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Kayowe Sounds.

.Trills. Vowels.





Surds.


Sonant.


Aspirated.


Spirants.


Nasals.


Gutturals


k


%


X


b,'


»^g


Palatals








y




Linguals


k


S




sb




Dentals


t


d




s, z


n, nd, dl


labials


P


b


f


w


ni| mb



•S'l



\^



In the consonant series the absences will strike any observer,
and the two peculiar sounds are ^ and ^'; the two last being
linguo-dentals produced by holding the inverted tip of the tongue
against the hard palate and pronouncing k and g.

In the vocalic series the author unfortunately has elaborated
from the five English vowels, a, e, i, o, u, fifteen sounds without
indicating what they are equivalent to in English.

The chapter on alternation of sounds is a very important one,
and leads to a comprehension of the different spellings frequently-
adopted by different authors for the same word.

The remaining papers of the Antiquarian are of the first rank
and are well worthy of perusal.

Anthropology in Europe. — For general information on an-
thropology no other journal can compare with the Revue d^An-
ihropologie of Paris, and No. 3 of Vol. v certainly sustains its
enviable reputation. The reviews are even more valuable than
the original papers. Of the latter there are five, to wit :

The mensuration of the capacity of the skull according to the registers of Broca.

By Paul Topinard.
Essay upon the origin, the evolution and the actual condition of the sedentary Ber>

bcrs. By Camille Sabatier.
Contribution to the study of palaeoethnological classification of the age of rude

stone. By Philip Salmon.
The population of the Balkan peninsula. By William Lejean.
The first discovery of human bones belonging to the stone age in Norway. By C.

Arbo.

M. Topinard devotes twenty-five pages to the explanation of
M. Broca's methods of craniometry, with all the precision of a
text-book. Our readers engaged in cranio metric researches
should carefully examine this paper.

The Maures, or sedentary Berbers are divided into two
branches, the Getu/es, "mountaineers," and the Maziques, or "cul-
tivators." To these people, living in Algiers and Morocco, as
distinguished from the wild Berbers, M. Sabatier devotes thirty-
pages. In their institutions we retrace the past, and are able to
observe the evolution of a people. Inasmuch as they are of Cel-



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1 883.] Microscopy, 1 09

tic origin, the subject becomes of more than passing interest for
the French anthropologists.

Mr. Salmon outstrips all competitors in the finesse of his chart
of archaeology, in that region of guesswork where six blind men
of Hindustan went out to see the elephant. Here it is :

I. Age of stone. Period I. Stone flaked by fire, Tertiary.

Period 11. Chipped stone, Quaternary.
a. Epoque Chelle^nne or Acheul^en, '*
//. Epoque moust^rienne, **

I'. Epoque solutre^nne,
d. Epoque magdalenienne, **

Period ill. Polished stone, • Recent.
II. Age uf bronze, *'

III. Age of iron, '*

Age I, Period i, is then elaborated, p. 451, into thirteen stages
extending from the Lower Miocene to the Upper Pliocene.

M. Lejean's paper is continued from pp. 201-259 of this vol-
ume, and is indispensable to the ethnologist.

The purport of Dr. Arno's paper is sufficiently explained by
the title.

On p. 520 M. Manouvrier reviews Hovelacque*s " Les Races
Humaines," The author divides our race primarily into Austra-
lians, Papuans, Melanesians, Bushmen, Hottentots, Guinea and
Soudan Negroes, Akkas, Kaffirs, Peuls and Nubians, Negritoes,
Veddahs, Dravidians, Moundas (savages of Indo-China), Siamese,.
Birmans, Himalayans, Indo-Chinese (east and south). Chinese^
Japanese, Ainos, Hyperboreans, Mongolians, Malays, Polynesians,
Americans, Caucasians, Berbers, Semites, Aryans (Asiatic and
European).

On p. 527 is a short sketch of M. Emile Houze's studies on
the crania of Flamands and Wallons. The prehistoric Belgians
are neatly set forth in the following scheme:



Age of stone



,, , .... r Age of f Race of Engis, Dolicocephalic.

PaLeol.ih.c | ^^e mlmmoth | " " Nauleltc, "



iliihic J
Dch 1



^\^^ ( do. of reindeer ♦' •* Furroo/, Sub-brachyct-ph'c.

Neolithic J " ** Sclaigneaux, Brachyceph'c.



epoch \ ** " Chauvaux, Dolicocephalic

Age of metal, represented ( fygenbiken limit of the bronze and the iron age.

