Ernest Victor Lallier.

An elementary manual of the steam engine; containing also a chapter on the theory, construction and operation of internal combustion engines for the operating engineer online

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consisting essentially of heating the crude oil. At
varying temperatures the liquid is liberated in the form
of gas which is afterwards condensed. The gases
liberated at the varying temperatures and the resulting
oils are of various grades and are called distillates.
The lubricating oils are nearly the last to be distilled,
on account of the high temperature required to bring
them to the boiling point.

After distilling they are refined by the use of various
chemicals and then clarified by running into settling
tanks, where they are allowed to remain until thoroughly
cleaned.

In order to produce the commercial oil, various quali-
ties of distillates are blended to give satisfactory results
in operation.

Recently a method has been devised to obtain a very
finely divided graphite called '* deflocculated graphite."
This is mixed with cylinder oil, and remains in suspen-
sion, thoroughly combining with the oil and greatly add-
ing to its lubricating quality. This has not previously
been possible as the graphite in the former commercial



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LUBRICATION. 253

forms refused to mix well with the oil and tended to
obstruct the clear flow of the oil ways.

When grease is applied to bearings a receptacle called
a grease cup is employed. These may be divided into
two general classes. ~

One is a plain me-
tallic cup with a cover
in which grease is
packed and the heat-
ing of the bearing due
to friction is depended
on to gradually melt
down the grease and
cause it to flow on
the bearing. In the
other, the pressure
grease cup, of which
an example is shown
in Fig. 100, a piston a
is pressed down upon
the grease by the
spring 8, forcing the
grease continually to
the bearing.

The wing nut n is ^8- ^^'

used as a check on the spring. It is unscrewed a suffi-
cient amotmt to allow the spring to move forward during
the day's run and then it must of necessity stop until
the wing nut is further unscrewed. The object is to
prevent the grease from being forced into the bear-
ing during periods when the engine is at rest, during



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254 ELEMENTARY STEAM ENGINEERING.

which time the extra lubrication wotildi of course, be
valueless.

Very many types of oil cups are employed to meet the
many conditions required in service. There may be a
metal body or a body composed of a glass tube reinforced
by metal, thus enabling the amount of oil in the cup to
be readily determined. As these are generally arranged
to supply oil, drop by drop, to the bearings, a valve ar-
rangement is provided by which this may be regulated,
also a glass tube below the cup, called the '* sight feed,''
through which the nozzle, from which the oil drips, may
be seen.

For the purpose of lubricating cylinders of gas engines
or similar places where pressure is present, a pressure
cup is employed, of which a cross section is shown in
Fig. loi.

The glass body g forms a reservoir for the oil which
may drip down into the connecting pipe through the
nozzle e forming the end of tube a. The tube h also
connects with the connecting pipe, its opening being
closed by the ball check c. When compression in the
engine cylinder occurs a portion of the gas escapes into
the reservoir of the oil cup through the tube b and the
check valve, forming a pressure on the surface of the
oil. Oil cannot pass the nozzle as the check c' is held
against its seat by the compression pressure. When,
on the following stroke, the pressure in the cylinder
of the engine, the nozzle e and its surrounding chamber,
is reduced, the check c' drops, opening the nozzle
passages; the captured gas retained in gr by the check
c is exerting pressure upon the surface of the oil



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LUBRICATION. 255

and forces a drop of oil through the tube a to the nozzle,
from whence it is drawn into the cylinder by suction and
gravity.

To lubricate a steam-
engine cylinder is not
easy, for one cannot
well make an opening
through which to in-
sert an ordinary oil
can when the pressure
is in the cylinder; as
the piston is constantly
moving forward and
backward, it requires
lubrication to over-
come the friction due
to the weight of the
piston resting on the
bottom of the cylinder.
For this purpose a
lubricator is employed,
the principle of which
is illustrated in Fig.
1 02 . The main steam
pipe a has two open-
ings in it, into which
are connected the
small pipes at h and c.
These small pipes and

the lubricator form a by-pass and afford, with the main
pipe, two ways for the steam to pass from the point d



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2S6



ELEMENTARY STEAM ENGINEERmG.



to e. Of course the major portion of the steam will
pass through the main pipe a, but with the lubricator
valves open a small portion of it will pass in that direction.

On entering the
pipe b and proceeding
to the large cham-
ber /, the steam is
condensed by coming
in contact with the
walls of this chamber,
which are kept cool
by the surrounding
atmosphere. The
condensed steam or
water then drops to
the bottom of the pipe
forming a layer of
water in the bottom
of the cylinder g.
This cylinder has pre-
viously been filled
with oil through the
opening /t, which is
now closed. As the
water under pressure
from the steam, in the
pipe bj collects at the
bottom of the cylinder, the oil floating on top of it tries
to find some outlet. This is provided through the pipe
i, ending near the top of the cylinder. Therefore, the
gradual accumulation of water drives the oil, little by



Fig. 102.



