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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA

AT

LOS ANGELES

LIBRARY



PETER THE GREAT

Vol. I.







PETER THE GREAT.



PETER THE GREAT



EMPEROR OF RUSSIA



A STUDY OF HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY



EUGENE SCHUYLER, Ph.D., LL.D.

ADTHOB OF "TUBKISTAN"



IN TWO VOLUMES

Vol. I.



'.>.'' *



NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1890



311



COPYRIGHT, 1880, BY

EUGENE SCHUYLER

Copyright, 1884, by
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS



•mows

NO BOOKBINDING COMPANY,
NEW VORK.



SiD£



i






i "3 >



p,*&



PREFACE



N

N

What is said in the following volumes is founded

\ on the diligent — and I hope the impartial — study of

original documents in the archives of various countries,

^ of the Russian collections of laws and state papers, of

the memoirs and accounts of Peter's contemporaries, of

Jj. the works of Russian historians, and of most of the
important books written on the subject by foreigners.

My views of portions of the history of the times
under consideration differ in some respects from those
generally entertained. I have not thought it necessary

^ to emphasize them by attempting to refute the views
of others, or by disproving anecdotes and stories in
such common circulation as to have become almost
legendary. I have told the story of Peter's life and
reign as I understand it, and I hope that my readers
will believe that there is good evidence for every state-
ment that I make.



VI PREFACE.

The books consulted are very many, and it lias been
impossible to cite them all. As continual references
to authorities which are chiefly Russian would appeal
to very few of my readers, I have thought it best to
avoid them, and have mentioned only my chief author-
ities at the end of the chapters. Historical students
and those conversant with the literature of the period
will in this way readily find whence I have taken my
facts.

For the convenience of the reader, I have avoided
as far as possible the use of purely Russian words and
titles, and where the Euglish forms of proper names
are not used, an accentual mark has been placed to
facilitate pronunciation.

As circumstances have compelled me to live in five
different countries since I began this work, often away
from public libraries, and with only my own books
and my notes to rely upon, I must ask pardon for
many deficiencies and slips.

I owe especial thanks for their kind criticism and
assistance to Professor Bestuzhef-Riumin of the Uni-
versity of St. Petersburg, and Professor Bruckner of
the University of Dorpat, whose works I have had
frequent occasion to cite, and which often put me on
the track of authorities that I niio;ht otherwise have



PREFACE. Vll

overlooked ; and more particularly to Professor Claes
Annerstedt of the University of Upsala, who has
been of great aid in procuring rare Swedish books
for me.

The portrait of Peter the Great is engraved after
that by Carl de Moor, painted at the Hague in 1717,
which was the picture most liked by Peter himself,
and preferred for engravings. It was for many years
supposed to be lost, but I discovered it at Amsterdam
in the possession of a private family, where it had
come by inheritance from the painter Liotard, to whom
it had been sent by the artist himself.

EUGENE SCHUYLER.

Legation of the United States, Athens :
TJianksgiving Buy, November 29, 1883



ERRATA.



Page 1,

' 11,

' 45,

' 53,

1 59,

• 105,
' 124,
' 138,
' 210,

* 215,
' 216,
' 221,
' 279,
' 296,
' 298,

' 311,

' 323,

' 334,

' 335,

' 336,

' 371,

' 385,

' 396,

' 409,

' 434,

' 443,



line 23, for Pskov, read Pskof.

{twice) " Soltykofs, read Saltykofs.

10, " Tcherkassky, read Tcherkdsky.
(twice) " Soltykof, " Saltykof.

4, " had given, " sent.
37, " Prasko via Soltykof, read Prascovia Saltykof.
20, " Oriekhovo, read Orekhovo.
23, " Lntzk, read Lutsk.
3, " Lubomirsky, read Luboniirski.
29, " Theodore, " Yury.

26, " Soltykofs, " Saltykofs.
last, " Captain, " Colonel.
2, 14, " Pskov, read Pskof.

14, " Thessing, read Thesingh.

add ' Despatches ' of Polish Agent Bose in Dresden Ar-
chives. 'Coll. of Kuss. Imp. Hist. Soc.,' xx.
14, for von, read zu.

27, " Massalsky, read Masalsky.

