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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO




3 1822 02687 7720



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO




3 1822 02687 7720



T3



^■1



IN

FOURTEEN VOLUMES

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME I

First Edition



PALACE OF THE DALAI LAMA AT LHASA,
THIBET

Enclosed by nature between barren deserts and the loftiest
peaks of the Himalayas, and barred to commerce by the
most rigorous edicts against the admission of foreigners,
Thibet remained virtually unknown until the eighteenth
century. During the last hundred years a few daring ex-
plorers traversed the country, and in 1904 a mission from the
Indian government fought its way to the mysterious city of
Lhasa, to offset the dreaded influence of Russia with the
court of Thibet, and to regulate trade with India. The
Dalai Lama fled; he fled again a few years later when a
Chinese army entered the city, returning in 191 2.

Lamaism, the religion of Thibet, is a corrupt form of
Buddhism. The Dalai Lama (literally, priest as great as the
ocean), who is the supreme pontiff, is also the nominal ruler.
On the death of the Dalai Lama his soul is supposed to pass
into the body of a new-born infant, who thereby becomes his
successor. What child it is, who thus automatically succeeds
to the honor, is determined by lot through strange and com-
plicated ceremonies. It is probable, however, that the final
choice is made by the ruler of China, who is overlord of
Thibet. During the minority of the Dalai Lama the au-
thority is exercised by a regent. It is said that so many of
the Dalai Lamas die mysteriously just before coming of age,
that the country is nearly always ruled by a regent.

The Palace of the Dalai Lama is an enormous fortified
structure of nearly five hundred rooms. It is made of stone
and whitewashed. The upper half of the central part is
crimson, as are also the eaves and the coping of the zigzag
steps. In this building, majestic without but dark and filthy
within, live 350 lamas. Connected with it are other build-
ings for printing prayers, casting bronze images, manufac-
turing incense, and keeping cattle. Tradition says that this
immense edifice was reared some twelve hundred years ago.

This photograph of a temple little known to Western
readers was taken by Dr. S. Chuan, of Tientsin, China, who
accompanied the Chinese ambassador to Lhasa.



PALACE OF THE DALAI LAMA AT LHASA,
THIBET



CHINA JAPAN

AND THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC

A HISTORY OF THE WORLD

IN STORY SONG AND ART

EDITED BY

EVA MARCH TAPPAN

VOLUME I




BOSTON AND NEW YORK

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

(Cbe Ctitcr^jtic J^rerfjs Cambribgc

1914



COPYRIGHT, I9I4, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
ALL KIGHTS RESERVED



THE FIRST EDITION OF THE WORLD'S STORY

IS LIMITED TO SEVEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY

NUMBERED COPIES, OF WHICH THIS IS

NO. *jZJ



NOTE

All rights in material used in this volume are reserved
by the holders of the copyright. The publishers and
others named in the subjoined list are the proprietors,
either in their own right or as agents for the authors,
of the selections taken by their permission from the
works enumerated, of which the ownership is hereby
acknowledged. The Editor takes this opportunity to
thank both authors and publishers for the ready gener-
osity with which they have given permission to include
these selections in "The World's Story."
"Chinese Classics," by James Legge: published by

George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., London.
"History of China," by S. Wells Williams: published in
the United States by Charles Scribner's Sons, New
York; in Great Britain by Sampson Low, Marston
& Company, Ltd., London.
"The Lore of Cathay," by W. A. P. Martin: published
in the United States by Fleming H. Revell Company,
New York; in Great Britain by Oliphant, Anderson
& Ferrier, Edinburgh and London.
"The Chinese, their Education, Philosophy and Let-
ters," by W. A. P. Martin: pubUshed by Harper &
Brothers, New York.
"China's Open Door," by Rounsevelle Wildman: pub-
lished by Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Company, Boston.
"Some Chinese Ghosts," by Lafcadio Hearn: published
by Little, Brown & Company, Boston.



NOTE

"Two Thousand Years of Missions," by Lemuel Call
Barnes: published by The American Baptist Publica-
tion Society, Philadelphia.

"A Cycle of Cathay," by W. A. P. Martin : published in
the United States by Fleming H. Revell Company,
New York; in Great Britain by Oliphant, Anderson &
Ferrier, Edinburgh and London.

