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INTER-RACIAL
PROBLEMS



EDITED BY






*' G. SPILLER




LONDON

P. S. KING & SON
ORCHARD HOUSE, WESTMINSTER

BOSTON, U.S.A.

THE WORLD'S PEACE FOUNDATION

29*, BEACON STREET




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



N3QOO 'M 'O



PAPERS ON INTER-RACIAL PROBLEMS



[/ English only]
A RECORD OF THE PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

FIRST UNIVERSAL RACES CONGRESS

HELD AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
JULY 26 TO 29, 1911

LONDON

P. S. KING & SON
1911



PAPERS

ON

INTER-RACIAL
PROBLEMS

COMMUNICATED TO THE

FIRST UNIVERSAL RACES CONGRESS,/.^ A

HELD AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

JULY 26-29, 1911

EDITED, FOR THE CONGRESS EXECUTIVE, BY

G. SPILLER



HON. ORGANISER OF THE CONGRESS




LONDON

P. S. KING & SON
ORCHARD HOUSE, WESTMINSTER

BOSTON, U.S.A.

THE WORLD'S PEACE FOUNDATION

29V BEACON STREET

I9II



c /1 Jl



"^ r



C<?/ ouvrage est public simultaniment en franfats
et en anglais par MESSRS. P. S. KING & SON.



.2'CUJ'OW >THT



PREFACE

THE object of the Congress is "to discuss, in the light of
science and the modern conscience, the general relations
subsisting between the peoples of the West and those of
the East, between so-called white and so-called coloured
peoples, with a view to encouraging between them a fuller
understanding, the most friendly feelings, and a heartier
co-operation."

The writers of papers were requested to keep in view
the spirit of this object ; but were otherwise not supplied
with, or bound by, any instructions. Accordingly, it would
have been natural to find the widest differences of opinion
expressed in the following contributions. Singular to state,
however, the writers coming literally from all parts of the
circumference of the globe manifest a remarkable agree-
ment on almost every vital problem with which the Congress
is concerned, and support, as a whole, a view which must be
very encouraging to those in every land who see a brother
and an equal, at least potentially, in every human being,
whatever the colour of his skin. In view of the eminent
fitness of the writers to pronounce judgment on the issues
involved in the contact of races, the Congress may be said to
have effectively served both a scientific and a humanitarian

^ purpose. Henceforth it should not be difficult to answer
those who allege that their own race towers far above all
other races, and that therefore other races must cheerfully

;- submit to being treated, or mal-treated, as hewers of wood
and drawers of water. The writers have, as it were, reduced
to reasoned statements the generous sentiments prevailing
on this subject among the most cultivated and responsible
section of humanity, a section fairly represented in our
imposing list of Vice-Presidents, Hon. Vice- Presidents, and
Members of the Hon. General Committee.

It was felt that in a Congress of this comprehensive
character each people should speak for itself; and it is for
this reason that every paper referring to an Oriental people






vi PREFACE

will be found written by an eminent person belonging to it.
Thus the Occidental reader of this volume has the unpre-
cedented opportunity of learning what Oriental scholars
think of the contact of races. It is to be hoped that at
the Second Universal Races Congress a much larger number
of the general and scientific papers will come from Oriental
sources.

The particular opinions expressed by the writers in this
volume are personal, and do not in any way commit the
members of the Congress. The organisers adhere to their
original statement that " whilst wholly sympathetic towards
all far-sighted measures calculated to strengthen and promote
good relations, the Congress is pledged to no political
party and to no particular scheme of reforms." To this
should be added, in order to prevent possible misunder-
standings, that the contributors speak in their individual
capacity, and not as official representatives. These neces-
sary limitations, however, do not detract from the signifi-
cance and importance of the contributions embodied in
this volume.

The Executive Council takes this opportunity of
expressing its deep gratitude to the many writers of papers
who have contributed to the value and success of the Con-
gress by putting at its disposal their rich stores of knowledge
and experience. It desires also to acknowledge the valuable
services rendered by the translators, Mrs. Boyce Gibson and
Mr. Joseph McCabe. And, last but not least, the Executive
cannot forbear tendering its sincerest thanks to the Senate
of the University of London for having generously granted
the free use of halls and rooms for the meetings of the
Congress.



