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3 1822 02685 0503





3 1822 02685 0503






First Edition










(arftc Riberjsibc jptes? Cambribge







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»*<f Sections marked with an * have been added by the translator ; those marked with
a t have been considerably enlarged or changed by the translator.


Introduction. ix

t Divisions of universal history 1



1. iEeyptians 2


2. Jews (Hebrews, Israelites) .... . . 7

3. Babylonians and Assyrians 12

4. Fhcenicians and Carthaginians 16

5. Lydians. * Phrygians 20


t 6. Indians 22

7. Bactrians, Medes, Persians ....... 24


* 8. Parthians 29

* 9. Chinese 30

* 10. Japanese 32



* 1. Celts 34

a. Continental Celts. Gauls ,34

b. Celts of the British Isles 36

Britain 36

Ireland 38

2. Grecian history 39

Geographical surve}' of ancient Greece 39

* Religion of the Greeks 41

First Period (x— 1104). Mythical Period .... 43
Second Period (1104-500). To the beginning of the Persian

Wars 47

Third Period (500-338). To the battle of Chwronea . . 56
Fourth Period (338-146). Graeco - Macedonian or Hellenistic

Period -73


Table of Contents.


3. Boman history 81

Geographical survey of ancient Italy 81

* Religion of the ancient Romans 84

Ethnographical sketch of Italj' .85

First Period (x — 510). Mythical epoch of the kings . . 87

Second Period (510-264). To the beginning of the Punic Wars . 93

Third Period (264-146). Epoch of the Punic Wars . . 109
Fourth Period (146-31). Epoch of the Civil Wars . . .123
Fifth Period (31 b. C.-476 a. d.). The Roman emperors to the

fall of the Western Empire 147

* 4. Teutons 162

* 5. Slavs and liithuanians 168


FIRST PERIOD. (375-843.)

1. Migrations of the Northern Tribes 170

» 2. Teutonic kingdoms in Britain (449-828) .... 176

3. The Franks under the Merovingians 181

4. Mohammed and the CaUphate 182

5. The Franks under the Carolingians 183

* 6. New Persian empire of the Sassanidse 187

SECOND PERIOD. (843-1096.)

1. Italy and Germany (Carolingian, Saxon, Franconian or Salian em-
perors) 193

t 2. France (Carolingians and early Capetians) 201

t 3. England (West Saxon kings) 203

* 4. The North. Denmark 207

Sweden, Norway 208

5. Spanish Peninsula 209

6. The East. Eastern Empire 210

* India 210

* China 211

* Japan . . , 212

THIRD PERIOD. (1096-1270.)

1. Crusades 213

2. Germany and Italy 218

t 3. France 226

t 4. England 229

* 5. The North. Denmark 235

Sweden 237

Norway 238

6. Spanish Peninsiila 240

7. The East. Eastern Empire. The Mongols ..... 240

* India. * China ' 241

* Japan 242

Table of Contents. V


FOURTH PERIOD. (1270-1492.)

1. Germany to Maximilian 1 244

Origin of the Swiss Confederacy 245

Leagues of the cities 249

t 2. France to Charles Vm 264

3. Italy 262

t 4. England to Henry VII 263

5. Spanish Peninsula 275

6. The North and East. Scandinavia. Russia .... 276

Poland, Prussia, Hungary . . . 277

Turks, Mongols, Eastern Empire ) _»„
* China. * Japan J


FIRST PERIOD. (1492-1648.)

1. Inventions, discoveries, and colonies 279

* 2. America. Discovery 280

a. English colonies : South Virginia 291

Plymouth Company .... 293

b. Dutch colonies 298

c. Swedish colonies 298

d. New France and the Arctic region 299

3. Germany to the Tturty Years' "War. Reformation . . 300

4. Thirty Yeara' "War 308

1. Bohemian Period, 1618-1623 308

2. Danish " 1625-1629 310

3. Swedish " 1630-1635 311

4. French " 1635-1648 314

t 5. France 318

6. Italy 326

7. Spanish Peninsula and the Netherlands .... 328

t The Netherlands 328

* 8. England and Scotland 333

9. The North and East 351

Sweden, Denmark and Norway, Poland, Russia . , . 352

Turks. * India 353

» China 354

* Japan 355

SECOND PERIOD. (1648-1789.)


* 1. America. British, Dutch, and Swedish colonies . . . 357

French settlements and discoveries .... 363

t 2. France under Louis XIV 365

3. Germany under Leopold 1 371

4. The North and East. Swedea 373

Denmark, Poland, Russia .... 374

vi Table of Contents.


