Copyright
Ernest Arthur Gardner.

Ancient Athens online

. (page 1 of 34)
Online LibraryErnest Arthur GardnerAncient Athens → online text (page 1 of 34)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


liJiDifjininrainifcinibiflraobinifciflibiCTi biniaipioigmi o ini rf iD i OiPigro iCT ftiO i oitJin f ^i ft r tf T^rpmTgr^







7



-^



. o -



ANCIENT ATHENS



BY



ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER

YATES PROFESSOR OF ARCHEOLOGY IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

FORMERLY DIRECTOR OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS

AUTHOR OF "A HANDBOOK OF GREEK SCULPTURE," ETC., ETC.



ILLUSTRATED



Ncfo £9ork
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.
1907

All rights reserved



Copyright, 1902,
By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.



Set up and electrotyped. Published November, 1902. Reprinted
October, 1907.



Nortu 1 d Pi - 1

'/. .V. Cusbing Co. — Berwick & Smrrb Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



PREFACE

Sunt quibus unum opus est intactae Palladis urbem

Carmine perpetuo celebrare, et
Undique decerptam fronti praponere olivam.

The author of a book on Ancient Athens must needs
owe much to his predecessors, and these are so many
that, in an attempt to make more particular acknow-
ledgment, there is no little danger of omission. In
stating a few of the sources from which I am conscious
of having borrowed most, I have no wish to slight the
more numerous authorities to which others, and possibly
I myself, owe as great or perhaps a greater debt. But
this difficulty can hardly be avoided without allowing
a preface to grow into a bibliography.

Among earlier travellers, I have most frequently con-
sulted Wheler, Stuart, Dodwell, and Leake. Among
those whom it has been my privilege to hear as well
as to read, I would especially mention Mr. F. C. Penrose,
F.R.S., and Professor Dorpfeld. Of recent works on
Athens, I have constantly referred to Curtius's Stadt-
geschichte von A then and Mr. J. G. Frazer's edition of
Pausanias ; Miss Harrison and Mrs. Verrall's Mythology
and Monuments of Ancient Athens has also been use-
ful. The existence of these works and others, such as
Wachsmuth's Die S tacit A then in Alterthum, Hitzig and



vi PREFACE

Blumner's edition of Pausanias, Michaelis's Der Par-

t lieu on, and Jahn and Michaelis's Pausanice Descriptio
A re is Atheuamm, has made it permissible to summa-
rise results rather than to enumerate details of evidence,
and I must refer to them any readers who wish to
follow up matters of controversy or obscurity at greater
length than has here been practicable or desirable.
Professor Milch hbfer's Schriftquellen zur TopograpJiie
von Allien, attached to Curtius's Stadtgcscliiehte, are par-
ticularly convenient, as exempting later writers from
the necessity of constantly justifying their statements
by references to classical authors.

In order to disencumber the book of controversial
matter, such discussions have been relegated, as far as
possible, to the notes at the end of some of the chapters.
Apart from these, it has been my aim to give as clearly
and directly as possible the impressions produced by
the sites and buildings described, as viewed in the light
of the references made to them by classical authors.
Where so much is doubtful, no writer can expect all
his conclusions to be undisputed; but I trust that the
book will not be found to have misrepresented either
the available evidence or the theories that have been
based upon it. The more advanced school of topogra-
phers may probably accuse me of a conservative bias,
which I frankly admit, in so far as it implies that, where
the evidence appears to be evenly balanced, I prefer to
follow an opinion that is familiar and that has com-
mended itself to generations of scholars, rather than to
adopl the newest and most brilliant hypothesis.



PREFACE vii

The photographic illustrations for this book are some
of them made from plates taken expressly for the pur-
pose by Mr. C. Demetriou of Athens. Others are
selected from the galleries of Athenian photographers,
especially the admirable series of Messrs. Rhomaides,
whom I have to thank for their courteous permission
to reproduce many of their finest plates. The photo-
graphs of sculpture in the British Museum are mostly
from Messrs. Mansell's collection. I am also indebted
for several photographs to amateur friends ; among these
I would mention my nephew, Mr. Arthur Gardner, espe-
cially for his telephotographic views of architectural
details, Mr. Stephen Marshall, Mr. F. Fletcher, and Miss
Shove. Mr. Hasluck kindly made for me the sketch-
diagram of the Attic coast.

The maps and plans have been prepared under my
direction by Messrs. Walker and Cockerell. The maps
are based upon the survey in Curtius and Kaupert,
Kartcn von Atti/ca, a work to which I owe also a more
general acknowledgment. I wish to thank Professor
Dorpfeld for his generous permission to reproduce sev-
eral of his plans. Leave to make use of some plates
from Dr. Middleton's Plans and Drawings of Athenian
Buildings has been given me by the Society for the
Promotion of Hellenic Studies and by Mrs. Middleton,
who has also kindly allowed me to print Dr. Middleton's
unpublished plan of the Parthenon.

I have received help in the reading of the proof-sheets
from my brother, Professor Percy Gardner of Oxford,
and from my sister, Miss Alice Gardner of Newnham



viii PREFACE

College, Cambridge, both of whom I have to thank for
many useful suggestions.