INTRODUCTION

To those who regard the furtherance of International Good
Will and Peace as the highest of all human interests, the
occasion of the First Universal Races Congress opens a
vista of almost boundless promise.

No impartial student of history can deny that in the case
of nearly all recorded wars, whatever the ostensible reasons
assigned, the underlying cause of conflict has been the exist-
ence of race antipathies using the word race in its broad
and popular acceptation which particular circumstances,
often in themselves of trivial moment, have fanned into
flame.

In the earliest times it took the form of one race attempt-
ing to subjugate and indeed enslave another ; but even in
modern wars, while questions of frontier, the ambitions of
rulers, or the rivalries of commercial policies, may have
provoked the actual crisis, it will be found, in almost every
instance, that the pre-existence of social and racial enmity
has in reality determined the breach which particular inci-
dents had merely precipitated.

As civilisation progresses and the Western world more
fully recognises its ethical responsibilities, it may be hoped
that such influences will become an ever-diminishing force ;
but the modern conscience has to-day, in addition, other and
quite new problems to solve in face of the startling and
sudden appearance of new factors in the Eastern Hemi-
sphere.

In less than twenty years we have witnessed the most
remarkable awakening of nations long regarded as sunk
in such depths of somnolence as to be only interesting



vii



viii INTRODUCTION

to the Western world because they presented a wide and
prolific field for commercial rivalries, often greedy, cruel,
and fraught with bloodshed in their prosecution, but which
otherwise were an almost negligible quantity in international
concerns.

How great is the change in the life-time of a single
generation, when, to select two instances alone, we contem-
plate the most remarkable rise of the power of the Empire
of Japan, the precursor, it would seem, of a similar revival
of the activities and highly developed qualities of the
population of the great Empire of China !

Nearer and nearer we see approaching the day when the
vast populations of the East will assert their claim to meet
on terms of equality the nations of the West, when the free
institutions and the organised forces of the one hemisphere
will have their counterbalance in the other, when their
mental outlook and their social aims will be in principle
identical ; when, in short, the colour prejudice will have
vanished and the so-called white races and the so-called
coloured races shall no longer merely meet in the glowing
periods of missionary exposition, but, in very fact, regard
one another as in truth men and brothers.

Are we ready for this change ? Have we duly considered
all that it signifies, and have we tutored our minds and
shaped our policy with a view of successfully meeting the
coming flood ? It is in order to discuss this question of such
supreme importance that the First Universal Races Congress
is being held. The papers, so varied in their scope and
treatment, which have been communicated by individuals of
eminence from many distant lands, will testify to the world-
wide interest which the examination of these grave problems
has aroused, the wise handling of which would remove
dangers and possible causes of strife which, but for skilled
guidance, might conceivably convulse mankind.

WEARDALE.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

CIRCULARS ISSUED BY THE CONGRESS EXECUTIVE . xiii

OFFICERS, EXECUTIVE, HON. VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND

HON. GENERAL COMMITTEE. . xvii



FIRST SESSION

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

MEANING OF RACE, TRIBE, NATION. By Dr. Brajendranath Seal . i

ANTHROPOLOGICAL VIEW OF RACE. By Prof. Felix v. Luschan . 13
RACE FROM THE SOCIOLOGICAL STANDPOINT. By Prof. Alfred

Fouillee '***: '.-. ' V ' lj 'f ' . ' V 1 " ;< '; : '""''. * .- iAl '".' " u .- 24

THE PROBLEM OF RACE EQUALITY. By G. Spiller '.'' '/*'-''* 29



SECOND SESSION

CONDITIONS OF PROGRESS (GENERAL PROBLEMS)

THE RATIONALE OF AUTONOMY. By John M. Robertson v'X-i'iix J 40

INFLUENCE OF GEOGRAPHIC, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL CON-
DITIONS. By Prof. P. S. Reinsch -.* yt j v , . . , a . t;^i/ <i/j ,^i- 49

LANGUAGE AS A CONSOLIDATING AND SEPARATING INFLUENCE.

