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Evarts I. Blake.

Greater Oakland, 1911, a volume dealing with the big metropolis on the shores of San Francisco Bay .. online

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824 Athens Avenue, just off San Pablo, be-
tween 24th and 25th Streets, and plans to
extend its business broadly; it will be able
to meet any and all competition both as to
price and quality of work done, and the
concern gives every promise of growing to
large proportions.



California Pickle and Sauce Company.



205



California Pickle and Sauce Company




NE of the representative con-
cerns in its line of industry,
is the California Pickle &
Sauce Company, whose well
equipped plant is located at
619 to 625 Myrtle Street.

The proprietors of the business, Messrs.
Helmond & Deppe, have, through long ex-
perience and careful study and experiment,
been able to put on the market a class of
goods equal to the best produced anywhere
on the Pacific Coast. As a result they have
developed a big and permanent trade with
grocers, restaurants and hotels of the best
sort.

An inspection of the plant will reveal a
clean and sanitary condition in every depart-
ment. The products used in the making of



pickles, preserves, relishes, etc., are selected
with utmost care, and it has never been the
policy of this concern to economize in ex-
penditures in purchasing the raw material
This company's product was awarded the
diploma at the State Agricultural Fair held
in Sacramento in 1907.

The California Pickle & Sauce Company
is a purely Oakland concern and deserves
the support it is receiving from the consum-
ers of this city, not only on account of the
merit of its goods, but because it is a home
industry and gives employment to local people.

The company pays out quite a few thou-
sands of dollars every year in this city to
employes and other various expenses, which
is steadily increasing as the business grows.




206



Greater Oakland, 1911





\ ^ ,\ '^ \- ^ \ \ \ \ \ \ ,




DoAK Gas Engine Company.



207



Doak Gas Engine Company

Manufacturers of Gas Engines




NE of the industrial institu-
tions whose presence in Oak-
land adds materially to the
activity and prosperity of the
city is the Doak Gas Engine
Company, whose big manufacturing plant
is located at Fourth and Madison Streets.

The Doak Gas Engine was designed and
invented by the late John E. Doak in 1892.
While he was associated with Henshaw,
Bulklcy & Company, of San Francisco, he
formed a partnership with Mr. William
Letts Oliver under the name of the Doak
Gas Engine Company, which has since
been incorporated with William Letts
Oliver as president; Mr. Frederick W.
Hall, vice-president, and R. L. Jennings,
secretary and treasurer.

Although the company maintains sales
offices in the Sheldon Building, San Fran-
cisco, it is purely an Oakland enterprise
and all the manufacturing and shipping is
done from this city.

The concern has installed some notable
plants, among which are the Winnemucca
Electric Light & Power Works, Water &
Light Plant, at Elko, Nevada; the Leona
Chemical Company's big power plant, and
the Municipal Pumping Plant, on the
shores of Lake Merritt.

The Doak Company has also installed
pumping plants for fire protection, etc., in
Turlock, Colusa, Yuba City, and Madera.

As the citizens of Oakland will surely
be interested in its high pressure fire
fighting system, and as the Doak Gas En-
gine plays a most important part in this
system, we are reprinting as a whole an
article from the "Engineering Rtrcrd" of
July 23, 1910, entitled:



OAKLAND'S HIGH PRESSURE FIRE
FIGHTING SYSTEM.

A salt-water, high-pressure fire protec-
tion system recently has been placed in
operation in the central business district
of Oakland, Cal. The system is designed
as an auxiliary to the present fire-fighting
facilities, in a restricted area in which the
number of fire streams required is greater
than is demanded in the surrounding sec-
tions of the city. The pumping plant of
the system supplies these additional streams,
and the design provides that as the re-
stricted area increases the salt-water mains
may be extended. Hose streams are taken
directly from hydrants on the high-pressure
mains, so that no steamers are required.
Dependence for a supply for fighting or-
dinary fires is placed on the existing fresh-
water system of mains, and the salt-water
pumping plant stands idle, except when
called on in emergencies. Damage to the
contents of a building by salt water thus
is avoided in all except large fires.