2, 2 10, 13, 15, 18, 20, 24, 27, 33, i ^ ^^ "* ^^
o, 7, 8, '

5, 23, for Cardis, read Kardis.

17, " III., " IV.

27, " Karlskrona, read Carlscrona.

3, " Soltykof, " Saltykof.

27, " Koporie, " Koporie.

20, " Lagau, " Lage.

" " Dec. 2, " Dec. 13.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introductory, 1

CHAPTER I.
Second Marriage op the Tsar Alexis — Birth of Peter, . . 9

CHAPTER II.
Life at Court, 19

CHAPTER III.
Death of Alexis — Great Changes — Peter's Childhood, . . 27

CHAPTER IV.
Court Intrigues — Death of Theodore — Election of Peter, . 32

CHAPTER V.

Need of Reform — Abolition of Precedence — Grievances of the
Streltsi — Return of Matveief, 39

CHAPTER VI.
The Riot of the Streltst, 1682, 49

CHAPTER VII.

Ivan Elected Tsar Jolntly with Peter — Sophia Appointed Re-
gent — Pacification of the Streltsi, 1682, . . . .64

CHAPTER VIII.

TnE Dissenters Demand Discussion— Coronation of the Tsars,
1682, 71



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IX.

PAGE

Tiik Riotous Disputation ok the Dissenters, and its Ending,

1682, 81

CHAPTER X.
The Execution of Havansky — The Submission op the Stkeltsi, 89

CHAPTER XI.
\ The Boyhood of Peteh — His Military Exercises, and the Begin-
ning op Boat-building, 1682-1688, K»:{

CHAPTER XII.
/ Peter's Marriage— His Return to his Boats, 1688-1689, . . 115

CHAPTER XIII.
The Internal Administration ok Sophia— Arrangement of the

Dispute with Sweden, 122

CHAPTER XIV.
Eternal Peace with Poland — The Metropolis ok Kiek, . . 130

CHAPTER XV.
Embassies to Vienna and Paris, KJST, 142



CHAPTER XVI.
Troubles with Turks and Tartars, 1687,



152



CHAPTER XVII.
The Second Crimean Expedition, 1689, 161

CHAPTER XVIII.
The Flnal Struggle Between Sophia and Peter, 1689, . . 169

CHAPTER XIX.
Victory and Vengeance, 184

CHAPTER XX.
\ Outbcrst uk Fanaticism, 191



CONTENTS. XI

CHAPTER XXI.

PAGE

The German Suburb at Moscow, 198

CHAPTER XXII.

Peter's Friends and Life in the German Suburb, . . . 208

CHAPTER XXIII.
Fireworks and Sham Fights. 1690-1692, 221

CHAPTER XXIV.
Peter Tries the Open Sea, 1693-1694, 227

CHAPTER XXV.
The First Campaign Against Azof, 1695, 240

CHAPTER XXVI.

The Capture of Azof, , . . 250

CHAPTER XXVII.
The Effect of the Victory — Building a Fleet in Earnest, . 261

CHAPTER XXVIII.
Russians Abroad, 2<i7

CHAPTER XXIX. y

The Journkv of Peter to Western Europe, .... 274

CHAPTER XXX.
Peter in Holland, 287 |

CHAPTER XXXI.
Visit of the Tsar to England, ........ 299.

CHAPTER XXXII.
The Journey Home, 311

CHAPTER XXXHI.
The Revolt and the Punishment of the Streltsi, . . . 321



Xil CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

PAGE

TnE Tsaritsa is Sent to a Cloister, 332

CHAPTER XXXV.
Foreign Fashions and First Reforms, 337

CHAPTER XXXVI.
Peter's Dejection, Anger, and Grief, 348

CHAPTER XXXVII.
A Truce with Turkey, 354

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
The League Against Sweden, 3G4

CHAPTER XXXIX.
Russia Joins the League, 371

CHAPTER XL.

CnARLES THE TWELFTH, 379

CHAPTER XLI.
The Battle of Narva, 390

CHAPTER XLII.
After the Battle, • 400

CHAPTER XLIII.
Negotiations for Mediation and Alliance, 1701, .... 409

CHAPTER XLIV.
Russian Successes on the Neva and the Baltic Coast, 1701-

1704, 418

CHAPTER XLV.
Menshikof and Catherine, 432



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.
Peter the Great, Frontispiece.