By Prof. D. S. Margoliouth . ...'.'. . 57

RELIGION AS A CONSOLIDATING AND SEPARATING INFLUENCE. By

Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids and Mrs. Rhys Davids - (/ . ''{ '*'*' 62

DIFFERENCES IN CUSTOMS AND MORALS AND THEIR RESISTANCE

TO RAPID CHANGE. By Prof . Giuseppe Sergi . 3X<vi ;>,(<// ^

ON THE PERMANENCE OF RACIAL MENTAL DIFFERENCES. By

Prof. Charles S. Myers ->!>A. $ft>y. :J .a/r'Orfr.:.,.!-/! 73

THE INTELLECTUAL STANDING OF DIFFERENT RACES AND THEIR

RESPECTIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR CULTURE. By John Gray . 79



x TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

THE PRESENT POSITION OF WOMAN. By Sister Nivedita (Miss

Margaret Noble) , . . 86

INSTABILITY OF HUMAN TYPES. By Prof. Franz Boas . . . 99

CLIMATIC CONTROL OF SKIN-COLOUR. By Prof. Lionel W. Lyde . 104

THE EFFECTS OF RACIAL MISCEGENATION. By Prof. Earl Finch . 108

THIRD SESSION

CONDITIONS OF PROGRESS (SPECIAL PROBLEMS)
TENDENCIES TOWARDS PARLIAMENTARY RULE. By Dr. Chr.

L. Lange . ..-. .,.'. .-.*,-. - t. IJ 3

CHINA. By Dr. Wu Ting-Fang ' g^? ,'^-f ' * ^P^f '? ^ 123

JAPAN. By Profs. Tongo Takebe and Teruaki Kobayashi /" t j^2

SHINTOISM. By Prof. Genchi Kato 141

TURKEY. See Appendix

PERSIA. By Hadji Mirza Yahya 143

THE BAHAI MOVEMENT. Letter to the Congress by 'Abdu'l Baha

'Abbas .&;; ' .-inntt / .i../<T . *?* ";'' *54

EAST AND WEST IN INDIA. By the Hon. G. K. Gokhale i: ..-.v. ,-,.,>- 157

EGYPT. By Moh. Sourour Bey . . . , ^, ..,. : ;*- O j; - ; *f>7
SOME GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PEOPLE AND THE

GOVERNMENT OF HAITI. By General Legitime i: , i.^.iacoi'i r ?8

HUNGARY. By Prof. Akos de Timon 184

THE ROLE OF RUSSIA IN THE MUTUAL APPROACH OF THE WEST

AND THE EAST. By Prof. Alexander Yastchenko . . . 195

FOURTH SESSION
I. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN INTER-RACIAL ECONOMICS

INVESTMENTS AND LOANS. By Prof. A. de Navratil . "* ' SrV 208
WAGES AND IMMIGRATION. By Fred C. Croxton and W. Jett Lauck 211
OPENING OF MARKETS AND COUNTRIES. By John A. Hobson ' .' 222

II. PEACEFUL CONTACT BETWEEN CIVILISATIONS
SCIENCE AND ART, LITERATURE AND THE PRESS. By Prof.

Ferdinand Ton nies . M/,V IV ! K/ > . - xi -.. ' 2 33
THE WORK DONE BY PRIVATE INITIATIVE IN THE ORGANISATION

OF THE WORLD. By Prof. H. La Fontaine . iv^^.iinv i 243
THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AT ROME. By

David Lubin ... ., , / Tvi'i.*"ii<> ;-. -.w -,<;. . 4h ,,., i ,.- ; 254
THE BATAK INSTITUTE AT LEYDEN. By Prof. A. W. Nieuwenhuis . 259



TABLE OF CONTENTS xi

FIFTH SESSION

THE MODERN CONSCIENCE IN RELATION TO
RACIAL QUESTIONS (GENERAL)

PACE

THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF INTER-RACIAL ETHICS, AND

SOME PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF IT. By Prof. Felix Adler . 261
THE JEWISH RACE. By Israel Zangwill . .: . * 268

J > ? T.TTT.-

THE MODERN CONSCIENCE IN RELATION TO THE TREATMENT OF
DEPENDENT PEOPLES AND COMMUNITIES. By Sir Charles

Bruce 'yju"U'.r,'> 'T/> 1 Ui'/*Y; A'-\ ILlA'M.VV.i/SVl 2 79
THE GOVERNMENT OF COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES. By Sir

Sydney Olivier . '\ ". "% . '' V L V i '" . 293

THE INFLUENCE OF MISSIONS. By Prof. Alfred Caldecott . . 302
INDENTURED AND FORCED LABOUR. By the late the Right Hon.