The pumping plant is in a park on the
shore of Lake Merritt, a body of salt water
connected with San Francisco Bay, and is
at a distance of about 1% miles from the
center of the area in which the mains of
the salt-water system have been laid. In-
cluding the force main leading to the edge
of that area, 12,000 feet of mains are in
service, protection thus being provided to
60 blocks of business property. The con-
tract has been awarded for an additional
5,340 feet of mains, including a fire-boat
connection on the water front, and the
scheme for the system contemplates that
mains eventually will cover an area of 114



DoAK Gas Engine Company.



209



square miles. This area is shown by an
accompanying map, on which the mains
already completed and those now undei
contract also are indicated.

The mechanical equipment of the pump-
ing plant embraces two 250-horsepower gas
engines, each connected to a four-stage tur-
bine pump. The two units are capable of
delivering ten fire streams of 200 gallons
per minute each, against pressure of 200
pounds per square inch. The specifications
required that within two minutes of the
time an alarm is given, five of the streams



which will be used as a spare unit, or to
increase the capacity of the plant 50 per
cent during a conflagration. In the design
of the pumping plant and the arrangement
of the distribution mains, the suggestions
of the engineers of the Board of Under-
writers of the Pacific were followed.

Four sources of power were considered
for the pumping plant: electric motors,
steam-driven plant, gas engines running on
gas from street mains, and gas engines
operating on distillate, which is a substi-
tute for gasoline. As a result of the in-




Main Units in the Oakland Pumping Station



should be delivered and the additional five
within two minutes of the call on the sta-
tion. These requirements have been re-
duced by actual service so that one pump
is placed in operation in thirty seconds and
the second within two minutes. Recent
tests showed that two pumps delivered
2,400 gallons per minute through 250 feet
of hose in the center of the business area
with 80 pounds nozzle pressure. The pres-
sure on the mains at the pumps is 200
pounds per square inch. The plans con-
template an additional engine and pump,



vestigations that were made, the following
conclusions were reached as being factors
which governed the use of each type of
power under the local conditions:

Electric motors would depend on an
overhead system of wires for power trans-
mission, and such a system would be in
great danger of failure during a fire or an
earthquake. The use of motors also would
make the fire protection system dependent
on a private enterprise for power, the en-
tire load of which would have to be sup-
plied at very short notice. If this load was



210



Greater Oakland, 1911



drawn from general distribution systems,
the supply of current might be weak or
entirely cut off when needed. On the other
hand, if the necessary machinery to furnish
the current required on call had to be in-
stalled, the owners would look to the city
for enough income to defray the expense of
providing and maintaining it. The Board
of Fire Underwriters protested vigorously
against the use of electric motors under
these conditions.

A steam-driven plant would cost approx-
imately the same as the gas engine instal-



and auxiliary machinery, since at least one
boiler would have to be kept under fire at
all times, while the gas engine plant stands
idle with no loss.

Gas engines operating on gas from the
street mains are dependent on a private
enterprise for fuel. They also must draw
their supply from the general distribution
system, with its chances of lack of pres-
sure and of failure in case of earthquakes
or fire.

Gas engines running on distillate have
an independent source of power, since a




Pumping Station near I<ake Merritt



lation. Although the cost of the opera-
tion of the former would be slightly higher
than that of the latter, the ultimate cost
was considered the same. The building to
house the plant had to be an ornamental
structure adapted in design to the park
and residential surroundings, and there
could be nothing about the plant that
would be objectionable in a park. A steam
plant would have required a larger build-
ing than has been built, a tall chimney
and the hauling and storage of consider-
able fuel oil. There would likewise be a
considerable deterioration of the boilers



storage capacity of fuel sufficient for 24
hours' run at full load of the plant is pro-
vided. In selecting the equipment in-
stalled, the designers also held that gas
engines have reached such a high degree
of perfection that they are now considered
as reliable a source of power as steam
engines. The several large fire-fighting
plants using gas engines that are in suc-
cessful operation were cited to show the
results obtained in service with equipment
of this type.

A number of conditions influenced the
selection of the type of pump installed.