"When I was a Boy in China," by Yan Phou Lee: pub-
lished by Lothrop, Lee& Shephard Company, Boston.

"The People of China," by J. W. Robertson: published
by Methuen & Company, Ltd., London.

" Chinese Heroes," by Isaac Headland: published by
The Methodist Book Concern, New York.

"The Passing of Korea," by Homer B. Hulbert: pub-
lished by Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City,
New York.

"Wandering Words," by Sir Edwin Arnold: published
in the United States and Great Britain by Longmans,
Green & Company, New York and London.

"Japanese Classical Poetry," by Basil Hall Chamber-
lain: published in the United States by Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York ; in Great Britain by George
Routledge & Sons, Ltd., London.

"Japanese Lyrical Odes," translated by Charles V.
Dickens: pubUshed by Smith, Elder & Company,
London.

" East and West," by Sir Edwin Arnold : published in the
United States and Great Britain by Longmans, Green
& Company, New York and London.

"Seas and Lands," by Sir Edwin Arnold: published in
the United States and Great Britain by Longmans,
Green & Company, New York and London.

vi



NOTE

"Things Japanese," by Basil Hall Chamberlain: pub-
lished in the United States by Charles Scribner's
Sons, New York; in Great Britain by George Rout-
ledge & Sons, Ltd., London.

"Japan," by Mortimer Menpes : pubHshed in the
United States by The Macmillan Company, New
York; in Great Britain by Adam and Charles Black,
London.

"History of Japan," by Francis Ottiwell Adams: pub-
lished by George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., London.

"Australia," by W. H. Lang: pubhshed in the United
States by Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York;
in Great Britain by T. C. & E. C. Jack, Edinburgh.

"New Zealand," by Reginald Horsley: pubHshed in the
United States by Frederick A. Stokes Company, New
York; in Great Britain by T. C. & E. C. Jack, Edin-
burgh.

"The Romance of Missionary Heroism," by John C.
Lambert: pubhshed by Seeley, Service & Company,
Ltd., London.

"Aguinaldo, a Narrative of Filipino Ambitions," by
Edwin Wildman: pubHshed by Lothrop, Lee &
Shepard Company, Boston.

"The Home Life of Borneo Head-Hunters," by William
Henry Furness, 3d: published by J. B. Lippincott
Company, Philadelphia.

"The Chinese Theater," by Archibald Little; from The
Nineteenth Century and After, London, June, 1902.

" The Republic of China " ; from The Outlook, New York,
February 24, 1912.

"The Pitcairn Islanders"; from Harper^ s Monthly
Magazine, New York, April, 187 1.

vii



NOTE



"Preparing our Moros for Government," by R. L. Bul-
lard; from the Atlantic Monthly, Boston, March, 1906.

Illustration — "Palace of the Dalai Lama at Lhasa,
Thibet"; from a photograph by Dr. S. H. Chiian,
Tientsin, China.



CONTENTS



PUBLISHERS' NOTE nx

INTRODUCTION X3d

CHINA
I. IN THE EARLIEST DAYS

Shun or Yu, who controlled the Floods . . Confucius 3
From "The Shoo King, or Book of Historical Documents."

IL CONFUCIUS AND HIS AGE

The Story of CoNFUcitrs A.W. Loomis 13

A Visit to a Temple of Confucius . . . .A.W. Loomis 19

From "Confucius and the Chinese Classics."

Some of the Proverbs of Confucius .... Confucius 23

Manners and Customs of Confucius's Day William Speer 25

From "The Oldest and the Newest Empire."

Mencius S. Wells Williams 34

From "The Middle Kingdom."

