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CRIMINIS



ER.VIN S. CHAPMAN





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PARTICEPS CE1MINIS

THE STORY OF A CALIFORNIA
RABBIT DRIVE



BY

ERVIN S. CHAPMAN, D.D., LL.D.

Author of *' The Czolgosz of Trade and Commerce," "A Stainless Flag," etc.



ILLUSTRATED BY
HARRY GRAYDON PARTLOW



New York


Chicago Toronto


Fleming H.


Revell Company


London


and Edinburgh



Copyright, 1910, by
ERVIN S. CHAPMAN



New York: 158 Fifth Avenue
Chicago : 80 Wabash Avenue
Toronto : 25 Richmond Street, W.
London : 21 Paternoster Square
Edinburgh: 100 Princes Street



Bancron Liorary
/ ! 317



TO

ONE OF THE TWENTY MILLION



CHAPTER I.




[HERE are many large
sections of California in
which the rabbit is re-
if% ] H garded as an intolerable

Iffill vfjm pest. So numerous and

voracious are they as to
make impossible the successful prosecu-
tion of any branch of agriculture. With
ravenous appetite they girdle every fruit
tree and fruit-bearing vine and consume
every blade of grass and every green leaf
within their reach. In those portions of
the state where rabbits thus abound it has
been found necessary occasionally to en-
gage in concentrated movements for the
destruction of these little animals.

The number of rabbits is so great and



\




PARTICEPS CMMINIS

their increase is so rapid that the ordi-
nary methods of trapping, shooting and
poisoning are of but little value. The
ranchmen, therefore, unite in what are
known as "Rabbit Drives" to accomplish
the wholesale slaughter of these obstacles
to agricultural pursuits. The residents
of a large section of country usually join
in one of these rabbit drives.



\



FIELD SELECTED AND PREPARED.

At a carefully chosen place on the
plain a rabbit-tight corral of a half -acre,
more or less, in area, is constructed with
an opening or door at one side. This
corral is located at a point most favorable
to the accomplishment of large results,
irrespective of the points of the compass,
but to aid in making clear this descrip-
tion we will suppose the corral is located
at the east side and midway between the




A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE

northern and southern boundary of the
section of country over which the opera-
tions are to be conducted, and that the
corral door faces the west. At the north




side of this door the corral fence turns
abruptly and extends in a northwesterly
direction from a half mile to two or three
times that distance according to the mag-
nitude of the movement. At the south



PARTICEPS CRIMINIS

side of the door also, the fence turns and
extends in a southwesterly direction at
the same angle and distance as the other.
These two out-reaching fences marking
the boundary of a fan-shaped tract of
many hundreds of acres of rabbit-
infested territory resemble two wide-
spread welcoming arms.

THE RABBIT DRIVERS.

Several miles west of the corral is
formed a semi-circular cordon of men
with its concave side toward the corral,
and its two ends extending out to the
north and south and wider apart than are
the two western ends of the outreaching
corral fences. Several hundred men are
sometimes formed into such a cordon and
at a given signal all proceed at a uniform
rate of speed toward the corral, beating
bushes, pans and drums, tooting horns,



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A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE

and making all possible tumult without
the aid of dogs or firearms, and thus driv-
ing the affrighted bunnies toward the
distant corral.



THE TIGHTENING CORDON.

As they advance, the two ends of this
cordon overlap the two ends of the corral
fences to avoid the danger of the escape
of the fleeing and fleet-footed bunnies.
When this cordon forms a junction with
the corral fences the rabbits are enclosed
— by the corral, the fences and the cor-
don of men. And, as amid a cloud of
dust they hasten toward the wide-open
door of their carefully constructed prison,
they resemble a vast flock of sheep and
lambs playfully seeking the protecting
enclosure of their beloved fold. When
at length the rabbits are all within the
corral, the door is closed and men leap



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PARTICEPS CRIMINIS

over the fence and heartlessly club them
all to death. Not one beautiful bunny
which enters the corral is permitted to
escape this wholesale and heartless
slaughter*

STORY REPEATED AND APPLIED.

Aided by the accompanying illustra-
tions I will endeavor, with greater full-
ness and as clearly as possible, to explain
in detail some of thethrillingly interesting
features of a successful rabbit drive. The
story should be read in its entirety that
its full significance may be understood
and realized.