Sir Charles W. Dilke ._.',_ .' .' .' ^; J ^ K ; -. . 3I2

Supplement, by Joseph Burtt, Matlock . ' J .' , ^ ' .' 323

TRAFFIC IN INTOXICANTS AND OPIUM. By Dr. J. H. Abendanon . 324

SIXTH SESSION

THE MODERN CONSCIENCE IN RELATION TO

RACIAL QUESTIONS (THE NEGRO AND THE

AMERICAN INDIAN)

THE WORLD- POSITION OF THE NEGRO AND NEGROID. By Sir

Harry H. Johnston . . . / .' : V ^ jr> . ie ^ 328
NATIVE RACES OF SOUTH AFRICA. By J. Te.ngo Jabavu . . 336
THE WEST AFRICAN PROBLEM. By Dr. Mojola Agbebi . ^ 341
THE NEGRO RACE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Dr.

W. E. B. DuBois . . . . . , , . . .348
THE NEGRO PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WHITE WOMEN. By

Dr. Frances Hoggan . - . ~~~i . -'* . . . . 364
THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN. By Dr. Charles A. Eastman . 367
THE METIS, OR HALF-BREEDS, OF BRAZIL. By Dr. Jean Baptiste

de Lacerda 377

SEVENTH SESSION

POSITIVE SUGGESTIONS FOR PROMOTING
INTER-RACIAL FRIENDLINESS

THE RESPECT WHICH THE WHITE RACE OWES TO OTHER

RACES. By Baron d'Estournelles de Constant , ft .' . 383



xii TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

INTERNATIONAL LAW, TREATIES, CONFERENCES, AND THE HAGUE

TRIBUNAL. By Prof. Walther Schucking ,.. v ., ^ . 387
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND SUBJECT RACES. By Sir John Macdonell 398
PERIODICAL PEACE CONFERENCES. By Jarousse de Sillac . . 409
LETTER FROM M. LEON BOURGEOIS. See APPENDIX.

EIGHTH SESSION

POSITIVE SUGGESTIONS FOR PROMOTING
INTER-RACIAL FRIENDLINESS (continued)

THE PRESS AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PEACE. By Alfred H. Fried . 420

INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE. By Dr. L. L. Zamenhof . , . , 425

ETHICAL TEACHING IN SCHOOLS WITH REGARD TO RACES. By

Dr. J. S. Mackenzie ..... ..., .. . ., 433

THE COSMOPOLITAN CLUB MOVEMENT. By Louis P. Lochner . 439

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR INTER- RACIAL GOODWILL. By

Edwin D. Mead . ....... .- 443

HO I ''! HTXIP

APPENDIX-

TURKEY. By Dr. Riza Tevfik . J . \".\ ' V V \d ' * 454
LETTER FROM M. LEON BOURGEOIS U M" * 462



BIBLIOGRAPHY . > ^

INDEX . ..-; . , t . :> .'f'.. ' . r: \.., n vf".'-/* 47 8



CIRCULARS ISSUED BY THE EXECUTIVE

COUNCIL

I. INVITATION

A CONGRESS dealing with the general relations subsisting between
West and East will be held in London from July 26 to July 29,
1911. So far as possible special treatment will be accorded to the
problem of the contact of European with other developed types of
civilisation, such as the Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Turkish, and
Persian. The official Congress languages are to be English, French,
German, and Italian ; but Oriental and other languages will not be
rigidly excluded. The papers (which will be taken as read) are to
appear, collected in volume form, both in an all-English and an all-
French edition, about a month before the Congress opens, and
among the contributors will be found eminent representatives of
more than twenty civilisations. All schools of thought which
sympathise with the Object of the Congress are hereby invited to
take part in the proceedings. Resolutions of a political character
will not be submitted.