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LUBRICATION. 257

littlei through the pipe i, tmtili in the course of timei the
cylinder has been entirely emptied of the oil. The pipe
i ends in a nozzle, the opening of which may be regu-
lated by the valve j. This nozzle is placed in a glass
tube for convenience in noting the regulation of the
feedi and the glass tube continuing in the form of a pipe
joins the main line a at c. By means of the valve J,
the amount of oil passing into the line is regulated for
so many drops per minute, depending on the require-
ments. On reaching the pipe a, the drops of oil are
taken up by the main body of steam and with it enter
the steam chest and cyl^der, where they are thoroughly
distributed over the valve and cylinder walls.

When the oil in the cylinder g has become thoroughly
exhausted it is renewed by first closing the valves k^ h\
opening the valve ;, and the plug h\ the water now
drains out. Then, on closing 2, the cylinder may be re-
filled through the opening hy closing h and opening k^ k'
again; it is once more ready for operation.

Instead of using individual oil cups on each of a num-
ber of bearings on an engine, and sometimes also in the
case of cylinder lubrication, a force feed oiling system is
employed. This consists essentially of a supply tank
from which oil is pumped, either directly by a small
pumping attachment or by forcing air tmder pressure
into the reservoir; in either case the oil is forced out
into small pipes, each leading to and connecting with
one bearing.

In this way a constant feed of oil is maintained to
each point requiring it, and only one reservoir requires
to be supplied with oil. After oil has been used upon



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258 ELEMENTARY STEAM ENGINEERmG.

bearings it may be reclaimedi that is, collected in some
suitable vessel, and when sufficient quantities are col-
lected it may be cleaned and used again for bearings
not requiring the highest grade of lubrication. It should
not, however, be used over again in the cylinders of the
engine. On high-speed machinery, such, for instance,
as dynamos and motors, so-called self-oiling bearings
are often used. In this case a reservoir of oil is placed
a little below the shaft. Hanging loosely upon the shaft
is a ring sufficiently large in diameter to reach to the
bottom of the oil reservoir. As the shaft rotates this
ring moves around in the same direction, carrying with
it from the reservoir and depositing on the shaft sufficient
quantities of oil to thoroughly lubricate it. When this
oil runs off the shaft, it drops back into the reservoir to
be used again.

QUESTIONS.

1. How is friction produced?

2. What is the result of friction?

3. How may it be reduced?

4. What is anti-friction metal?

5. Describe roller bearings.

6. What is a lubricant?

7. Under what conditions are oils or grease used?

8. Describe a grease cup.

9. Describe a compression, or force feed, oil cup.
10. Describe a cylinder lubricator for steam engines.



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INDEX.



Absolute temperature, 84.
Advantage of expansive working

of steam, 52.
Air, and vapor mixture, 219, 232.

chamber on steam pump, i44«

cooling of gas engines, 234.

required for combustion, 130.

weight at sea level, 43.
Alcohol, denatured, 224.
Alloy, bearing metal, 249.

definition of, 89.
Angular advance of eccentric, i8.
Angularity of connecting rod, 37.

eflFect of, on engine, 37.
Anti-friction metals, 250.
Area, of chimney, 129.

of segment, 107.
Asbestos, 198.

Atmosphere, pressure of, 43.
Automatic stoker, 126.
Automatic valves, 84.
Average pressure from diagram,
61.

Babbitt metal, 249.
Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 112.
Banking the fire, 119.
Batteries for ignition, 245.
Bearing metal composition, 249.
Bearing metal, anti-friction, 250.
Bearings, 249.
Boiler, braces for, 104.

bursting pressure of, xox.

care and operation of, 116.



Boiler, constructbn, 94.

corrosion of, 117.

definition of, 88.

domes on, 95.

factor of safety of, 89.

feed pumps, 142.

feed-water heaters, 156.

feedr water supply, 1x8.

fire-tube, 92-110.

heads, 106.

heating surface of, xo9.

horse-power, 109.

incrustation of, XX7.

materials, 88.

materiab, qualities of, 89.

materials, strength of, 90.

safe working pressure of, X02.

seams, strength ratio, 102.

settings, 98.

water-tube, iii'ii6.
Boilers, 88-140.
Boiling point of water, 83.
Bolts, stay, 104.
Boyle's law, 49.
Braces, diagonal, 104.
Brake, Prony, 40.
Brake test, for HJP., 39.
Bursting pressure of boiler, loi.