A Story of Mencius Unknown 36

Proverbs of Mencius Mencius 37

III. TIMES OF CHANGE AND CONFUSION

The Strenuous Reign of Hoangti . . . Charles Gutzlaff 41

From "A Sketch of Chinese History Ancient and Modem."
The Rule of the Hans ....... William Speer 49

From "The Oldest and the Newest Empire."
The Three Religions W. A. P. Martin 53

From "The Lore of Cathay."
Dream and Reality, a Buddhist Story . . . Chuang Tzu 56
MuLAN, THE Maiden Chief Unknown 57

From "The Chinese, their Education, Philosophy, and Letters,"
by W. A. P. Martin.
The Prodigal Emperor, Wang-ti . . . Rounsevelle Wildman 60

From " China's Open Door."

ix



CONTENTS

IV. THE AUGUSTAN AGE

Tai-tsung the Good William Speer 6$

From "The Oldest and the Newest Empire."
The Rule of the Empress Wu ... 5. Wells Williams 68

From "History of China."
The Founding of Hanlin College .... William Speer 70

The Binding of Feet William Speer 73

Printing William Speer 75

From "The Oldest and the Newest Empire."

V. THE COMING OF THE TARTARS

The Tartars and their Customs Marco Polo 79

From "The Book of Sir Marco Polo, the Venetian," translated
and edited by Sir Henry Yule.

The Chinese Theater Archibald Little 85

From " The Nineteenth Century and After," June, 1902.

The Sorrows of Han Unknown 88

Jenghiz Khan, the "Perfect Warrior" D. Petis de la Croix 92
Jenghiz Khan captures Peking . . . D. Petis de la Croix 95

From "History of Jenghiz Khan the Great."
The Dirge of Jenghiz Khan Unknown 97

VI. STORIES OF THE GREAT KHAN

The Palace of the Great Khan in Cambaluc (Peking)

Marco Polo loi
How the Great Khan ate his Dinner . . . Marco Polo 105
How KuBLAi Khan went a-hunting .... Marco Polo 108

How THE Khan sent his Messages Marco Polo 113

The King's Messenger Chuang Tzu 118

The Polos teach the Khan how to capture a City

Marco Polo 119
A Chinese City at the End of the Thirteenth Century

Marco Polo 122
All of the above selections, except "The King's Messenger," are
from "The Book of Sir Marco Polo, the Venetian," trans-
lated and edited by Sir Henry Yule.

VII. CHINESE FABLES AND TALES

The Boy Philosopher Unknown 131

The Elixir of Life Unknown 132

From "Leaves from My Chinese Scrapbook," by Frederic
Henry Balfour.

X



CONTENTS

The Tiger and the Monkey Unknown 133

From "The Chinese, their Education, Philosophy, and Letters,"
by W. A. P. Martin.

Was He the Only Cheat? Unknown 134

The Appeal of Lady Chang Lady Chang 136

From "Gems of Chinese Literature," by Herbert A. Giles.

The Soul of the Great Bell Lafcadio Hearn 138

From "Some Chinese Ghosts."

Vin. THE COMING OF THE MISSIONARIES

An Enterprising Missionary John of Corvino 147

From "Two Thousand Years of Missions," by Lemuel Call
Barnes.

The Woman with the Cross Mendez Pinto 149

From "The Voyages and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez
Pinto."

The Worship of Ancestors W. A. P. Martin 153

From "The Lore of Cathay."
Teaching Science to the Emperor .... Pere du Halde 155

The Emperor and the Musician Pere du Halde 163

The Man who was afraid of becoming a Horse

Fire du Halde 166
From "A General History of China."

How the Bonzes got the Ducks Pere le Comte 168

A Visit to a Lama Pere Gerbillon 169

From "The Travels of Father Gerbillon, Jesuit and French
Missionary, into Tartary."

IX. THE FIRST TWO CENTURIES OF MANCHU RULE

The Coming of the Kalmucks . . . Thomas de Quincey 177

From "The Flight of a Tartar Tribe."
Chinese Punishments Pere du Halde 181

From "A General History of China."
Why the Chinaman wears a Queue . William Elliot Griffis 187

From "China's Story."
How the Chinese received the First English Ambassador

Charles GUizlaff 189

From "A Sketch of Chinese History."

Opium-Eaters William Speer 193

A "Boston Tea-Party" in China .... William S peer 194
What the Chinese thought about the English Unknown 197

From "The Oldest and the Newest Empire."



CONTENTS

How THE "Arrow War" began . . . . W. A. P. Martin 198

From "A Cycle of Cathay."
Receiving the Yellow Jacket . . . .A. Egmont Hake 201

From "Events in the Taiping Rebellion."