II. OBJECT AND NATURE OF THE CONGRESS

THE object of the Congress will be to discuss, in the light of science and
the modern conscience, the general relations subsisting between the peoples
of the West and those of the East, between so-called white and so- called
coloured peoples, with a view to encouraging between them a fuller under-
standing, the most friendly feelings, and a heartier co-operation.
Political issues of the hour will be subordinated to this compre-
hensive end, in the firm belief that, when once mutual respect is
established, difficulties of every type will be sympathetically
approached and readily solved.

The origin of this Congress is easily explained. The interchange
of material and other wealth between the different races of
mankind has of late years assumed such dimensions that the old
attitude of distrust and aloofness is giving way to a general desire for
closer acquaintanceship. Out of this interesting situation has sprung



xiv OBJECT AND NATURE OF THE CONGRESS

the idea of holding a Congress where the representatives of the
different races might meet each other face to face, and might, in
friendly rivalry, further the cause of mutual trust and respect between
Occident and Orient, between the so-called white peoples and the so-
called coloured peoples.

Accordingly the Congress will not represent a meeting of all the
races for the purpose of discussing indiscriminately everybody's con-
cerns. It will not discuss purely European questions, such as the
relations existing between or within the different European countries ;
nor, of course, will it discuss the attitude of Europe towards the
United States, or towards other American Republics representing
races of European descent. Again, whilst wholly sympathetic
towards all far-sighted measures calculated to strengthen and pro-
mote good relations, the Congress is pledged to no political party and to
no particular scheme of reforms. The writers of papers will, however,
have the full right to express whatever political views they may hold,
though they will be expected to do justice to all political parties and
to treat the issues of the day only passingly. Furthermore, the Con-
gress will not be purely scientific in the sense of only stating facts and
not passing judgments. Nor will it be a peace congress in the sense
of aiming specifically at the prevention of war. Finally, it should be
noted that, since the Congress is to serve the purpose of bringing
about healthier relations between Occident and Orient, all bitterness
towards parties, peoples, or governments will be avoided, without, of
course, excluding reasoned praise and blame. With the problem
simplified in this manner, and with a limited number of papers
written by leading authorities, there is every hope that the dis-
cussions will bear a rich harvest of good, and contribute materially
towards encouraging friendly feelings and hearty co-operation
between the peoples of the West and the East



III. QUESTIONNAIRE

(Replies to any or all the questions should reach the Hon. Sec.
not later than June 15, 1911.)

I. (a} To what extent is it legitimate to argue from differences in
physical characteristics to differences in mental characteristics ? ()
Do you consider that the physical and mental characteristics
observable in a particular race are (i) permanent, (2) modifiable only
through ages of environmental pressure, or (3) do you consider that
marked changes in popular education, in public sentiment, and in
environment generally, may, apart from intermarriage, materially



OBJECT AND NATURE OF THE CONGRESS xv

transform physical and especially mental characteristics in a
generation or two ?

2. (a} To what extent does the status of a race at any particular
moment of time offer an index to its innate or inherited capacities ?
() Of what importance is it in this respect that civilisations are
meteoric in nature, bursting out of obscurity only to plunge back
into it, and how would you explain this ?

3. (a) How would you combat the irreconcilable contentions
prevalent among all the more important races of mankind that their
customs, their civilisation, and their race are superior to those of other
races ? () Would you, in explanation of existing differences, refer
to special needs arising from peculiar geographical and economic
conditions and to related divergences in national history ; and, in
explanation of the attitude assumed, would you refer to intimacy
with one's own customs leading psychologically to a love of them and
unfamiliarity with others' customs tending to lead psychologically to
dislike and contempt of these latter ? (c) Or what other explanation
and arguments would you offer ?

4. (a) What part do differences in economic, hygienic, moral, and
educational standards play in estranging races which come in contact
with each other? () Is the ordinary observer to be informed that
these differences, like social differences generally, are in substance
almost certainly due to passing social conditions and not to innate
racial characteristics, and that the aim should be, as in social differences,
to remove these rather than to accentuate them by regarding them
as fixed ?