* u 1 • II 1 < Louette-Saint- Pierre?

arch.neologically by | Muslin, province of Namur ?

MICROSCOPY.!

Orientation in Microtomic Sections. — If any organic object
has been cut ("microtomized") into serial sections and mounted,
the value of the series for microscopical investigation will depend
not only on the success with which each step in the preparation
has been attended, but also on our ability to grasp all the topo-
graphical relations of each section. It is not enough to know the '
region through which a section passes ; we must have the means

» Edited by Dr. T. O. WrfiTMAN, Ntwton Highlands, Mass.



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I lo General Notes, [January »

of ascertaining to within a very small fraction of a millimeter, the
exact path of the knife. Such precise orientation can only be
arrived at in an indirect way; but the improved instruments and
methods of section-cutting make its attainment a no very diffi-
cult task. To determine the locus of sections with accuracy,
several conditions must be fulfilled. The sections must be made
of uniform thickness^ arranged in serial order ^ and all similarly dis-
posed. With these conditions satisfied, the plane of section deter-
mined, and an accurate surface view of the object obtained prior
to imbedding, it becomes an extremely simple matter to know
what portion of the surface view is represented by any given sec-
tion. The following data will furnish an illustration :

Blastoderm of the chick, 5"™ long.

Surface view magnified 20 diameters.

Thickness of each section .05"™.

Plane of section at right angles to the long axis of the blastoderm.

From these data we know that there should be just 100 sec-
tions, and that each section must correspond to i"*™ of the sur-
face view.

Now if we draw a line at one side of the surface view, parallel
to, and of equal length with, its long axis, and divide this line into
100 equal parts, the number of the section will correspond to the
same number on the scale, and the exact position of the section
be recognized at a glance.

Of the conditions above named as essential to an exact knowl-
edge of the locus of any given section, the only one likely to pre-
sent any serious difficulties is that of obtaining sections of uniform
thickness. Where the object-carrier and vernier are combined, and
moved directly by the hand, it is extremely difficult, if not impos<-
sible, to obtain that degree of uniformity required for exact topo-
graphical study. In the best microtomes now in use, the carrier
is moved only indirectly by the hand, through a micrometer
screw, and its movements are thus brought under perfect control.
Some space will be devoted later to the description of a micro-
tome^ which presents many important improvements on the old
Rivet-Leiser microtome improvements that have originated with
the gentlemen who are now associated in the mai^agement of the
Zoological Station of Naples.

The Reconstruction of Objects from Sections. — The im-
portance of attending to all available means of orientation will be
best understood by those who know how to make use of sections
in the reconstruction of objects or parts of objects. Suppose the
only material at the disposal of an investigator to be a single small
object, and that the rarity of the object renders its replacement ex-
tremely improbable. How shall the object be treated in order that
the most exhaustive knowledge of all the details of its inner

^ This microtome may be obtained from Rudolph Jung, optician and mechanic in
Heidelberg.



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1 883.] Microscopy . 1 1 1

structure may be obtained ? One might be tempted to lock it up
as a cabinet rarity, if he did not know how to make a single series
of sections tell the whole story. If the preliminary steps have
been correctly taken, it is possible to construct from serial trans-
verse sections, a median sagittal (longitudinal and vertical) of
frontal section, or a section in any desired plane. From the same
series may be constructed also surface views of internal organs,
which are inaccessible to, or unmanageable by, any of the ordi-
nary methods of dissection.

It frequently happens that sections can be obtained by construc-
tion that could not be obtained by any direct means. For
example, we may desire a frontal section of a vertebrate embryo
that wiU show all the parts that lie in the same level with the
chorda, or a sagittal section that will represent a median plane.
It is evident that no such sections can be directly obtained, owing
to the axial curvature of the embryo; but they can easily be con-
structed from transverse sections. It is here that we see some of
the great advantages to be derived from the use of the microtome.
It not only overcomes the opacity of objects, but it also enables us
to represent curved and twisted surfaces in plane surfaces. The
abili^ to construct sections at right angles to the actual planes of
section is the key to the next and final step — " the plastic synthe-
sis " of the sectioned object.