However necessary the rabbit drives
may be, we cannot refrain from a feeling
of tender pity for the soft-furred little
bunnies that are thus driven to cruel
slaughter. When they realize their peril
and utter helplessness, their large, f riend-

6



A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



ly eyes assume a glassy glare of fright-
ened protest against their doom, and
move us with a strong desire to rush to
their deliverance.

And if those bunnies were boys, who
were thus being sacrificed, our zeal for
their deliverance would overleap all re-
straint, and the civilized world would rise
up and with vehement indignation de-
mand and secure the cessation of such
barbarities.

STARTLING ANALOGY.

Yet, a rabbit drive, with all its acces-
sories and revolting results, is a startling
illustration of what the beverage liquor
traffic is accomplishing upon the boyhood
of the nation. If we regard the corral
into which the rabbits are driven as an
illustration of the condition of those who
have become helpless inebriates, each flee-
ing bunny becomes in our thought a dar-

7







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PARTICEPS CRIMINIS




ling boy rushing to a drunkard's doom.
We must not shudder and shrink from
the contemplation of this startling anal-
ogy. Possibly we thus may bring to our
own hearts temporary relief, but it is
the relief which cowards seek and which
true men and women heroically refuse.

SINFUL SLUMBER.

Many have turned and fled from the
scene when the rabbit drive they had come
to witness reached its revolting stages,
but the rabbit drive went on to its tragic
end. And the boy drive now in progress
will not stop because we refuse to recog-
nize its existence or to listen to the lesson
which it teaches. We may aid to stop it
if we will awaken to a realization of its
existence and of its unspeakable enormi-
ties. I trust the reader will aid me by
close attention and true sympathy while

8










A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE

I point out the startling resemblances be-
tween the details of a successful rabbit
drive, as I shall describe it, and the details
of the processes by which so many of our
buoyant youth are hurried to a dismal
destiny.

The rabbit drive and the boy drive!
The one illustrates the other. Some of
their features are startlingly similar. Be-
tween others there is an equally striking
dissimilarity.

DISSIMILAR FEATURES.

RABBIT DRIVES ALWAYS BEGIN WITH AN
EMPTY CORRAL.

When the long cordon of men is
formed and the signal to begin the drive
is heard, not one bright-eyed bunnie is
within the distant enclosure which soon
will become to many of them a bastile for

9




PARTICEPS CRIMINIS

their ghastly execution. But the drunk-
ard's corral — the condition of helpless in-
ebriety which in this analogy the rabbit
corral is made to represent — is ever full
of its dejected and degraded inmates.
They throng the streets of our great cit-
ies and by the million crowd into the
haunts of vice and the realm of indigence
and want. Brief is their stay within that
realm, for their condition marks the
nearing of their journey's end, and their
passing seems never to diminish the num-
bers of this wrecked and ruined multitude.




RABBIT DRIVE OF SHORT DURATION.

It continues only a few fleeting hours
and then the work of rabbit driving and
of rabbit slaughter will not be again re-
sumed for months or years, and perhaps
never again in that locality. But the boy
drive never ceases. As constant as the
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A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



flight of time is the movement of the
countless throng whose path of sunny-
youth becomes the rocky road to wretch-
edness and ruin. The evening finds the
lovely lad nearer his dreadful destiny
than when the morning dawned. And
while night's sable curtains hang in gen-
erous wealth about his cot, the space is
steadily diminishing between his sleeping
pillow and his doom.

He knows no solitude or seclusion, for
like his noonday shadow a multitude is
ever with him, each one like himself con-
stantly facing and approaching the
gloom of nameless night. The rabbit
drive is for a single day, but through the
ceaseless centuries the boy drive contin-
ues its mad and murderous activity. And
not limited as is the rabbit drive to the
area of a few fertile fields, but upon a
scale vast as the extent of civilization





PARTICEPS CRIMINIS

are the activities of this unspeakable
barbarity.

RABBIT DRIVES PROTECTIVE.

Cruel as the rabbit drive may seem to
be, it always is conducted for the protec-
tion of important human interests. But
the boy drive is alike destructive of the
manhood and the material prosperity of
the nation. Fruitful orchards and vine-
yards, grassy meadows and golden har-
vests, with homes made bright and happy
by their needed blessings are the after-
math of a necessary and successful rabbit
drive. But in the wake of the boy drive
material ruin is always found.