* 5. England , . o . 375

* 6. India 389

* 7. China • . 390


1. The "War of the Spanish Succession 390

2. The Northern War 394

3. Germany to the Kevolution of 1789 397

4. The North. Denmark (Norway), Sweden 409

Russia, Poland 410

5. Spain and Portugal 414

6. Italy. Savoy, Genoa, Venice 415

(Tuscany, Papal States) Two Sicilies .... 416

* 7. America. British colonies 417

War of Independence 426

* 8. Great Britain . 433

* 9. The East. India 442

The British in India 443

China 444

Japan 445

t 10. France to the Bevolution of 1789 445

THIRD PERIOD. (1789-1815.)

First French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars . . . 447

Causes of the Revolution 448

Constituent assembly 449

Legislative assembly 451

War of the First Coalition. National Convention . . . 452

Directory 457

War of the Second Coalition 460

The Consulate 461

First French Empire ., . . . 465

War of the Third Coalition 467

(Fourth) War with Prussia and Russia 468

Peninsula War 471

(Fifth) War with Austria . 471

(Sixth) War with Russia 474

The War of Liberation 475

Congress of Vienna 482

The Hundred Days (War of 1815) 483

FOURTH PERIOD. (1815— x.)

1. Inventions. Steam Engines. Steam Navigation. Railroads. Tele-

graph 485

2. Continental Europe 487

War of Grecian Independence ..*.... 438

Revolution in Belgium 489

Revolution in Poland 490

Revolt of Mehemet Ali . o 491



Table of Contents. vii


Civil war in Switzerland 492

Confusion in Germany; attempts at union .... 492

Revolt of the Hungarians 494

Crimean War 499

Kingdom of Italy 503

War of Austria and Prussia with Denmark .... 505

Austro-Prussian War 507

Austro-Italian War 510

North German Confederation 511

Franco-German War 513

German Empire 519

Turco-Russian War 522

Congress of Berlin 524

t 3. France (1815-1882) 526

July Revolution of 1830 529

February Revolution of 1848. Second Republic . . . 530

Second Empire 531

Third Republic 532

* 4. Great Britain i (1783-1882) 535

The British in India (1785-1836) 541

Great Britain (1837-1882) 542

The British in India (1836-1882) 546

* 5. The United States of America! (1789-1883) . . . .547

War of 1812 551

War with Mexico 554

The Civil War 557

* 6. CMna (1796-1882) 560

* 7. Japan (1787-1882) ' . ' 562

Restoration of the Mikado 563

APPENDIX. (1883— X.)

» 8. Great Britain 2 (1883-1903) 565

South African War 5yQ

» 9. Continental Europe 2 (1883-1903) 573

Armenian Massacres 579

Cretan Revolt and Turco-Greek War 58i

Dreyfus Affair 582

* 10. United States 2 (1883-1903) 686

Spanish War 599

Philippine Insurrection ••••.... 592

» 11 Asia 2 (1883-1903) .594

Chinese-Japanese War 595

Boxer Rising 597

Russo-Japanese Crisis 599

Leading Events (1904-1914) 599

* Index 1

1 Contributed by Edward Ohacning, Ph. D.
' Contributed in part by D. M. Matteson.


Prof. Dr. Carl Ploetz, well known in Germany as a veteran
teacher, is the author of a number of educational works having a high
reputation, among which none has better approved its usefulness than
the " Epitome of Universal History." ^ The admitted excellence of
the book renders an apology for its translation unnecessary, but an
extract from the author's preface respecting the nature and pui'pose
of the work may not be out of place.

"The present 'Epitome,' which now appears in a seventh edition, enlarged
and improved, is intended, in the first place, for use by the upper classes in
higher educational institutions, as a guide or handbook in the historical class-
room. The handy arrangement of the book and the elaborate index are in-
tended to adapt it for private use, and to facilitate rapid acquisition of informa-
tion concerning historical matters which have, for the moment, escaped the

" I have endeavored to give everywhere the assured results of recent histor-
ical investigation, adding, as far as possible, references to my authorities.

" The exposition of ancient history is based upon the works of Duncker,
Curtius, Mommsen, and Peter.

"Mediaeval history, which was treated somewhat too briefly in the earlier
editions, has been made proportionately full since the fourth, and has been,
moreover, enlarged, as has modern history, by the addition of a number of
genealogical tables.