Method of Reconstruction. — Professor His was the first to
make known the method of procedure.^ Others have since made
use of the same method for different purposes. A. Seessel, a
former pupil of Professor His, employed it in a work on the de-
velopment of the fore-gut*. Rosenberg made use of it in the con-
truction of frontal views of the sacrum' ; and Krieger. in the in-
vestigation of the central nerve-system of the crayfish*. The
method is well illustrated by two figures (11 and 12, PI. xxxi),
given by Krieger; and these figures are well worth examination.
as they show how to proceed when the plane of section is not
quite at right angles to the axis of the object. Professor His has
also constructed frontal and profile (sagittal) views of the human
embryo by the same method, and has explained the process in
Part I, p. 10, of his "Anatomic menschlichen Embryonen."

For an illustration, we will take the data given under the head
of orientation, and indicate how a surface view could be con-
structed from a series of transverse sections of the germinal disc
of the chick. We should first draw 100 parallel zones on a sheet

^ His. •< Untenachungen U. d. erstc Anlage des Wirbelthierleibes," p. 182, 1868.

" Ncu Untersuchungen U. d. Bildung des Hiihnerembryo, in Arch. f. Anat. u
Physiol., anat. Ablh.," p. 122, 1877.

'S«essel " Arch. f. Anal. u. Physiol., anat., Abth /' p. 449, 1877.

* Rosenberg Morph. Jahrb. Vol. i, p. 108, 1875.

♦Krieger. Zeitshrift f. wiss. Zool. Vol. xxxiif, p. 531, 1880, and Zool. Anzeiger*
p. 369, 1878.



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1 1 2 General Notes, [January^

of paper, each zone corresponding in thickness to a single sec-
tion (i"*").

A median line would then be drawn at right angles to these
zones ^ this line would represent the length oi' the disc magnified
20 diameters (100™"). We should next make an outline drawing;
of the first section enlarged the same number of diameters as be-
fore. The width of this drawing and its parts (primitive streak,
embryonic rim, &c.), could then be indicated in the first zone by
dots placed at the proper distance on the right and left side of the
median line. The dots for each succeeding section having been
placed in their corresponding zones, nothing further would remain
to be done, except to connect the dots of corresponding parts in
the several zones, and shade according to the requirements of the
case.

If the plane of section is not quite perpendicular to the axis of
the object, one has only to determine the angle which the axis
makes with the plane of section, and draw the median line so that
it forms the same angle with the parallel zones. Such a case has
been clearly illustrated by Krieger.

In the construction of sagittal sections, a profile line (dorsal
line, &c.), will serve as the ground line.

The Diffusion of Bacteria. — The researches of M. Pasteur
and Darwin have shown how earthworms may aid the diffusion of
small organisms, some of which may produce disease. Professor
Schnetzler states that the dejections of earthworms always con-
tain numerous living bacteria and their germs (the hay-bacterium
included). It is clear that bacteria in enormous quantity float in
the air about us; and we have at easy command. Professor
Schnetzler points out, a small apparatus traversed by about 800a
cubic centimeters of air per minute, which may inform us as to
those floating germs. This is no other than the nasal cavity, on
the mucous surface of which air particles are deposited. Ta
observe these he advises injecting the nose with distilled water
(completely sterilized) by means of a glass syringe previously cal-
cined. The liquid so obtained is put in one perfectly clean watch
glass and covered by another. With a microscope magnifying 700
or 800 one finds, among various particles in the liquid, some real
live bacteria. If the liquid be kept a few days in a clean glass
tube hermetically sealed, the bacteria are found to have increased
very considerably. One sees Baeteriiim tenno. Vibrio, Spirillum^
Bacillus subtilis, even some infusoria, and spores and fragments of
fungi. Professor Schnetzler has further successfully cultivated the
organized germs by means of a mixture of gelatine and distilled
water. Why do not those bacteria in the nasal cavity always
multiply and develop and penetrate to the windpipe and lungs ?
Their progress is doubtless opposed by the vibratory movements
of cilia (or minute hairs) in the air-passages, and the weakly alka-
line reaction of the nasal mucus may (it is also suggested) be un-



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1883.] Microscopy, 113

favorable to some of them. Cohn has proved that bacteria
producing acid fermentation, perish in liquids with alkaline reac-
tion. Infectious bacteria may, however, multiply to a formidable
extent on living mucous surfaces; witness the growth of the
micrococcus of diphtheria, brought by the air into the air-passages ;
also thebacterium of anthrax. The bacillus of tubercle, as Koch
has lately shown, may be transmitted from one person to another
by the air-passages. Professor Schnetzler thinks hay fever may
also be due to bacteria entering the nose. While the development
of bacteria on normal mucous surfaces is usually limited, millions
of them are found in the dejections of healthy children. — English
Mechanic,