SIMILAR FEATURES.

If a rabbit drive were planned and
conducted for the sole purpose of illus-
trating the processes by which the ruin



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A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



of bright and promising boys is accom-
plished, the two proceedings could not k ^«^"^^
more nearly be alike. Each is of i4lfe'i..«



VAST DIMENSIONS. /



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A rabbit drive is not usually regarded * '"" v< »tf«jf£te*

as successful or satisfactory unless its \\

furry victims are numbered by the thou- ****$£'*

sands. As many as twenty thousand ~^$r

bunnies have been corraled and killed at j5&
a single drive during the hours of one

working day. Upon an extended field ''^^fe

swept by the cordon of men a much larger r '''* ov ^ ,//: -^^fe

number of rabbits are found, some of «J?!?

which escape, and that countless throng -wijp

upon that field reminds us of the twenty l ***$$$&

million American lads from five to Ww)k|^

nineteen years of age scattered over »ifc£~

those portions of our country where influ- ..,,., xV,r *\"

ences more potent than are those engaged ' \S^^\
in an enthusiastic rabbit drive, are, with



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PARTICEPS CRIMINIS

tremendous force, pressing them nearer
and still nearer to the darkness that knows
no day.

Twenty thousand bunnies slain during
a few frolicsome hours! Twenty million
boys diligently sought, for a far more
savage slaughter. Those twenty million
boys, if arranged three feet apart, as they
appear in the school yard when awaiting
the call to their class rooms, would fill to
its limit a field of more than 4,132 acres.
A square mile of boys! Yes, more than
six square miles — a solid mass of bust-
ling, buoyant boyhood extending over an
area of three and one-fourth miles in
length by two miles in width. Arranged
in single file three feet apart, as if
marching in parade, they would make an
army more than 11,363 miles in length.
Marching at the rate of three miles per
hour for eight hours per day it would

14





A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE

require 474 days for that tremendous
army to pass a given point. Nearly
eighteen months would be required to
mobilize that single-column army to their
places in the thousands of broad acres.

As in our thoughts we view those more
than four thousand acres of exuberant
youth we cannot overlook the limitless
affection which holds them in its warmth
and tenderness, nor the infinite and
hoped-for possibilities of those twenty
million boys. And that is the quarry the
game-hunters are seeking! Around that
field the cordon of Satanic influences is
extended. Over that field the boy drive
is now in active operation, and from that
field, where all is now so glad and gay,
many will be borne to vagrancy and vice
as the playful bunnies are driven from
their joyous freedom to their awful
doom. Yes, "many," very, very many,

i5





PARTICEPS CRIMINIS




\ 4



more by far than our faltering faith
causes our unwilling hearts to realize,
more than three hundred during the fleet-
ing hours of one brief day are swept, as
with a tempest, into the engulfing vortex
of despair. Three hundred boys during
each and every day! Twenty thousand
boys in ten weeks and then twenty thou-
sand more during a like period until one
hundred thousand boys, while the year
goes by, yield to the potential agency by
which they are "driven out of the world."

NOT ENTICED, BUT DRIVEN.

Yes, "driven"! It is a rabbit drive I
am describing, not a trap nor snare, nor
covered pitfall in which the rabbits may
through lack of prudence be engulfed.
The rabbits are driven into the corral,
and by a tremendous pressure our na-
tion's boyhood is being forced into the
16



A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



excessive and destructive use of ardent
spirits. If left wholly to their own free
choice, without the alluring prospects of
securing food, very few, if any, of the
coy and careful little bunnies would ever
enter the strong enclosure so skillfully
constructed for their imprisonment. But
they are not left free to the exercise of
their voluntary choice. They are driven
to a destiny they would never voluntarily
secure. Human wisdom, skill and effort
are vigorously employed to overcome
their weaker will and literally to drive
them into the corral. No obstacle is per-
mitted between them and that prison pen,
no man nor beast nor frightening sound
to make difficult or doubtful their rapid
movements toward their bastile's open
door.