X. LANGUAGE, SCHOOLS, AND EXAMINATIONS

The Mandarin Language Pere du Halde 207

How Chinese Children learn to read . . Pere du Halde 210

From "A General History of China."
When I went to School in China .... Yan Phou Lee 214

From "When I was a Boy in China."
A Child's First Lessons Unknown 222

From "The People of China," by J. W. Robertson Scott.
Civil Service Examinations in China . . W. A. P. Martin 223
Questions from a Civil Service Examination 231

From "The Chinese, their Education, Philosophy and Letters."

XI. IN RECENT YEARS

War between China and Japan . . . . W. A. P. Martin 235

From "A Cycle of Cathay."
The Adventures of Yao Chen-yuan . . Yao Chen-yuan 239

From "Chinese Heroes," by Isaac Headland.
When the Allies entered Peking .... " Pierre Loti" 249

From "The Last Days of Pekin."
A Diplomatic Correspondence between the United States

AND China 257

The Republic of China 261

From "The Outlook," February 24, 1912.

KOREA

When Hideyoshi invaded Korea . . . Homer B. Hulbert 265
From "The Passing of Korea."

JAPAN

I. IN ANCIENT TIMES

JiMMU Tenno, the First Mikado of Japan

William Elliot Griffis 279

From "Japan in History, Folklore, and Art."
The Japanese Story-Teller .... Sir Edwin Arnold 284

From "Wandering Words."

xii



CONTENTS

The Fisher Boy Urashima Unknown 289

From "Japanese Classical Poetry," by Basil Hall Chamberlain.

Social Life in Kioto William Elliot Griffis 292

From "Japan in History, Folklore, and Art."

The Story of Yoshitsune Yei Theodora Ozaki 299

From "Warriors of Old Japan."

Three Japanese Poems.

The Pine Tree Chiu-nagon Yuki-kira 318

The Faded Flower Kino Tomo-nori 318

Faithfulness Dai-ni no Sammi 318

From "Japanese Lyrical Odes," translated by Frederick Vic-
tor Dickins.

II. THE RULE OF THE SHOGUNS

The Great Khan Kublai invades Japan . . Marco Polo 321

From "The Book of Sir Marco Polo, the Venetian."
The Coming of Will Adams to Japan . . . Will Adams 325

From "Memorials of the Empire of Japan in the Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Centuries," edited by Thomas Rundall.
Long Spears or Short Spears Walter Dening 332

From "The Life of Toyotomi Hideyoshi."
How A Man became a God Lafcadio Hearn 342

From "Gleanings from Buddha Fields."
Ribs and Skin Unknown 352

From "Japanese Classical Poetry," by Basil Hall Chamber-
Iain.
How IT WOULD FEEL TO BE A Shinto God . Lafcadio Hearn 362

From "Gleanings from Buddha Fields."
Tadasuke, the Japanese Solomon .... Walter Dening 369

From "Japan in Days of Yore."
The Sword of Japan Sir Edwin Arnold 378

From "East and West."

III. SOME CURIOUS CUSTOMS

A Japanese Dinner-Party Sir Edwin Arnold 391

From "Seas and Lands."
How Japanese Ladies go Shopping . . . Alice M. Bacon 399

From "Japanese Girls and Women."
An Incense Party Sir Edwin Arnold 407

From "East and West."
A Japanese House Basil Hall Chamberlain 414

From "Things Japanese."

xiii



CONTENTS

Thinking out a Garden Mortimer Menpcs 417

An Artist in Flowers Mortimer Metipes 419

How A Japanese paints Mortimer Menpcs 422

From "Japan."

How TO TALK POLITELY IN Japan Percivol Lowcll 424

From "The Soul of the Far East."

IV. THE AWAKENING OF JAPAN

When Commodore Perry landed in Japan . Francis L. Hawks 427
From "Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to
the China Seas and Japan under Commodore M. C. Perry."

The President's Letter Townsend Harris 438

From "Townsend Harris, first American Envoy in Japan," by
W. E. Griffis.
The Schools of Old Japan .... Francis Ottiwell Adams 443

From "History of Japan."
How TO learn Japanese .... Rev. M. L. Gordon, M.D. 447

From "An American Missionary in Japan."
The Attack upon Port Arthur

Lieutenant Today oski Sakurai 452
From "Human Bullets."