Proceedings of the American Society of Microscopists,
1882. — This is a well-printed volume of 300 pages, containing
valuable papers on improvements in the microscopes and in his-
tological, botanical and zoological topics. Among the micro-
scopical papers are the excellent address of the president, G. E.
Blackham on the Evolution of the Modern Microscope; an inter-
esting memoir of Charles A. Spencer, by H. L. Smith, with arti-
cles on light and illumination, by E. Gundlach; stereoscopic
effects obtained by the high power binocular arrangement of
Powell and Lealand, by A. C. Mercer; the improved Griffith
Club microscope, by E. H. Griffith ; A new freezing microtome,
by T. Taylor; Modification of the Wenham half-disc illuminator,
with an improved mounting, by R. Dayton ; Micro-photography
with dry-plates and lamp-light, and its application to making
lantern positives, by W. H. Walmsley ; The Fasoldt stage micro-
meter, by T. C. Mendenhall ; Osmic acid, its uses and advantages
in microscopical investigations, by T. B. Redding. On the con-
ditions of success in the construction and the comparison of stand-
ards of length, by W. A. Rogers.

The botanical and general biological papers are : Microscopi-
cal contribution ; The vegetable nature of croup, by E. Cutter ;
Micro-organisms in the blood in a case of tetanus, by L. Curtis;
Microscopic organisms in the Buffalo water-supply and in Niagara
river, by H. Mills; Rhizosolenia gracilis, n. sp., by H. L. Smith;
Microscopic forms observed in water of Lake Erie, by C. M.
Vorce; Sporadic growth of certain diatoms, and the relation
thereof to impurities in the water-supply of cities, by J. D. Hyatt.

The zoological, histological and physiological papers are on
certain crustaceous parasites of fresh-water fishes, by D. S. Kell-
icott — The termination of the nerves in the liver, by M. L. Hol-
brook ; Observations on the fat cells and connective-tissue cor?
puscles of Necturus (Menobranchus), by S. H. Gage; The
structure of the muscle of the lobster, by M. L. Holbrook ; The
wheel-like and other spicula of the Chirodota of Bermuda, by F.
M. Hamlin; Fresh- water sponge by H. Mills; Polyzoa — Obser-

▼OL. XVII.— i«o. 1. 8



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114 Scientific News. [January,

vations on species detected near Buffalo, N. Y., by D. S. Kelli-
cott.

It would have been a convenience if the papers had been
classified.

Destruction of Microscopical Organisms in Potable Water.
— Langfeldt, in seeking for a substance which would kill the living
organisms without injuring the water for drinking purposes, found
that citric acid (^ gram per litre of the water), killed all except
Cyclops and those with a thick epidermis, within two minutes.

:o:

SCIENTIFIC NEWS.

— In his interesting sketch of the progress of American min-
eralogy, delivered before the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, at Montreal, Professor G. J. Brush, after
speaking of the survey of the country adjacent to the Erie canal
in 1820-24 by Professor Amos Eaton, who was placed in charge
of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, says: **It may
be interesting here, in these days of summer schools, to recall,
although parenthetically, that what was probably the first sum-
mer school of science in the United States, was established more
than fifty years ago in connection with this institution. The
school consisted of a flotilla of towed canal boats, and the route
was from Troy to Lake Erie. It took two months for the trip,
and all important points on the way were visited. Instruction by
lectures and examinations was given in mineralogy, geology, bot-
any, zoology, chemistry, experimental philosophy and practical
mathematics, particularly land surveying, harbor surveying and
engineering." One of the largest boats in the flotilla was fitted
up as a laboratory, with cabinets in mineralogy and geology, and
also scientific books for reference. The students were taught the
method of procuring specimens, and were required to make col-
lections of whatever was interesting on the route.

— The Agassiz Association, an organization started by the St,
Nicholas magazine, for the promotion of the study of nature by
children, now numbers 3400 members. There are chapters in all
our large cities and in our towns and villages. The aim is to in-
duce children to look about them for insects, shelh. minerals,
flowers, etc., and to discuss in the meetings of their chapters the
objects they discover, and to find out about them in accessible
works on natural history. Mr. Harlan P. Ballard, of Lenox,
Mass., the founder of the Society, has lately prepared a " Hand-
book of the St. Nicholas' Agassiz Association, designed as a guide
to the study of natural objects, with directions for collecting and
preserving specimens."