The question of the spelling of Greek names is always
difficult ; even if a scientific system be adopted, it can-
not be followed with rigid accuracy. My general rule
has been to transliterate from the Greek to the Latin
alphabet as an educated Roman would have done. But
some exceptions, " Nike " for example, are almost inevita-
ble for convenience ; nor have I aimed at any complete
consistency in the use of forms in -os and -us, -on and
-urn, a matter on which Roman usage itself varied. In
spelling, custom and familiarity must be the paramount
considerations; and I think a natural reaction is setting
in among scholars against a too indiscriminate use of
k, ei, 011, etc., in forms that are often not only uncouth
in appearance, but actually misleading in pronunciation.

Finally, I must ask the indulgence of the reader
towards a book printed in America while I am myself
in London, and under circumstances which have pre-
cluded as complete a revision as I could have wished
both of the text and of the illustrations.

\ \i\ ersity i loi i egi . London,
October, 1902.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

PAGE

Situation and Natural Features i

a. The Water Supply 16

b. Building Materials 29

CHAPTER II

The Walls of the Acropolis and the Town .... 36
a. Two Notes on Thucydides II. 13. 6 68

CHAPTER III
The Acropolis before the Persian W t ars ... -73

CHAPTER IV

The Town before the Persian Wars 88

a. Note on Thucydides II. 15. 3,4 141

CHAPTER V
Early Attic Art . . . 152

CHAPTER VI
The Acropolis in the Fifth Century 208

CHAPTER VII
The Parthenon 257

CHAPTER VIII
The Erechtheum and the Temple of Victory .... 353



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER IX

PAGE

The City in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries . . . .381

CHAPTER X
The Theseum, the Asclepieum, and the Theatre . . . 410

CHAPTER XI
The Ceramicus 455

CHAPTER XII
Athens in Hellenistic and Roman Times 479

CHAPTER XIII

Pausanias in Athens 511

a. On the Route of Pausanias 534

b. Topographical Summary of Route of Pausanias . . 538

CHAPTER XIV
The Pir/Eus 542

INDEX 565



LIST OF FULL-PAGE PLATES



The Acropolis, from the Garden of the Zappeion . . . Frontispiece

FACING PAGE

The Acropolis, from the Museum Hill 73

The Parthenon, from the East ........ 220

The Parthenon, from the North-west ....... 257

Erechtheum, from the West ......... 360

Theseum and North Side of Acropolis ....... 410

Theatre, from the East . 434

The Olympieum, from the South-east 486



PLANS

The Dipylon Gate .......... 62

Excavation West of Acropolis . . . . . . . .108

The Parthenon ........... 260

The Erechtheum ........... 356

The Erechtheum — Section from East to West ..... 358

Dionysiac Theatre .......... 436

Scena of Theatre ........... 444

Library of Hadrian 498

Galley-slips in Harbour of Munychia . . . . . . -554



ILLUSTRATIONS



Athens, from the Sea .

The Sea, from the Museum Hill

The Sea, from the Museum Hill

Olive Grove near Athens, at Kolokython

Athens, from the Observatory Hill

Athens, from the Observatory Hill

The Acropolis, from Lycabettus

Pentelicus in Winter, from near Cynosarges

Diagram of Attic Coast as seen from the Sea

Tourkovouni and Lycabettus

Athens, from the South

Athens, from the South

The Acropolis and Salamis ...

Callirrhoe, and Ridge of Rock in the Bed of the Ilissus

Interior of the Cave in the Asclepieum .

Steps leading to Clepsydra .

Door of Clepsydra ....

Aqueduct built by Pisistratus

End of Roman Aqueduct

Naxian Quarry, with Unfinished Colossus

Ancient Quarry on Pentelicus

Wall and Tower at Tiryns

Wall at Mycenae .....

Pelasgic Wall at the South-east of the Acropolis

Rocks, Cleft, and Steps cut in Rock, on North-west of Acropolis

Acropolis from Areopagus, showing Caves and Long Rocks

Wall South of Dipylon Gate

Marble Drums

The Acropolis, from the South, showing the Cimonian Wall

Bastion and Temple of Nike, from below

The Acropolis, from the West

The Dipylon Gate

The Sacred Gate .

The Barathron

The Arch of Hadrian

A Rock-cut House



PAGE

2
2

3

5
6

7
8

9
io
1 1

12

•3
'5

20
22
24
2 S

-7

28
32

34
40

4i
43
46
48


52
53

55
60
62

65
66

67

73



ILLUSTRATIONS



Koile. with Foundations of Houses and Steps

Koile, with Rock-cut Foundations

Foundation of Peristyle of Old Temple

Great Altar of Rock and View of North-east Corner of

Lycabettus. from the Acropolis

Cave of Apollo ....

Cave of Pan .....

Pit of Sacrifice in Asclepieum

Polygonal Walls of Cistern .

The Pnyx, from the Areopagus

Bema and Rock-cut Wall of Pnyx

Excavations West of Acropolis

Early Precinct of Dionysus .