Calculations for steam pump, 150.
Cams, on gas engines, 228.
Cam shaft speed ratio, 239.
Capacity of pipes, table, 193.
Capacity of pumps, 151.



259



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26o



INDEX.



Carburetor, for gasoline, 231.
Centigrade-Fahrenheit conversion

rule, 83.
Check valves, 185.
Chimneys, 129.

calculations for, 129.

draft in, 131.
Clack valve, 149.
Qearance in steam engine, 2a

line on diagram, 77.
Coal, combustion of, 120.
Coal, heat units per pound, 85.
Composition of bearing metal, 249.
Compound engines, 167.
Compression space in gas engines,

225.
Condensers, jet and surface, 172.
Condensing engine, 34.
Conduction of heat, 86.
Connecting rod, 9.

end bearings, 9.
Constant for indicated horse

power, 67.
Convection, 86.

Conversion rule, Fahrenheit-Centi-
grade, 83.
Corliss engines, 161-166.
Corrosion due to scale, 117.

how prevented, 117.
Covering for steam pipes, 198.
Crank pin, 10.

speed of, 37.

tangential pressure of, 38.
Cross-head, 8.

guides, pressure on, 11.
Cross-compound engine, 169.
Crude oil, specific gravity of, 252.
Cup, grease, 253.

oil feed, 254.

pressure feed, 254.



Curtis turbine, 212.
Cut-off, point of, 53.
Cycle, definition of, 229.
Cylinder, Corliss engine, 161.

clearance in, 20.

gas engine, 226.

slide-valve engine, 3.

steam pump, 143.

Damper regulation, 120.
Dash pot, on Corliss engine, 166.
Definitions of terms, 88-90.
Deflocculated graphite, 252.
De Laval turbine, 207.

governor, 209.

nozzle, 207.
Diagrams for gas-engine ignition,

246.
Diameter of pump cylinder, 151.
Diesel engine, 234.
Dimensions of steam pumps, 150.
Discharge of steam through an

orifice, 194.
Distillation of crude oil, 252.
Domes on steam boilers, 95.
Draft, of chimneys, 131.

effect on combustion, 130.
Duplex steam pumps, 145.

Eccentric, action of, 13.

angular advance of, 18.

control of slide valve, 16.

rod and strap, 15.

throw of, 15.
Effect of retarded ignition, 237.
Effective pressure, 34.
Efficiency of engine, 80.
Elastic limit, 89.
Electric wiring diagrams, 246.



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INDEX.



261



Enclosed water heater, 157.
End bearing of connecting rod, 9.
Engine constant, 67.
Engines, compound, 167.

Corliss, 161-166.

Curtis turbine, 212.

De Laval turbine, 207.

Diesel, 234.

internal combustion (see gas
engines).

Parsons tiurbine, 214.

reciprocating, 1-12, 161-171.

turbines, 202-217.
Equivalent volumes of steam at

different pressures, 46.
Expansion curve (theoretical), 77.
Expansive working of steam, 48.

Factor of safety, 89.
Fahrenheit-Centigrade conversion

rule, 83.
Feed, pump, 142.

water, how supplied, 116.

water heater, 156.

water, saving due to heating,

155.
Fire in boiler furnace, 119.
Fire-tube boilers, 92-110.
Fittings, for steam pipes, 174-

185.
Flow, of steam, 192-195.

loss due to friction, 193.

through an orifice, 194.
Foaming, 128.

Foot-pound, definition of, 41.
Forces, parallelogram of, 39.
Freezing point of water, 83.
Friction and lubrication, 248.
Fuel, 85, 218, 224.
Furnace grates, 125.



Gage glass, how replaced, 122.
Gage, steam, 123.
Gallon, per cubic foot, 151.
Gas, as fuel, 219, 224.

and vapor mixtiure, 219, 224.

engines, 218-247.

producer, 219.

water, 219.
Gas engine, compresaon space In,
225.

cooling methods, 234.

cylinder, 225.

four-part cycle, 225.

horse-power of, 244.

ignition, 236.

ignition, advanced or retarded,
237.

order of firing cylinders, 243.

piston, 225.

shock diagram for shaft, 240.

spark plug, 236.

timer, 236.

timing of valves, 239.

two-part cyde, 229.

valve operation, 239.

wiring diagrams, 246.
Gasoline carburetor, 231.
Gate valve, 182.
Globe valve, 180.
Governor, inertia, 30.

for reciprocating engines, 33-

30.

pendulum, 23.

shaft, 29.

turbines, 210.
Graphite, deflocculated, 253.

use in bearings, 250.
Grease, conditions for using,

251.
Grease cup, 253.



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262



niDBX.