— The last Congress ordered the publication of the following
entomological works which are now in^ an advanced state of



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1 883.] Scientific News. 1 1 5

preparation : 20CX) copies of the fifth report of the U. S. Entomo-
logical Commission, with the necessary illustrations. This will
be an enlarged, revised edition of Bulletin No. 7, on forest and
shade insects, with many additional illustrations. There was also
ordered for the Department of Agriculture, looo copies of a
Bibliography of Economic Entomology. This is in preparation
by Mr. B. P. Mann. Of a report on orange insects 5000 copies
were ordered for the use of the Department of Agriculture.
The agricultural report, containing a lengthy report of the ento-
mologist, is nearly ready for distribution.

— A steamer of lOOO tons, called the Albatros, has been built
by government for the use of the U. S. Fish Commission, and is now,
according to Professor Verrill, being fitted up expressly for deep-
sea service, for which she will be, in every respect, well adapted,
and will have the best equipment possible for all such investiga-
tions, and at all depths. During the past year improvements
have been made in apparatus for deep-sea explorations, especially
in deep-sea thermometers. New forms of traps for capturing
bottom animals have also been devised. The " trawl-wings," first
introduced by the commission last year, have been used the past
season with great success, bringing up numerous free-swimming
forms, from close to the bottom, which could not otherwise have
been taken. The use of steel wire for sounding and of wire-rope
for dredging has also greatly facilitated the work.

— Henry Chapman, for several years a member of the Califor-
nia Academy of Sciences, and recently curator of mammals and
birds in that Institution, died on the 2d of December at the age
of 55 years, from the effect of poison inhaled or absorbed in the
course of his business as a taxidermist. Mr. Chapman was an
enthusiastic naturalist, possessed of great energy and intelligence,
exceedingly skillful in his special work, an efficient officer and
member of the Academy, an excellent citizen and estimable in all
the relations of life. His death is greatly lamented. — R, E, C. S,

— The Tehama (Cal.) Tocsin of recent date reports that an oak
tree was cut down on Shelton's ranch, near Ncwville, Colusa
county, that measured seven feet and four inches through at the
stump. There was cut and split 400 posts, seven and a half feet
long, and 75 cords (two-tier to the cord) of two-foot wood, out of
it. One man worked forty-two days continuously and two men
ten days. The posts are worth twenty cents apiece, and the wood
two dollars per cord. It therefore yielded ;^230. — R. E. C. S.

— In a letter to Nature, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys reports that Pro-
fessor Giglioli made a few hauls with the dredge the past season
in the Mediterranean in depths ranging from 389 to 857 fathoms.
A rare and peculiar abyssal fish {Paralepis cuvrieri) was procured.
A new water-bottle was tested, and also Capt. Magnaghi's n^w
currentometer, "a most valuable discovery, by means of which



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1 1 6 Proceedings of Scientific Societies, [January,

the direction and force of submarine currents can be accurately
determined at any depth."

— Says tlie late Chauncy Wright in one of his essays : " Ac-
cording to Mr. Spencer's views, the first strata, had they been
preserved, would have contained the remains of protozoa and pro-
tophytes ; but, for aught we dare guess, they might have con-
tained the foot-prints of archangels." Truth is stranger than fic-
tion. What else can be the Carson footprints ?

— The Cacao (Tlieobroma cacao) was s6me two hundred years
ago extensively cultivated in Jamaica, but a hurricane that swept
over the plantations, and high duties imposed in England, caused
its growth to be discontinued. It is now in course of re-introduc-
tion, and it would appear that the Moisler valleys and hollows
of the island are specially adapted to it.

— The British government has placed $20,000 at the disposal
of the council of the Royal Society of London to aid scientific
research. This is in accordance with the custom of former years,
and has been a healthy stimulus to scientific progress.

— We learn that Mr. R. E. C. Stearns has resigned his posi-
tion as honorary curator of mollusca in the U. S. National Museum,
on account of ill health, by the advice of his physician.

— Aristotle's '* History of Animals " has been translated by
Monsieur Bartholemy St. Hilaire, and the work will soon be pub-
lished with preface, notes, and commentary.

— Professor J. Th. Reinhardt died at Copenhagen, October 23,
aged 66. His works on birds and whales possessed great merit.
He also traveled in Brazil, we believe. At the time of his death
he was professor of zoology in the University of Copenhagen, and
inspector of the Natural History Museum of that city.

— Dr. F. H. Troschel, professor of zoology at Bonn, and for



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