"In modern history tlie treaties of peace have been brought into especial
prominence, and the principal conditions of the great treaties, through which
alone one can get an insight into the historical formation of the present system
of European states, have been stated with all possible accuracy.

" Recent history has been brought down to the present day. The purpose
and the compass of the book alike permitted nothing more than a compressed
narrative of facts, as far as possible, free from the expression of personal opin-
ion. This limitation of itself excludes the possibility of offending, whether in a
religious or a political sense.

" All are probabl}' now agreed that it is unadvisable for scholars to write out
the lecture of the instructor in full, which, however, should not prevent them
from taking notes here and there. No one denies the necessity of a guide as a
basis for instruction ; but widely differing ideas prevail concerning the arrange-
ment and extent of such a work.

" The author of this 'Epitome,' who was for a number of years historical in-
structor of the first and second classes in the French Gymnasium at Berlin,
holds the opinion that even the best handbook can in no way take the place of
an animated lecture, and that any guide which gives a connected narrative in

1 Auszug aus der alien, mittleren und neueren Geschichte von Karl Ploetz.
Siebente verbesserte und stark vermehrte Auflage, Berlin. A. G. Ploetz, 1880.
The preparation of this edition was confided to Prof. Dr. O. Meltzer, author of
Geschichte der Karthager, i. 1880.

X Introduction.

some detail necessarily detracts from the value of the teacher's lecture, if in the
hands of the pupils in the class-room.

" I am persuaded that such a work should place before the pupil facts only, in
the wider sense of the word, and these grouped in the most comprehensive man-
ner. The task of animating these facts by oral exposition ought to be left to
the instructor."

The translator has enlarged the book in no small degree, with the
hope of increasing its general usefulness, and of giving it especial
value in this country.

Under ancient history an attempt has been made to bring the
ethnographical relations of the early peoples into prominence ; but
believing that the uncertainty of our knowledge in this respect can
hardly be dwelt upon too strongly, the translator has tried to speak
guardedly. Even the Indo-European family is far from being satis-
factorily understood; the details of the relationship of its constituent
groups are not clear ; the theory of a primitive Asiatic home and a
wave-like series of westward migrations is but one, though perhaps the
best, among many speculations. Recent text-books have delighted us
with minutely ramified tables of Indo-European relationships, show-
ing, with close approximation, when each group left the parent stock,
each tribe the common group ; this, though harmless as speculation,
is dangerous if taken for knowledge.^

The speculations in regard to the early inhabitants of the British
Isles should be received with like caution. Their provisional accept-
ance, however, is so useful as to justify their insertion.

The mythical history of England, Ireland, and Scandinavia has
been deemed worthy to stand beside that of Greece and Rome. The
undoubted historical value of many of these traditions and the part
which they play in general literature will explain the presence of
even the distinctly fabulous tales. The distinction between myth, a
theoretical explanation of myths, and tolerably trustworthy history
has been kept constantly in view.

The history of certain countries, as China, Japan, Parthia and Per-
sia imder the Sassanidse, which the stricter limits of the German
work had caused the author to omit, has been added ; in the cases of
India, the Scandinavian monarchies before 1387, and France, the
meagre account in the original has undergone considerable amplifica-

The greatest changes, however, will be found in the history of Eng-

1 "We must content ourselves, for the present, with the recognition of a
fundamental primitive community of Indo-European languages, and refrain
from dividing these languages into groups (except in the case of the Indo-Ira-
nian tongues). Especially is this true of the unity of the Greeks and Italians, so
often taken for granted. It cannot be said that this unity did not once exist,
but neither can it be asserted that its existence is demonstrable. Whether or
not the future will succeed in reaching more certain results remains to be seen;
until such results are reached historians will do well to refrain from making use
of such groups of languages and of tribes as the Gra!CO-Italian and the Slavo-Ger-
man." (B. Delbriick, Einkitung in das Sprachstudium^ Leipzig, Breitkopf
& Hartel, 1880.) Not all philologists will agree upon this point, — upon what
point do all philologists agree ? — and the archaeologists have something to say
upon the matter; the words just quoted are, nevertheless, worthy of consid-

Introduction. x\

land and in that of America, which have been rewritten from the
beginning with a fullness of detail proportional to that observed by
the original in the history of Germany,

In the additions nothing more than a compilation from reliable,
but easily accessible, sources has been attempted. A few notes have
been inserted and a few dates and facts interpohated in the text of the
original, but these changes have been duly attributed to the transla-
tor, either directly or by the use of brackets, where they seemed of
sufficient importance.