TO FACE PAGE

The Introduction of Christianity into Russia. (From a drawing

by Charlemagne, Court-painter of Russia.), 1

Russian Hospitality in the Time of Ivan the Terrible. (From

a painting by Schwartz.), ......... 3

The Kremlin, Moscow, 12

Ivan the Terrible ln Old Age, 21

The Terem, or Women's Apartment, 23

A Peasant Girl in Ancient Russian Dress. (From a painting by

Makovsky.), 26

Tsar Theodore Burning the Books of Precedence, . . 41

The Tsaritsa before the Rioters, 50

Sornn. Feastlng the Streltsi. (From a drawing by N. Dniitrieff.), 68

The Dissenters Exhortlng the People from the Red Staircase.

(Drawn by N. Dniitrieff.), ^2

The Disputation before Sophia. (Drawn by N. Dmitrieff.), . . 85



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

TO FACE PAGE

I'ktki! PLAYING at War. (From a Russian painting.), . . . 106

TlMMEli.MANN EXPLAINING TO PETER THE USE OF THE ASTROLABE.

(From a Russian painting.), ........ 110

Peter Finding "the Grandfather of the Russian Fleet." (From
a painting by Count Masoyedoff.), . . . . . . .112

Peter Launching "the Grandfather of the Russian Fleet."

(From a Russian painting.), . . . . . . . .114

A Group of Boyars — Krembin in the Background, . . . 128

Sobieski Consenting to the Cession of Kief. (Drawn by P. L.

Szyndler.), 136

The Russian Ambassadors and the French Police Officials.

(From a drawing by Albert Adelfelt.), 145

Reception of a Russl\n Embassy at Versailles, .... 148

Life in the Ukraine — "The Return from the Market." (From

the painting by Chelmonski.), ........ 155

Tartars Burning the Steppe in Advance of the Russian Army.

(Drawn by Vierge.), 159

Kamenetz in Podolia. (Drawn by R. Riordan from a photo-
graph.), • • . 162

The Offending Picture of Sophia. (By Tarasevitch, with the in-
scription by Sylvester Medvedief.), 170

Peter Awakened, 175

Peter at the Troitsa Monastery Receiving the Deputations of

the Streltsi, 177

Sophia's Appeal to her Partisans, ■ . 180

NoVODEYITf 'HY MONASTERY, 188



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV

TO FACE PAGE

Rural Post in Russia. (From a painting by X. Swertchkoff. ), . . 206

Companions of Peter, 215

The Stone Jug. (From the original by A. van Ostade in the museum

at Vienna.), . . . . . . . . . . .217

The Procession in Honor of the Persian Ambassadors, . . 223

Tartar Cavalry Attacking a Russian Commissariat Train, . . 241

The Message to Azof on the Name's-day of the Tsar, . . 257

Peter Builds his First Fleet. (From a picture painted for the Rus-
sian Government.), .......... 265

Peter the Great at Zaandam. (From an engraving by Wappers.), . 289
Peter's House at Zaandam, 291

Meeting of Peter the Great and William III. of England.

(Drawn by Victor Nehlig.), 299

Nicholas Witsen, Burgomaster of Amsterdam, .... 309

The Princess Sophia as the Nun Susanna in the Novodevitchy
Monastery, 327

The Streltsi Going to Execution, 330

The Tsar Cutting the Long Sleeves of the Boyars, . . . 340

Cutting off the Long Robes of the Boyars. (From an etching.), 342

Procession in Honor of Bacchus, 350

Oleg Nailing his Shield to the Gate of Constantinople. (From

an etching by Professor Bruni.), ....... 359

Charles XII. Bear-huntino, 383

Mad Frolic of Charles XII., 387

The Battle of Narva, 398



XVI 1. 1ST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.