The mission of government, as Glad-
stone tells us, is "to make it easy to do




PARTICEPS CEIMINIS





right and difficult to do wrong," but the
first work of the boy drive is to make it
as easy as possible to do wrong. From
the intended victim's mind all apprehen-
sion of danger is carefully removed.
Warning voices that might affright him
from the path of peril are not permitted
to be heard, having been hushed to silence
by the flatterer's assuring tones. His
own nobler nature is invoked to banish
prudential fear. He is made to regard
himself as too well poised and self-suffi-
cient ever to become a victim of the flow-
ing bowl. Men addicted to their cups
and far advanced toward the yawning
gateway of the drunkard's realm of utter
helplessness are still held in such high
repute as to lure the confiding lad to fol-
low in their footsteps, just as the bunnies
that are fleeing toward their doom en-
courage others to do the same. The rab-

18



A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



bits which have not yet begun their move-
ment toward their awaiting prison walls
are started on that fatal road by their
fellow bunnies whose confident advance in
that direction gives assurance that the way
is safe. And just as the masters of the
fatal rabbit drive spare no pains to cause
the free and roaming bunnies to believe
the noiseless plain extending toward the
distant and unobserved corral is free
from peril, so our confiding youth are
assured and reassured that no voracious
lions of controlling appetite lurk along
the way of a moderate use of intoxicating
drinks. And all who aid in producing
that conviction contribute to the success
of the barbarous boy drive, the unspeak-
able iniquity of every community in
which it has existence.




19



CHAPTER II.



ALL FACES TOWARD THE CORRAL.




LL things are now in
readiness, but the rabbit
drive will not begin until
the signal for activity is
heard. The unsuspect-
ing bunnies skip and play
among the sheltering shrubs and bask or
browse at will. A wondrous change will
soon sweep over this enchanting scene,
and before it comes let us gaze in mute
reflection on this wide and peaceful land-
scape.

Standing south of the southernmost
fence and midway between the corral and
the ends of the outspreading fences we
look eastward and trace the dim but




A CALIFORNIA EABBIT DRIVE



shapely outlines of the strong corral, and
from its open western door we see the two
long lines of fences extending westward
and spreading wide apart like a loving
mother's arms of holy welcome. Now
turn the eye toward the western limit of
this quiet plain and see that long crescen-
tic cordon of standing men at equal dis-
tance from each other, and all with faces
toward the rising sun. Eastward from
that cordon thousands of browsing bun-
nies are moving free as the air they
breathe and peaceful as the heavenly light
by which they are enswathed. The faces •//%
and the movements of those bunnies arewt
in all directions. Not one of all that free
and joyous throng suspects that very soo
he will be madly rushing to his ruin, and~^%|jg:
that ere the shadows of the night shall ***
fall he will be the helpless victim of his
unrelenting foes. To the unsuspecting




21



PARTICEPS CRIMINIS



human mind no evidence
such will be the case.



appears



that




THE SIGNAL AND RESPONSE.

But the appointed time has come and
over all that plain the clarion call is heard.
The bunnies heed it not, but to the sturdy
ranchmen in that extended cordon it is a
signal for activity and it is answered by
a shout so long and loud and fierce that
every craggy shrub, and every tuft of
withered grass seems to have found "the
voice of many waters'' and the violence
of the ocean's fiercest storm. Continuous
and terrible as is the tempest's ceaseless
roar, that shout is heard mingling with
the din and uproar of the resounding
pans and drums and all the tumult that
human skill and cunning can produce.
With the barbaric tumult the long cordon
of men advances with slow and measured
22




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A CALIFORNIA -RABBIT DRIVE



tread, and with strong and heavy clubs
they beat with violence every shrub and
bush that stands within their reach. The
limit of their ability is t}ie limit of the ter-
rific tumult they produce and the af-
frighted bunnies flee, but all with faces
turned, as are the faces of their foes,
toward the strong enclosure which is
ready to receive them.

The rabbit drive has now begun and
with all the force of vigorous and deter-
mined human effort the rabbits are being
hastened onward to the corral. As truly
as if borne along by a resistless force
those timid, frightened, little creatures
are by the threatening tumult of that
advancing human cordon compelled
through fear to flee in terror from their
foes. In their ignorance and fright they
have not power to do otherwise than to
flee. They are not persuaded, they are




3R*




PARTICEPS CRIMINIS




not enticed, they are literally driven to-
ward and into the corral. Not one of all
their number has felt the touch of any
weapon in the hands of their pursuers,
but there has been used a force quite as
potential as a blow — a force which they
were powerless to resist and to which,
with rare exceptions, they have promptly
yielded.