Absolute accuracy cannot be looked for in a work dealing with so
vast a number of dates and covering so wide a range in time ; the
translator, however, in the sections for which he is responsible, has
endeavored to verify each date by reference to independent authori-
ties. He will be grateful to all who will take the trouble to inform
him of errors that have escaped his notice. That the proportion ob-
served in the space allotted to different countries and epochs is open
to criticism, the translator is well aware ; the fault is due in part to
the plan adopted by him of sending the earlier portions of the book
to press before the later were finished, in the vain hoije of hastening
its completion.-

Except in the case of the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian
wars, where much of the minute descriptive detail has been omitted,
no attempt has been made to condense the original.

Various circumstances have delayed the appearance of the book
much beyond the time for which it was announced ; that it is at last
ready is due to the kindness of Dr. Edward Channing, of Harvard
College, who took upon himself the preparation of those sections
which contain the history of Great Britain and her colonies from
1784 to 1883, and that of the United States from 1789 to 1883. The
thanks of the translator are also due to Professor H. W. Torrey, of
Harvard College, for the loan of material of which free use has been
made for English history in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
and for French history in the nineteenth century ; and to Mr. Justin
Winsor, Librarian of the University, for the free use of books.

To Dr. R. H. Labberton and to Messrs. E. Claxton & Co. of Phila-
delphia, the translator is indebted for courteous permission to use
certain genealogical tables in Dr. Labberton's exceedingly useful
" Outlines of History." ^

The distinguishing feature of the " Epitome " is the arrangement
whereby a brief connected narrative is accompanied by a clear, well-
graduated chronology which emphasizes the sequence of events with-
out breaking up the story or fatiguing the mind. An attempt has
been made, by the use of italics and two sizes of black type, to mark
and distinguish events according to their relative importance, and
also to relieve the page ; while, with the latter object in view, the
use of capitals has been as far as possible dispensed with, although
the manner of printing the book has prevented consistency in this

1 Labberton, R. H., Outlines of History, with original tables, chronological,
genealogical, and literarv. Thirteenth edition. Philadelphia, E. Claxton &
Co., 1883. Text and Historical Atlas. The tables used are II., III., XVI.,
which appear on pages 265, 256, 332, of the present work.

xii Introduction.

respect Especial care has been devoted to the index, which has been
made very full, in order that the book might serve as a historical
dictionary, as well as a chronology.



X B. c. — 375 A. D. I. Ancient history,, from the begin-
ning of historical information to the commence-
ment of the migrations of the Teutonic tribes.

375 — 1492. II. Mediaeval history, from the commence-
ment of tlie migrations of the Teutonic tribes to
the discovery of America.
1492 — X. Ill- Modern history, from the discovery of
America to the present time.

Ancient history, treated ethnographieally, falls mto two great divi-
sions :

A. Eastern peoples : Egyptians (Hamitic) ; Jews, Babylonians, As-

syrians, Phcenicians, Lydians (Semitic) ; Hindus, Bac-
trians, Medes, Persians {Aryan); Parthians, Chinese,
Japanese (Turanian?).

B. Western Peoples: Celts, Britons, Greeks, Romans, Teutons


Mediaeval history can be divided into four chronological periods:

375-843. 1. From the commencement of the migrations of the
Teutonic Tribes to the Treaty of Verdun.
843-1096. 2. From the Treaty of Verdun to the begimiing of the

1096-1270. 3, The epoch of the Crusades.

1270-1492. 4. From the end of the Crusades to the discovery of

Modern history can also be divided into four periods:

1492-1648. 1. From the discovery of America to the Peace of

1648-1789. 2. From the Peace of Westphalia to the outbreak of

the first French Revolution.
1789-1815. 3. From the outbreak of tlie first French Revolution

to the Congress of Vienna.
1815-x. 4. From the Congress of Vienna to the present time.

Ancient History. b. C.



§ 1. EGYPTIANS. Eamites.