PAGE

Russian Flag of Peteb's Time, xx

Tsaiutsa Natalia, Mother of Petek the Great, . . . .10

The Great Bell of the Tower of Ivan Veliki, Rung at the
Birth of Peter the Great, 13

Tsar Theodore (half-brother of Peter), 28

Tsareyitch Joann, OR Ivan (half-brother of Peter), . . . .34

The Streltsi of 1613 42

The Streltsi of a Little Later Date, 42

Officers of the Streltsi, 45

Flag of the Streltsi of Moscow, 48

Matveief, 51

The Patriarch Nikon, 55

Ivan Naryshkin, 61

The Princess Sophia, Sister of Peter, 65

The Baton of Prlnce Golitsyn, 70

Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow, 71

Orthodox Sign of the Cross in Benediction, 74

Orthodox Sign of the Cross in Prayer, 75

Dissenting Sign of the Cross, 76

DOUBLE Throne used at Peter's Coronation, . . . 77

Orb and Crown of Peter and Orb and Crown of Monomachus, 79



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV11

PAGE

The Cross op Peter, 88

Guards of State at Receptions and Processions, . . .98

Globe op Metal from which Peter Studied Geography, for-
merly owned by Alexis. Now in the Treasury at Moscow. (Drawn
by Maurice Howard from " The Russian Empire."*, .... 114

Mahomet IV., Sultan of Turkey, 116

Eudoxia Lopukhin, First Wife of Peter the Great, . . . 118

Jan Sobleskt, King of Poland. (From an old engraving ), . . 132

Pope Innocent XI. (From an old engraving.), 134

Peter's Travelling Sledge, 151

Medal Given to Prince Go: itsyn for the Crimean Cam-
paign, 100

Our Lady of Kazan, 171

Sabres of Mazeppa, Chief of the Cossacks (in the museum of Tsar-

koe Selo), 189

Prince Boris Golitsyn, 191

General Patrick Gordon, 193

Arms of the Tsar's Body-guard — Partisan. (From Antiquites de la
Russie.), 199

Arms of the Tsar's Body-guard — Partisan. (From Antiquites de la
Russie.), 200

Arms made for Russians — Arquebuse of Tsar Alexander, made

in 1654. (From Antiquites de la Russie.), 203

Lock of Arquebuse. (From. Antiquites de la Russie.), .... 204



Xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Model op a Ship built by Peter. (From the Marine Museum, St.

Petersburg.), 222

.Ma/.i :rr.\, 242

ALEXIS She'in, 251

Petek in TnE Dress he Wore at Azof, 254

Peter in TnE Dress of Western Europe, 274

Peter at Work at Zaandam, 288

Sham Fight on TnE Y, 290

Peter in the Museum of Jacob de Wilde 295

Copy of Etching by Peter, 296

Peter's Evening Pipe, 297

Bate's Court, 300

Spire of St. Stephan's Cathedral, Vienna, 312

West Front of St. Stephan's Cathedral, Vlenna, . . . 314

Trinity Column, Vienna, ' . . . . 316

Column of the Virgin, Vienna, 318

A Contemporary Caricature, 338

Token for Beard Duty, 339

Catherine II. in National Costume, 343

Tin: Apostle Peter, 357

Patktl, 367

Queen Ulrica Ei.eanora, - . 379

Basra Ciiaki.es XII., 381



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XIX

PAGE

Bombardment ok Noteburg, 423

Defeat of the Swedish Flotilla, 427

Menshikof, 432

Guard-room of the Ancient Terem, 435



At the end of Volume.
Map of Russla. in Europe.
Map of Russia at the Time of Peter the Great.




Russian Flag of Peter's Time.



PETER THE GREAT.



INTRODUCTORY.

A broad, open plain, with scarcely a hill, but everywhere
intersected by navigable rivers, with its three zones of arid,
saline steppe, of rich and fertile arable land, of forest and
frozen moor, fitted in every respect to be the home of a united
and homogeneous people, we find Russia a thousand years ago
sparsely inhabited by disunited Slavonic tribes, frequently at
war with each other, and unable to cope with their neighbours
of Finnish and Turkish race. Scandinavian heroes, as the -,,, .
legend runs, are called in ; civilisation and strong govern-
ment go rapidly hand in hand ; and a distinctively Russian
nation is born from the two centres of Novgorod and Kief.
Christianity is introduced from Constantinople, and with it
Byzantine ideas of law and polity, which have never disap-
peared, and of which the influence is still felt. Then comes
the appanage period, when the whole of Russia is divided into
independent yet related states, each governed by its Prince of
the House of Rurik under the general headship of the oldest
member of the family, the power passing, not from father to
son, but, as now in Turkey and the East, to the oldest male
member of the family.