V. LITTLE STORIES OF JAPAN
Japanese Politeness Mortimer Menpes 461

From " Japan."
How the Shopkeeper lost his Queue . . . Lafcadio Hearn 462

From "The Japanese Letters of Lafcadio Hearn."
The Cherry Tree of the Sixteenth Day . Lafcadio Hearn 463

From "Kwaidan."
Japanese Children and their Games . . Sir Edwin Arnold 465

From "Wandering Words."

THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC

The First Australian Colonists W. H. Lang 477

Gold, Gold, Gold! W. H. Lang 484

From "Australia."
The Missionary and the Cannibals . . Reginald Horsley 494

From "New Zealand."
The Story of Pitcairn Island Anonymous 503

From " Harper's Monthly Magazine," April, 1871.
The Last Voyage of Captain Cook Charles C. B. Seymour 51°

From " Self-made Men."

xiv



CONTENTS

The Vengeance of the Goddess Pele .... Kalakaua 521

From "The Legends and Myths of Hawaii."
Father Damien, the Missionary to the Lepers

John C. Lambert 526

From "The Romance of Missionary Heroism."
A Visit to Aguinaldo Edwin Wildman 536

From "Aguinaldo, a Narrative of Filipino Ambitions."
Preparing Our Moros for Government . . R. L. Bullard 542

From the "Atlantic Monthly," March, 1906.
A Visit to a Head-hunter of Borneo

William Henry Furness, 3d 563

From "The Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters."



ILLUSTRATIONS

Palace of the Dalai Lama at Lhasa, Thibet Photograph

Frontispiece

Rakan feeding the Hungry Spirit . . . Chinese painting 52

The Peking Observatory Photograph 128

The Temple of Heaven, Peking Photograph 186

A Grain Shop in Korea Photograph 264

The Great Buddha of Kamakura Photograph 318

Interior of a Japanese Temple Photograph 368

A Stone Gateway Photograph 418

Fuji-Yama Photograph 462

Hot-Water Basins, New Zealand Photograph 502

Baro Buddor, an Ancient Temple of Java . . Photograph 562

Detail of Temple at Brambanan Photograph 562



PUBLISHERS' NOTE

The scope of " The World's Story " is briefly suggested
by its subtitle, " A History of the World in Story, Song,
and Art." It is a series of selections from the best prose
literature, the most inspiring poetry, and the most
striking examples of historical painting, made with a
view to obtaining, from these three sources, a compre-
hensive and reasonably complete presentation of the
world's history, from the earliest recorded events to the
present time. It aims to utilize the writings of the best
authors and the paintings of the greatest artists to
present a series of pictures, each interesting and instruc-
tive in itself, and constituting as a whole an illuminating
review of the most important events of the world's
history. Art is relied upon to furnish its quota of mate-
rial in precisely the same manner as literature. One
scene may be presented by means of the brush of a
master painter, while another may be the graphic word
painting of some great author. The selections are
arranged in chronological order and under geographical
divisions so that the reader may begin with the oldest
known civilization, — that of the Oriental countries, —
and, following the westward "course of empire," see in
imagination the progress of civilization and something
of the manners and customs of the people of all ages and
of all parts of the world.

These selections represent the work of no less than
six hundred representative authors and one hundred
well-known artists. By means of a series of historical
notes and editorial introductions, this vast assemblage

xix



PUBLISHERS' NOTE

of material is welded together, into a homogeneous
account of the world's history.

The selection and arrangement, together with the
editorial introductions and explanations, are the work
of Eva March Tappan, well known as the author of
many volumes of popular history and as the editor of
"The Children's Hour." She has devoted more than
three years to the search for suitable material and has
brought together one thousand one hundred selections,
many of them from books ordinarily inaccessible to
the general reader.

The final volume of the series is an " Outline of Uni-
versal History," outlining in brief the important events
and giving the names of rulers and leaders, with dates,
from the earliest time down to the date of publication.
In addition, there are alphabetical indexes of titles and
authors and a general index of all the famous characters
and events mentioned in the selections. Pains have been
taken to indicate in the Table of Contents the sources
from which the selections have been made. By this
means a reference guide is provided to the world's best
historical Hterature, and the reader is enabled to extend
his study in the portions of the field found most inter-
esting.