The Olympieum and Stadium, from the Acropolis

Stadium (before Recent Restoration), and Modern Brid

Site of Agora, from Acropolis

Site of Agora, from near Theseum

Site of Agora, from near Theseum

District of Limnae ....

Dipylon Vase, with Funeral .

Amphora from Hymettus

Early Prothesis Vase, with Tomb .

Early Pediment — -Heracles and Hydra

Part of Early Pediment — Heracles and Triton

Bull and Lions ......

Man carrying Calf

Female Draped Figure

Relief of the Nymphs or Horae

Kl.it Decorative Bronze Relief of Athena

Bronze Statuette of Athena Promachos .

Bronze Statuette of an Athlete

Head of a Young Man .....

Rough Terrace Wall and Staircase South of Parti
Athenian ( loin ......

View from near Temple of Nike .
Propylaea, from Nike Bastion, in Turkish Times
North End of West Front of Parthenon
The Propylaea, from South Wing .
Propylaea, from the East ....

Propylaea, from the North-east

Propylaea i Side Aisle .,t' Central Hall .

I )' t.iil i oi tin- lunir ( >rder (Priene)

Ba tion and Temple of Nike, from the North

Ere< htheum, from t In- South-east .

Inscribed Basis of Statue of Athena Hygieia by Py



Parthenon



;er Ilissus



ILLUSTRATIONS



xv



f Surface



S. I., in situ



Athenian Coin ......

Early Seated Statue of Athena

Heading of a Treaty between Athens and Samos

Portrait of Pericles .....

The Parthenon in Turkish Times .

Interior of Parthenon, looking East

North Side of Parthenon, showing Curve of Steps

Unfinished Drums of Columns

Joint of Fallen Drum, showing Various Working o

Section of Part of Parthenon, Restored

South-west Corner of Parthenon, showing Metope

Metope S. XXVIII.

Metope S. XXVII.

Metope S. VII

Metope S. XXX

Metope S. XXXI.

Carrey's Sketch of West Pediment

Carrey's Sketch of East Pediment .

Cecrops and Daughter .

Birth of Athena ....

Sketch Restoration of East Pediment

"Horse" and Iris, from East Pediment

" Theseus," from East Pediment .

Three Draped Female Figures, from North End of East Ped

De Laborde Head, probably from Parthenon Pediment

Horse of Selene, from East Pediment .

West Frieze of Parthenon ....

Knights, from North Frieze ....

North Frieze of Parthenon (Older men)
North Frieze of Parthenon (Men bearing vases)
North Frieze of Parthenon (Cows)
North Frieze of Parthenon (Sheep)
East Frieze of Parthenon (Maidens)
East Frieze of Parthenon (Group of gods)
East Frieze of Parthenon (Priest, priestess, and attendants
of gods) ......

West Frieze of Parthenon, in situ

South Frieze of Parthenon ....

Group of Three Gods .....

Athena Parthenos — Lenormant Statuette

Erechtheum, from the South-east .

Part of North Portico of Erechtheum

Capital of Column, North Portico of Erechtheum

Base of Column, North Portico of Erechtheum

Band of Carving, from Top of Wall of Erechtheum



ment



and



group



248
251

254
255
261
268
272
275
277
280
285
286
287
289
290
291

294
295
302
306
308

3 IQ
3i6
3i8
320
322
324
325
326

327
328
329
33°
332

333
336
339
34i
345
353
366

367
367
368



ILLUSTRATIONS



Theatre



'•Caryatids" of Erechtheum .

Temple of Athena Nike, from the North-east

Slab of South Frieze of Temple of Nike

Slab from Balustrade of Temple of Nike

Slab from Balustrade of Temple of Nike

Cave above Theatre ....

Choragic Monument of Thrasyllus above Theatre in Turkish

Theseum, from the West, showing Frieze, in situ

Metope of Theseum ....

Metope of Theseum ....

Athenian Coin .....

Middle Block of Front Seats in the Theatre

Theatre and Olympieum, from Acropolis

Relief from Theatre ....

Relief from Theatre ....

Sculptured Frieze, supporting Later Stage in

Marble Lutrophoros and Lecythi on Relief

Monument of Hegeso ....

Tomb Relief

Monument of Dexileos ....

Tomb Relief (Family group — parting scene)

Tomb Relief (Old man, young athlete, and slave boy)

Tomb Relief (Young warrior seated on prow of ship)

Tomb Relief (Deceased as hero at a banquet)

Marble Lutrophoros with Relief

Stoa of Attalus ....

Capital of Column in Olympieum .

Tower of the Winds

Gate of Roman Market

Monument of Philopappus

West End of Library of Hadrian .

Odeum of Regilla ....

Roman Baths ....

Harbour of Phalerum and Phaleric Bay

General View of Piraeus from Munychia

General View of Piraeus from Munychia

Harbour of Phalerum (Fanari)



Times






ANCIENT ATHENS



ANCIENT ATHENS

CHAPTER I

SITUATION AND NATURAL FEATURES

'Epex#e('Sui to -rraXaiov oX/3iol,
Kal OeC)v 7rat8es fxanapow, icpas
Ycipas aTropOrjTOv t a.Tro



Online LibraryErnest Arthur GardnerAncient Athens → online text (page 1 of 34)