The absolute power of the princes was, in some measure,

controlled by the popular assemblies which existed in most of

the larger towns. Pskov and Novgorod had already been

greatly developed, and Russia seemed to have entered early

Vol. I.— 1



2 PETEB THE GREAT.

that path of progress which would in time have rendered lier
a free and constitutional country. Trade, especially with the
west of Kurope, through Novgorod and the Hanse towns, had
received a great impetus, and the court of Kief displayed a
high civilisation, when the whole country, overrun by the
Mongols and the Tartars, was obliged to submit to their yoke.
The effect of the Mongol supremacy was not felt in mixture of
race and very little in corruption of language, but chiefly in the
arrest of all political and commercial development,
and in the introduction among the Grand Dukes of
new maxims and methods of government. The Russian states
were not ruled directly by the Mongols : they were merely
vassal. The Grand Dukes received their confirmation from
Tartary, but the only Tartar officials in Russia were those who
resided in the larger towns for the collection of tribute. The
greatest positive effects produced by the Tartar supremacy were
the separation of Russia from Europe and its withdrawal from
Western influences, the gradual union of the whole country
under the Grand Dukes of Moscow and the establishment
of autocracy, which was indeed necessary to this union and to
the expulsion of the Tartars. One state after another was
swallowed up by the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and even the
free cities of Novgorod and Pskof were mulcted of their privi-
leges and received the tyrant. After the autocracy had justi-
fied its existence by unifying the country and freeing it from
the Mongol yoke, it reached its highest development under
Ivan the Terrible, who succeeded for a time in entirely break-
^ 00 ing up the power of the aristocracy of boyars and in

realising what has so often seemed the ideal of the
Russian state — an equal people under an absolute monarch.
The Russian people had suffered so much from their lords, the
landed proprietors, the officials, and almost the whole of the
noble classes, that they had become convinced — as ignorant
persons are apt to be — that it was only the nobility and the
boyars who k darkened the counsels of the Tsar' and prevented
their happiness. For this reason Ivan the Terrible, in spite of
his cruelties, was very popular among the masses of the Rus-
sian people, and even now his name is mentioned rather with
affection than hatred. The death of Ivan, who left only feeble




RUSSIAN* HOSPITALITY IN THE TIME OF IVAN THE TERRIBLE.



INTRODUCTORY. 3

and minor children, gave a blow to autocracy and brought back
the nobility into power.

The firm hand of Boris Godunof, the usurper, for a time
kept order, and accomplished what the nobility then thought
absolutely necessary to their existence as a power-
ful class — i.e., reduced nearly the whole of the
Russian people to serfdom, an institution then first legally es-
tablished. Then came the Troublous Time — that period of
commotion, distress, and invasion, when pretender . „
vied with pretender, and the son of the King of Po-
land was crowned Tsar of Moscow. The strength of each of
these pretenders was the measure of the hatred which the com-
mon people bore to the nobility. That mysterious prince who
1 »ears in history the name of ' the false Dimitri,' in spite of his
foreign ways, was popular among the people, although the old
nobility stood aloof from him. He was overthrown, not by the
force of popular commotion, but by the plotting of the nobles.
Basil Shiiisky, who was placed on the throne by the voice of
the nobles, was unable to maintain himself there, because the
general sentiment of the country, which had not been consulted
in the matter, was against him. Finally the Poles were turned
out, and at the Diet, or general assembly, in which all classes
and all districts in the country were pretty fairly represented,
the young Michael Pomanof w T as elected Tsar.