Heads of boilers, io6.
Heat, 81-87.

conduction of, 86.

convection of, 86.

latent and sensible, 44.

mechanical equivalent of, 45, 85.

radiation of, 86.

specific, 84.

transfer of, 86.

unit of, 84.

units per pound of coal, 85.
Heaters, enclosed, 157.

water, 156.
Heating surface of boilers, 109.
Height of chimneys, 129.
Horse-power, by brake test, 40.

constant, 67.

definition of, 32, 85.

efficiency of chimneys, 129.

formula, 33, 244.

indicated {see indicators).

of steam engine, 32-41.

of boilers, 109.

of gas engines, 244*

of pumps, 150.

Ignition, 235.
Impulse of jet, 203.
Impurities in water, 132.
Incrustation and scale, 132.
Indicated horse power, 67.
Indicator, steam engine, 56-80.

construction, 70.

diagrams, actual, 62.

diagrams, theoretical, 59.

principle of operation, 57.

reducing wheel, 74.
Internal combustion engines (see
gas engine).



Injector, 153-156.

construction of, 154.
Isothermal curve, 50.

Jacketing an engine cylinder, 30.

Jacket, water, 234.

Jet condenser, 171.

Jet, reaction of, 203.

Joints, riveted, loi.

Jump spark ignition, 235.

Lap and lead in slide valves, 137.
Lap joints, riveted, loi.
Latent heat, 44.
Lever safety valves, 137.
Limit, elastic, 89.
Link, reversing for engine, 19.
Loss of head in pipes, 193.
Lubrication, 248-258.
Lubricator, steam engine cylinder,
256.

Magnesia, use of, 198.
Make-and-break ignition method,

235.
Mean effective pressiure (M.E.P.),

60.
from diagram, 61.
Mechanical equivalent of heat, 45.
Mechanical efficiency of steam

engine, 80.
Mechanical stoker, 126.
Mechanism of Corliss valves, 164.
Metallic packing, 197.
Metals, anti-friction, 249.
Mud drum, 112.
Muffler, for gas engines, 238.

Natural gas, 249.
Non-conductors, of heat, 198.

table of relative values, 200.
Nozzles, turbine, 206, 213.



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INDEX.



263



Oa, crude, specific gravity of,
252.

distillates of, 252.

effect on boiler, 118.

engines, 233.

feed cups, 254.

mineral, 251.

when to use, 251,
Orifice, flow of steam through, 194.

Packing, 195.

metallic, 197.

piston and valve rods, 6.
Parallelogram of forces, 39.
Parsons turbine, 214.
Pendulum governor, 24.
Pipe coverings, 198.
Pipe threads, 174.
Pipes, capacity of, 193.

equation of, 191.

fittings for, 174-185.

flow of steam in, 193.

loss of head in, 193.
Piston, di^lacement, 37.

rings, 5.

rod, 5.

speed, 37.

steam engine, 2.
Planimeter, 75.
Plug, spark, 236.
Plug valve, 183.
Point of cut-off, 53.
Ports, steam, 7.
Pressure, back, 34.

bursting, of boiler, 102.

effective, 34.

feed, oil cup, 254.

initial, 58.

mean effective, 60.

on cross-head guides, 37.



Pressure, safe working, 103.

terminal, 58.
Priming, 128.

Producer, suction gas, 220.
Prony brake, 40.
Properties of saturated steam,

table, 48.
Pumps, 142-152.

air chamber on, 144.

boiler feed, 142.

capacity of water cylinder, 151.

diameter of water cylinder, 151.

dimensions of, 150.

duplex steam, 145.

horse power of, 150.

piston speed of, 148.

plunger of, 149.

pumping hot water, 147.

size of connections, 150.

suction of, 150.

valves, 144, 149.

valves, setting of, 146.

Radiation of heat, 86.

Receiver for compound engines,

170.
Reducing wheel for indicator, 74.
Retarded ignition, effect of, 237.
Reversing gear for engines, 19.
Riveted joints, strength of, 102.
Rotary engines, 202.

Safe working pressure of boilers,

102.
Safety, factor of, 89.

valves, 134.
Scale, 117.
Seams of boilers, strength ratio,

102.
Segment, area of, 107.



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264



INDEX.



Separator, steam, 189.

Setting pump valves, 146.