Geography : Egypt ^ (Kern, i. e. " black earth " in old Eg;y'ptian)
is the valley of the Nile, which extends between two chains of low
hills for 550 miles, \vith a breadth, above the Delta, of but a few miles.
It is divided into Upper Egypt (Philce, Elephantine, Thebes or Dios-
polis, called by Homer eKaT6fj.T!-v\os, the " hundred gated," a designa-
tion which must refer to the entrances of temples and palaces, since
the city had neither walls nor gates) and Lower Egypt (Memphis;
in the Delta, Tanis, Bubastis, Naucrdtis, Sa'is ; west of the Delta,
Canopus, now Aboukir; on the east, Pelusium; the latter cities stand-
ing on what were, in ancient times, the largest mouths of the Nile).
These divisions were originally, in all probability, independent coun-
tries. They are not to be confounded with the separate principali-
ties which became numerous at a later time. This division was com-
memorated in the royal title of the kings of the united countries,
" lords of the upper and lower country," " lords of the two

Religion : Worship of personified forces of Nature and symbolical
animal worship. In Memphis especial reverence paid to Piah, the
highest of the gods, the first creator ; in his temple stood the sacred
bull Apis (Egypt. Api), also closely connected with Osiris. Ra,^ wor-
shipped particularly in On or Heliopolis, represented the transmitting
and preserving power of the godhead embodied in the sun. Khem,
was the god of generation and growth. Reverence was also paid to
the goddess Neith, whose worship at Sais was considered by the Greeks
to be identical with that of Athena, to the goddess Bast or Pacht (at
Bubastis), and to the goddess of Buto, on one of the mouths of the

At Thebes, cult of Ammon (Amun'), the god of heaven, later united
with Ra to form a single divinity. In Upper Egypt worship was paid
to Mentu, the rising sun; Turn or Atmu, the setting sun; Chnum or
Kneph, god of the overflow, always represented with a ram's head and
double horns, and later becoming united with Ammon to form one
divmity; and to the goddess Mut (i. e. "mother"). The educated
classes recognized the various gods as personified attributes of the
one Divinity.

^ See Kiepert, Atlas Andquus, Tab. III.

2 Accordinsi to Rosellini and Lepsius the title of Pharaoh is derived from
this name, and means Son of the Sun. Ebers and Brugseh derive it from
Fe-ralo), the " great house." (Compare "Sublime Porte.")

B. C. Egyptians. 3

Myth of Osiris, the creative force in Nature, wlio was killed and
thrown into the sea by Set (Typhon), the destructive force in Nature
(especially drought); sought after by his son-owing consort Isis (the
earth), he was avenged by their son Horos, who slew Set; restored to
life, Osiris thenceforward ruled in the lower world (decay and resur-
rection of the creative force in nature; immortality of the soul). Con-
joined with Horos, the goddess Hathor, considered by the Greeks to be
the same as Aphrodite.

Highly developed moral code.

Civilization : Fertility of the valley of the Nile maintained by the
regular overflow of the NUe, beginning at the end of July and last-
ing four months.

Hieroglyphics, very early in conjunction with the hieratic, and after-
wards the demotic, characters (syllabic and phonetic signs), which
represented the language of daily life, the dialect of the common

Embalming of the dead. (Mummies.)

Avoidance of mtercourse with foreign peoples and adoption of
foreign customs. Strict regulation of the entire life by religious

Castes : Priests, warriors, agricultural laborers, artisans, shepherds.
These castes, however, were in no wise absolutely separated from one

Form of Government: Despotic monarchy, with divine attributes,
also in possession of the highest spiritual power. Strong influence of
the priests, especially after the fourteenth century, but they never
controlled the supreme power.i

The Pyramids are gigantic sepulchres of the kmgs. Over thirty
still exist.2 The largest, at Gizeh, was originally 480 feet high, and
still measures 450 feet. The Olaelisks — of which one is now at
Paris, several in Rome, one in London, and one in New York — are
cut from single blocks of stone (monoliths), and were offerings to
the sun-god Ra; the Sphinxes were symbols of the sun-god.

Chronology : The Egyptians filled the space before Mena, the
first of the historic line of kings, by the assumption of three dynas-
ties of gods, demi-gods, and "the mysterious manes." The list of
kings after Mena was given at length by the priest Manetho (about
250 B. c), in his history of Egypt. He arranged them in tliirty dy-
nasties, a division which is still used. To reconcile the names and
dates given by Manetho with the records upon the monuments is a
difficult matter, owing in part to the fact that several of the dynasties
of Manetho probably reigned contemporaneously in different parts
of Egypt, that it was the custom for a king to associate his son with
himself during the latter part of his reign, and that the son after-
wards reckoned his reign from the date of such association. Hence

Online LibraryEva March TappanThe world's story; a history of the world in story, song and art, ed. by Eva March Tappan (Volume 14) → online text (page 1 of 82)