CURSED BY COMPULSION.

I am pressing this fact, I am holding
it thus protractedly before the reader that
all may feel its force when it is made to
illustrate the processes by which the most
lovely and promising boys, as they ad-
vance to the estate of manhood, become
helpless, degraded slaves of rum. They
are driven into a condition of degradation
and ruin. As truly as the cordon of
robust, sturdy ranchmen drive the af-




A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



frighted bunnies into the corral, so truly
do existing influences combine and oper-
ate to drive our boys to drunken degrada-
tion and disgrace. Not by the tumult
which always attends a successful rabbit
drive, but by proceedings equally effect-
ive is the boy drive made to gather its
millions from the first born of the land.

COMPELLED TO MAKE THE CHOICE
THEY DO.

Some would seek to put aside this aw-
ful truth by claiming that only by the
exercise of their own free choice do any
find their way into the dismal prison
house of helpless inebriety; that none are
driven to the drunkard's doom. With
equal truthfulness and force it may be
said the rabbits are not driven into the
imprisoning corral ; they choose to go and
none but they can be held responsible for




25



PARTICEPS CRIMINIS

their choice. Yet the stubborn fact re-
mains — they are driven into the corral.
It is a rabbit drive of which we are speak-
ing, and while the bunnies flee in the
direction of their own choice, they are
compelled to choose the way that leads
them to their prison and to their tragic
death. With their timid natures and their
meager knowledge, the encircling and
besetting tumult overmasters their every
inclination save the one to flee in that
direction where no frightening sounds are
heard. Their weaker natures are sub-
jected to the stronger will of man, and
they move along the lines of his choosing
even to their own cruel slaughter.

Startlingly true is all this when applied
to our cherished boys. Gruesome and
gloomy the region of despair waits for
their coming, and influences as potent and
as active as is any band of determined
26




A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE



rabbit drivers are now at work hastening
them onward to that fearful future.
With human nature as it is, and with con-
ditions as they are, the nation's boy drive,
as now conducted, cannot fail to force
millions of manly boys to a most unmanly
close of life. They may pursue their
chosen path, but stronger wills than
theirs, and influences which many of them
are not able to resist, are compelling them
to choose the path that leads to ruin.
They are not compelled to drink, but they
are compelled to choose to drink, and just
at that point where the course pursued is
decided upon and chosen, the ranchmen
win their victory over the destructive bun-
nies, and evil influences accomplish the
destruction of our boys. And whatever
tends to cause a boy to choose or to con-
sent to the use of ardent spirits is to that
boy what the rabbit driver's efforts are to

27




PAETICEPS CRIMINIS

the bunnies he is seeking to destroy. It
is driving the boy to his ruin. It tends to
compel his choice of a wrong course and
to encourage him to pursue that course,
and in so doing it drives him to
destruction.



FAMILY LIQUOR DRINKING,

is first among the agencies that are influ-
encing our boyhood's fatal choice. From
the cellar and from the sideboard of the
home is borne to the family dining table
the stimulating cup of which both young
and old partake. How can that suscepti-
ble boy refrain from sipping the luscious
liquid which is set before him, against
which no word is spoken, and which he
sees partaken of so freely by his father —
the one whom he delights to regard as
the prince of sterling manliness. That
imitating lad has not the power to cast
28




A CALIFORNIA RABBIT DRIVE

aside the harmful influence of his father's
dining-room example. His father is not
forcing him to drink, but by an influence
which the boy cannot resist he is forcing
him to choose to drink. In later years,
when character is formed, and that young
lad has grown to man's estate, he may,
with iron will, pursue the pathway of his
choice uninfluenced by what others may
say or do. But in his boyhood, in the
family group, and by the family board,
he is overmastered and compelled to
choose to sip the tempting cup.

It is not enticement but compulsion of
which I am now speaking, and with the
reluctance of a sympathetic heart, I am
insisting that as the ranchmen drive the
bunnies to their death, so by the family
use of liquor parents are driving their
children to drunkenness and ruin. They
are not commanding, and thus compell-
29




PARTICEPS CRIMINIS



r\




ing, their children now to imbibe, but
their table customs and habits exert a


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