The whole reign of Michael was a struggle to rid the coun-
try of the Poles and the Swedes, who were attacking it from
without, and to put down the bands of robbers and 1ft19
marauders who were making disturbance within ; for
the Troublous Time had left a great legacy of difficulty to the
new ruler. The country was poor ; every one needed money,
and no one more than the Tsar himself ; for officials and sol-
diers were loudly clamouring for arrears of pay, and for indem-
nity for the losses they had sustained during the wars. In
order to raise money, and in order more firmly to establish the
power of the Tsar, it was found necessary to have frequent re-
course to the States-General, especially during the early part
of the reign. Legislation was directed in part to providing for
the administration of the government, but chiefly to settling
the difficulties caused by peasants running away from the estates



I PETER THE GREAT.

of their lords during the Troublous Time. As years went on
and Michael became more firmly seated on his throne, recourse
was less often aad to the States-General, and the aristocracy to
some extent regained its power. In the latter years of Michael's
reign the government Mas practically carried on by a single
noble, the Prime Minister, or Favourite, or, as the Russians of
that time expressively styled him, 'the man of the hour.'

In the reign of Alexis the States-General were seldom con-
vokcd. and only for the settlement of the most important ques-
tions, such as war with Poland and the protectorate
over the Cossacks of the Ukraine. At one of these
sessions the Tsar procured the ratification of his well-known
code, which went further than anything had ever done to estab-
lish autocracy on a regular basis, and to legalise arbi-
trary government. Even then no discussion was al-
lowed. The 315 deputies present were permitted merely to
listen and to sign, and the majority of 160 that protested were
exiled to the Solovetsky Monastery. Henceforward the Tsar
managed all matters, both great and .-mall, according to his own
will and pleasure.

The Tsar Alexis was a man of good impulses, and of such
gentle and amiable character that he was called by his subjects
k The Mos1 Debonair.' But his very good qualities rendered
him one of the worst sovereigns of Russia. The power was
exercised by his favourites — Morazof, Ordin-Nastchokhi, and
Matveief, and under the rule of the boyars everything seemed
to go from had to worse. The country was impoverished and
in places almost depopulated; the administration was defective
and disorganised, and the officials were corrupt. Taxes Mere
high ami exactions frequent. A sedition broke out among the
distressed people at Moscow; the Judge Plestcheief and the
Ok61nitchy Trakhaniotof had to he given up by the Tsar to the
furious populace, and were judged and executed by the mob.
Morozof, the Prime Minister and brother-in-law of the Tsar,
only Baved his life by a timely flight. In Novgorod ami Pskof
the populace made themselves masters of the city, and were
only put down when troops arrived and laid regular siege to
those places. In the south-east of Russia, Stenka Razin, a Co-
sack of the Don, captured Astrakhan, and established himself



INTRODUCTORY. '.)

on the lower Volga, whence he ravaged the whole of south-
eastern Russia. The nobles and boyars were killed, but the
peasantry willingly ranged themselves under his banners, and
Moscow was in imminent danger. Stenka Razin was put down,
captured and executed, hut his name was always a watrhw.nl,
and lives till now in popular songs. BLe was a popular hero,
embodying the discontent of the common people, rather than a
brigand chief — a Russian Robin Hood.

Most serious, however, in its ultimate consequences was the
rise of Dissent in the Rus sian Chur ch. Actuated by a spirit
of reform which was in itself laudable, the Patriarch Nikon
undertook the correction of all the printed and manuscript
copies of the liturgy. Careful comparisons were made with
the formularies and service hooks of the Eastern Church as
accepted at Constantinople, and with the early copies existing
in the libraries of the Russian monasteries; and, finally, by a
decree of an Ecclesiastical Council, the corrected books were
ordered to be the only ones used, and the destruction was
commanded of all others. This measure excited the greatest
hostility on the part of some of the ignorant clergy as well
a- of those who wen; heretical, but who had concealed their
heresy under the incorrectness of the book- which they u
Still more strongwas the feeling among the mass of tin; people,
especially in remote districts, who had a sincere, even if some-
times a superstitious, attachment to the forms and ceremonies
to which they and their fathers had been accustomed. It
seems certainly a matter of surprise that passions should be so
excited and people be found willing to suffer martyrdom for
such puerile questions as to - hether the name of Jesus should
be pronounced 'Isus ' or ' Fisue ' : whether, in a certain portion
of the morning service the word 'hallelujah' should be re-
peated twice or three time- : and whether the sign of the cross
should be made with the two fore fingers extended, or with the
two fore fingers and the thumb conjoined as denoting the



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