vessels are engorged, there can be no
clear brain work.

Depression of various functions is sure to fol-
low. For the condition of sluggishness seen in
so many young girls I know of nothing of more
value than the inhalation of pure air.



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DEEP BREATHING 19

WALKING

A recent writer on the means for the prolon-
gation of life, emphasizes very strongly the
value of walking.

He says that it is the most natural form of
exercise. It acts not only directly upon the.
heart, but by the action of the muscles of the
legs,' more blood flows to them and all of the
vessels carrying off the waste matter are thus
made more active.

The organs and tissues are all better nour-
ished in this way.

The entire circulation isL greatly increased by
the act of walking as well as by the more power-
ful action of the heart.

All of the abdominal organs share the im-
proved state of circulation.

The muscles themselves receive an extra
supply of nutrition, and this method is one of the
most effective and simple ones oi counteracting
the natural tendency to decay, for wasting of
the muscles is one of the first signs of old age,
and is one of the main causes of the loss of
weight in old people.

This writer goes on to say that the amount of
walking necessary to maintain health varies



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20 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

widely in different persons and under different
circumstances — from half an hour to two or
three hours a day.

Those girls who have fair health will gain
more benefit from gentle up-hill exercise than
from walking down-hill or on level ground.

Bad weather should never offer an interrup-
tion to walking. The daily walk should take
place in all kinds of weather, cold or warm,
rainy or sunny; almost anyone can become ac-
customed to every state of the weather. In
doing so, the tendency to rheumatism and
catarrh from chills is either totally overcome, or
at least much diminished.

It is very difficult for microbes to find a lodg-
ing place in those who are breathing fresh air
continually. One of the first directions given
to patients with beginning tuberculosis is to live
an outdoor life. Indeed they are often advised
to sleep in a tent. This element of the treat-
ment seems to bring more success in this disease
than any other.

I remember being impressed by the sim-
plicity of the treatment recommended for anae-
mia by one of our greatest masters of med-
icine: fresh air and sunshine, good food and
iron.



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DEEP BREATHING 21

From chronic catarrh, too, it is said that a
patient can " walk away." It has been observed
by ofScers in the army that while on the march
coughs and " colds " disappear, only to return
after the soldiers take up life in the barracks
again.

An interesting explanation has been given of
the old " miracle " of the King's Touch for
" scrofula." Although these patients were
wretchedly fed and miserably dressed they were
often obliged to walk several hundred miles, and
this is said to account for the cures. To be
sure, the king got all the credit, but I fear that
from our modern point of view of hygiene we
should not have cared to touch him with a ten-
foot pole.

The great General Moltke, when asked by
what means he had maintained his health and
activity, replied : "By great moderation in all
things; by regular outdoor exercise in ail
weathers, good and bad; never a whole day at
home." He was at that time in his ninetieth
year.

I cannot resist speaking a little further along
the lines on which this brilliant author writes.
He discusses the week-end holiday and the sum-
mer holiday, emphasizing first the value of tak-



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22 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

ing a day once a week for more prolonged exer-
cise — from four to six hours.

If you live in the city it would be especially
beneficial to take this day in the country, where
you will get purer air and change of scene.

The benefit of this long walk will be increased
if you take only a very small quantity of food
and fluid for the trip — a few biscuits, an apple
or an orange.

After you come home you will generally find,
on weighing yourself, that you have lost several
pounds. This loss consists almost wholly of
water which has been passed off through the
skin, the lungs, and the kidneys. In this way
more waste matter is gotten rid of and the
slightly starved tissues are in condition to take
up more new material. You will generally re-
gain within two or three days the weight you
lost.

Martin Luther's motto was " Rast' ich so rost'
ich." (If I rest I rust.) Even without exercise, .
life in the open air increases the power of re-
sistance.

One of the great advantages of this tramp
in the country is exposure to the open air; it
strengthens the nervous system and the skin ; the
digestive system, and indeed the whole organism.



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DEEP BREATHING 23

It makes you cheerful, it increases your resist-
ance to the influences of the weather, and the
tendency to chills and other morbid affections is
decreased. This power of resistance is one of
the great factors of longevity.

To get the most out of your walk, see to it
that your chest is high, the legs moving freely
from the hips in a long, swinging step. The
arms should hang easily, moving slightly, but
not swinging. With head up, and inhaling long
deep breaths you are in the best possible condi-
tion for your tramp. A noted traveler is au-
thority for the statement " that the accomplished
pedestrian is the only independent traveler."
As to the summer holiday, it is even more bene-
ficial than the week-end exercise. It is well to
take once or twice a year a walking or climbing
trip of from three to four weeks in moun-
tainous or hilly country, spending from three
to six, or sometimes even eight hours in walk-
ing or climbing nearly every day in the
week.

Such a trip absolutely makes one over. Every
organ of the body is benefited. The power for
mental work is increased; worry disappears.
This same writer has observed that the hair of
the head and beard which was commencing to



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24 BEAUTY THROUGH HYGIENE

turn gray, resumed more or less the original
color after a climbing trip of this kind.

Probably the greatest factor in the benefit
that comes from these trips is the deep inspira-
tions which are necessary in walking and
climbing. People who desire long life should
make a practice of taking forced respiratory
exercises.

Hill climbing is an exercise of endurance.
Although it allows opportunity for great exer-
tion, there is not the corresponding degree of
fatigue. There is a rhythmical succession of
exercise and rest in climbing.

This exercise is splendid for the heart and the
lungs, indeed, all of the vital organs are stimu-
lated to extra exertion.

Before you take a mountain trip it is well to
make some preparation for it. You can easily
do this by walking up and down an inclined
board which a girl can arrange in the yard
without any trouble. Or you can walk up and
downstairs, or up and down low hills.

It is better to begin gradually, and, as you try
steeper hills, take fewer and shorter steps. Try
first a gentle ascent, then increase until you can
climb a steep hill with little trouble. Do not
make any sudden change from a slow to a rapid



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DEEP BREATHING 25

walk. Your training must all be done gradu-
ally.

The best time in the day for a mountain climb
is the early morning; then you can spend the
afternoon quietly. In walking up a hill the
feet should be turned out, while in walking
down they should be parallel or turned slightly
inward. The exercise in climbing a hill is
much greater than in the descent, when the exer-
tion is borne chiefly by certain of the knee
muscles.

Climbing develops the thighs and calves. It is
fine for obesity, for it brings about rapid
changes of materials in the body, the fat espe-
cially being consumed.

The skin and kidneys are stimulated to greater
exertion, so that more waste material is thrown
off.

The lungs, too, do harder work and take in
more oxygen.

The heart pumps faster, and its muscles are
strengthened. The general circulation is
quickened and stimulated.


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