5. (a) Is perhaps the deepest cause of race misunderstandings the
tacit assumption that the present characteristics of a race are the
expression of fixed and permanent racial characteristics ? () If so,
could not anthropologists, sociologists, and scientific thinkers as a
class, powerfully assist the movement for a juster appreciation of
races by persistently pointing out in their lectures and in their works
the fundamental fallacy involved in taking a static instead of a
dynamic, a momentary instead of a historic, a local instead of a
general, point of view of race characteristics ? (c~) And could such
dynamic teaching be conveniently introduced into schools, more
especially in the geography and history lessons ; also into colleges
for the training of teachers, diplomats, colonial administrators, and
missionaries ?

6. (a) If you consider that the belief in racial superiority is not
largely due, as is suggested by some of the above questions, to unen-
lightened psychological repulsion and under-estimation of the
dynamic or environmental factors, please state what, in your opinion,
the chief factors are ? () Do you consider that there is fair proof,



xvi OBJECT AND NATURE OF THE CONGRESS

and if so what proof, of some races being substantially superior to
others in inborn capacity, and in such case is the moral standard to
be modified ?

7. (A) What is your attitude towards the suggestion (a) that, so
far at least as intellectual and moral aptitudes are concerned, we
ought to speak of civilisations where we now speak of races ? (b} that
the stage or form of the civilisation of a people has no connection with
its special inborn physical characteristics ? (c) and that even its
physical characteristics are to no small extent the direct result of the
environment, physical and social, under which it is living at the
moment? (B) To aid in clearing up the conceptions of race and
civilisation, how would you define these?

8. (a) Do you think that each race might with advantage study the
customs and civilisations of other races, even those you think the
lowliest ones, for the definite purpose of improving its own customs
and civilisation ? (b} Do you think that unostentatious conduct
generally and respect for the customs of other races, provided these
are not morally objectionable, should be recommended to all who
come in passing or permanent contact with members of other races ?

9. (a) Do you know of any experiments on a considerable scale,
past or present, showing the successful uplifting of relatively back-
ward races by the application of purely humane methods ? (b} Do
you know of any cases of colonisation or opening of a country achieved
by the same methods? (c) If so, how far do you think could such
methods be applied universally in our dealings with other races ?

10. What proposals do you have (a) for the Congress effectively
carrying out its object of encouraging better relations between East
and West, and more particularly (b} for the formation of an associa-
tion designed to promote inter-racial amity ?



/fov



OFFICERS, COUNCIL, AND SUPPORTERS.



President :
The Right Hon. LORD WEARDALE

Viee-Ppesidents :

The Right Honourable THE PRIME MINISTER

The Right Hon. VISCOUNT MORLEY OF BLACKBURN

The Right Hon. LORD CURZON OF KEDLESTON

The Right Hon. LORD AVEBURY

The Right Honourable THE SPEAKER

The Right Hon. ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR, M.P.

The Right Hon. JOHN BURNS, M.P.

The Right Hon. HERBERT SAMUEL, M.P.

J. RAMSAY MACDONALD, Esq., M.P.

The Right Hon. THE LORD MAYOR OF LONDON

His Grace THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK
The Very Reverend HERMANN ADLER

General BOOTH
Rev. Prof. J. ESTLIN CARPENTER

EDWARD CLODD

Dr. STANTON COIT

FREDERIC HARRISON

The Rev. F. B. MEYER

Father BERNARD VAUGHAN, S.J.

The VICE-CHANCELLORS of the Universities of ABERDEEN, ST. ANDREWS,

BELFAST, BRISTOL, CAMBRIDGE, DUBLIN, DURHAM, IRELAND, LEEDS,.

LIVERPOOL, LONDON, MANCHESTER, OXFORD, SHEFFIELD, and WALES

Chairman of Executive :
The Hon. WILLIAM PEMBER REEVES

Viee-Chairman of Executive :
Sir EDWARD BRABROOK

Chairman of Hon. General Committee :

Prof. FELIX ADLER, New York

Viee-Chairmen of Hon. General Committee :

Prof. FELIX v. LUSCHAN, Berlin



Online LibraryEngland) Universal Races Congress (1st : 1911 : LondonPapers on inter-racial problems, communicated to the first Universal Races Congress, held at the University of London, July 26-29, 1911 → online text (page 1 of 62)