" The World's Story" offers to the general reader a
new and agreeable way of reviewing the history of civil-
ization. The publishers beheve that it will prove of
special value to all who for any reason are unable to
give the time to a comprehensive study of the vast
literature of history, but who will be glad to get from
their historical reading the same delight that one ex-
pects to derive from the reading of novels and poems.



INTRODUCTION

Did you ever stop to consider how the average person
becomes acquainted with the history of his own land?
Few people, even among the most patriotic, have ever
read a full and complete work on the story of their
country; but yet, in some mysterious way, they have
acquired a working knowledge of its annals. Something
of this they gain in even the elementary schools, of
course; but such knowledge of facts is quite a different
matter from the feeling of friendly familiarity, of being
at home in the chronicles of our mother land, that comes
to most of us in greater or less degree.

This is our birthright. We gain possession of it less by
studying than simply by living among our own people.
We hear legends — a bloodcurdling narrative of an es-
cape from the Indian tomahawk, the story of the diary
of Marie Antoinette, the tale of the hiding away of
some priest or oavaHer, the tradition of Bishop Hatto
and his tower. We read here and there an anecdote of
WelHngton, or Peter the Great, or Hideyoshi. We hear
stories of the recent wars from the lips of veterans.
"The Relief of Lucknow" tells us something of the In-
dian Mutiny; "John Brown's Body," of the American
Civil War; "The Charge of the Light Brigade," of the
Crimea; Byron's "Eve of Waterloo," of the fall of Na-
poleon. The "Idylls of the King" gives us a living King
Arthur ; the Earl of Rochester's " Epitaph on Charles II "
is an exceedingly good characterization of the merry
monarch; there are " Hohenlinden " and "The Battle of

xxi



INTRODUCTION

the Baltic," — indeed there is no end to the poems
that bring the past before us in glowing colors.

The daily papers are full of phrases that originated in
some historical event. "England expects every man to
do his duty," "Forty centuries are looking down upon
you," "prairie schooners," " 49-ers," the " cat-and-mouse
law," the "Vicar of Bray," — all these arose from some
episode in history. Proper names, too, are wonderfully
suggestive. Why is there a Ponce de Leon hotel in
Florida? How did Whitehall Street, and Trafalgar
Square, and West Indies, Alexandria, Constantinople,
Alhambra, Pittsburg, the Theater of Pompey, and the
Avenue de Neuilly get their names? There are mon-
uments that are history condensed. There is a lion at
Lucerne, horses at St. Mark's; there is a lofty shaft
on Bunker Hill, a statue of William Penn on the top
of the city hall of Philadelphia. There are monu-
ments to Wolfe and Montcalm, to Brock, Frontenac, and
Champlain, to Washington, Sir Harry Vane, Joan of Arc,
Alfred the Great, Wellington, Richard the Lion-hearted.
Indeed, we can hardly walk a mile in any city without
reading, in statue or column or name of street or square
or building, some chapter in local history. Our most
familiar pictures are historical. Who does not know
the "Princes in the Tower," "Charlotte Corday," the
"Return of the Mayjflower," "Queen Victoria Ascend-
ing the Steps of the Throne," "Napoleon on the
Bellerophon," the "Death of Nelson," "Alfred in the
Herdsman's Cottage"?

So it is, in these and a hundred similar ways of which
we take little account, that the history of our home land
comes to us. Such knowledge is necessarily incomplete

xxii



INTRODUCTION

and somewhat fragmentary. We do not know the exact
latitude and longitude of the spot where the Constitu-
tion encountered the Guerriere, perhaps we have even
forgotten the year when the famous battle took place;
but we are reasonably sure to remember that the familiar
name of the first-mentioned vessel was "Old Ironsides,"
and that Holmes wrote a poem with that title. Uncon-
sciously we join our bits of information together, and
when we read even the barest outline of our country's
history, then, no matter what our home land may be,
we are sure to find these stories and pictures and songs,



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