Shells of steam boilers, materials

for, 88.
Shock diagram, for gas engines,

240.
Slide valve, steam engine, 7.
Spark plug, 236.
Specific gravity of oil, 252.
Specific heat, 84.
Speed of pump piston, 148.
Spring safety valve, 136.
Stay bolts, 104.
Steam, back pressure, effect of, 34.

effective pressure of, 34.

expansive working of, 49.

flow of, in pipes, 192.

flow of, through an orifice, 194.

gage, 123.

latent heat of, 44.

loss in pipes, 193.

mean effective pressure of, 60.

saturated, properties of, table,

48.

superheated, 43.

trap, 188.

weight of, per H.P. per hour, 54.

work during formation of, 43.
Steam boilers, 88, 140.

bursting pressure of, loi.

construction of, 94, 112.

corrosion of, 117.

domes on, 95.

factor of safety of, 89.

feed pumps for, 142.

feed- water heater for, 156.

feed-water saving due to heat-
ing, iSS-

foaming or priming of, 128.

grates for, 125.



Steam boilers, heating surface of,
109.

height of chimney for, 129.

horse power of, 109.

incrustation in, 132.

injectors on (see injectors).

mechanical stokers for, 126.

riveted seams, strength of, 102.

safe working pressure of, 102.

safety valves for, 134.

scale in, 117.

scale, method of softening, 117.

shells, material for, 88.

stay bolts for, 104.

strength of, loi.

tests, method of making, 118.
Steam engines, i, 161, 207, 218.

advantages of compounding,
167.

clearance in, 20.

compound, 167.

condensing and non-condens-
ing, 34.

connecting rod, 9.

construction of, 2-12.

control by eccentric, 16.

Corliss, 161.

Corliss, cylinder and valves,
162.

Corliss, dash pots on, 166.

Corliss, valve mechanism, 164.

Corliss, valves, method of opera-
tion, 162.

crank, 9.

crank pin, 10.

crank pin, speed of, 37.

cross-head, 8.

cut-off, point of, 17.

determining expansions in, 170.

double expansion, 170.



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INDEX.



26s



Steam engines, eccentric, 13.

eccentric, angular advance of,
18.

efficiency, 80.

expansions in each cylinder, 170.

governors, inertia, 30.

governors, pendulum, 23.

governors, shaft, 29.

governors, turbine, 210.

guides, pressure on, 11.

horse-power constant, 67.

horse power of, 32.

indicator diagrams, 66.

jacketing of, 20.

link, reversing for, 19.

mean effective pressure of, 60.

piston, 2.

piston displacement in, 37.

piston rings, 5.

piston-rod, 5.

ports, steam, 7.

receiver for, 170.

rotary {see turbines).

slide valve, 7.

slide-valve crank angle, 16.

slide valve, diagrams of port
opening and cut-off, 16.

slide valve, travel of, 20.

speed of piston, 37.

triple expansion, 170.

tyi)es of compound engines, 168.
Steam pipes, 193.

coverings for, 198.

fittings for, 174-185.
Steam traps, 188.
Steam turbines, 207.
Strain and stress, 89.
Strength, . of materials, compres-
sion, 89.

shearing, 89



Strength, tensile, 89.

torsional, 89.
Suction gas producer, 220.
Superheated steam, 134.

Table, properties of saturated

steam, 48.
Tandem compound engine, 169
Temperature, absolute, 84.
Tensile strength, definition of, 89.
Theory of lubrication, 250.
Thermometers, 83.
Timer, gas-engine, 236.
Torsional strength, 89.
Total heat of evaporation, 48.
Trap, steam, 188.
Travel of slide valve, 20.
Triple expansion engine, 170.
Turbines, 202-217.

arrangement of blades, 213.

multi-stage, 212.

Unit, of heat, 84.
of power, 84.
of work, 84.

Valve gear, 164.

Valves, area of opening of, 138.

check, 185.

Corliss, 162.

gas engine, 238.

gate, 182.

globe, 180.

lap and lead of, 20.

plug, 183.

pump, 144, 149.

relief, 21.

safety, 134-140.

safety, size required, 139.

steam pump, 144, 149.

travel of, 20.



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266 INDEX.

Water, boiling point of, 83. Water, scale in, 117.
column, 121. tube boilers, 1 1 i-i 16.

convection, heating by, 86. weight of, 43, 151.

feed, 116. weight per gallon, 151.

freezing point of, 83. Weight of air, 43.

gas, 219. \^e drawing, 21.

per H.P. per hour, 54. Wiring diagrams, gas ei^ne, 246.



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SHORT-TITLE CATALOG

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Online LibraryErnest Victor LallierAn elementary manual of the steam engine; containing also a chapter on the theory, construction and operation of internal combustion engines for the operating engineer → online text (page 14 of 17)