DoAK Gas Engine Company.



211



The first of these was the distance from
the plant to the point where the water is
used, and the lack of direct and rapid
communication between these points under
all conditions. Another was the necessity
of pumping salt water which may contain
foreign matter. The final governing factor
was the desire to secure a pump that was
simple in construction and operation.

The multi-stage turbine pump was held
to be nearly ideal for the conditions in-
volved and for the service required, owing
to its simplicity and the fact that it is
started by the application of power, without
requiring the manipulation of by-pass or
other valves. This type of pump will also
handle without injury the dirty salt water
supply that is available. The pumps may be
started when a call on the station is made
and run at full speed without water being
drawn from the hydrants, although the
maximum pressure will be maintained on
the system. The water then may be drawn
as needed until the full capacity of the
pump is reached, and the maximum pres-
sure maintained meanwhile. In fact, with
the design developed the pumps maintain
the pressure on the distribution system the
same as it would be kept up by an ele-
vated tank or reservoir.

The pumping station, which is also a
park building, is a one-story reinforced-
concrete structure, 64 by 80 feet in plan
and 17 feet high to the eaves line, which
is treated architecturally to harmonize with
its surroundings. The exterior walls were
given a plaster finish. The roof is of the
low, Spanish type, with a covering of red
tile on steel trusses. The ground around
the building was graded to bring the latter
naturally into the landscape, the effect se-
cured being particularly satisfactory. The
interior of the building also is .finished in
keeping with the exterior treatment.

The building is divided into five rooms,
one, 46x46.5 feet in plan, that contains the
mechanical equipment, an engineer's room,
a storeroom, and two public toilet rooms,
with a 16-foot porch on both sides. The
arrangement of the main units and auxili-
aries is shown in one of the accompanying
drawings. The pump of each main unit
draws water from a separate screen cham-
ber in a section well under the floor of the
room. This well is built to provide for



the installation of a third unit and is con-
nected with the adjacent lake by means of
a 4x4-foot concrete conduit extending 20
feet oflfshore into 10 feet of water. The
suction pipe of each pump is provided with
a double-flap foot valve designed to hold
a pressure of 250 pounds to the square
inch. The discharge of both pumps has an
8-inch connection to a 14-inch force main
laid on the floor at the end of the room
and over the suction well. Each of these
connections is provided with a check valve,
which prevents the return of water to the
pump in case the latter goes out of com-
mission suddenly. Beyond this check valve
is a gate valve provided to permit the
pump to be cut off when desired, without
interfering with the operation of the other
unit.

The two 250-horsepower gas engines
were designed and built by the Doak Gas
Engine Company, Oakland and San Fran-
cisco, as a part of the contract for the
installation of the entire mechanical equip-
ment. They are duplicate machines, both
being of the vertical, single-acting, six-
cylinder, four-cycle type, with make and
break ignition. Each of the engine cylin-
ders has three separate sources of current
for ignition purposes; two sets of Edison
primary batteries and a storage battery
that is charged by means of a generator.
A float-feed vaporizer is provided on each
engine for the distillate. The latter is
pumped to a 50-gallon auxiliary supply
tank for each engine, these tanks being
elevated at the end of the room. The
main supply from which the elevated aux-
iliary tanks are filled and from which the
engines are supplied regularly is in a 1,700-
gallon tank placed underground outside of
the building. The auxiliary fuel supply,
therefore, is by gravity, with a sufficient
head to insure its delivery if the fuel pumps
on the engines fail. The cylinders of the
engines are built separate and are water-
jacketed for cooling. Water is circulated
through the jackets by a centrifugal pump
direct-connected to the shaft of the engine.
This pump draws a supply from the suction
well and discharges back into the lake.
The supply also can be obtained from the
fresh-water mains or the large pumps
directly.

The engines are arranged to be started



212



Greater Oakland, 1911



with compressed air. Two air-storage
tanks, each of sufficient capacity to start
one of the engines twice, are provided. Air
is delivered to these tanks by means of a
duplicate set of air compressors, each
direct-connected to a four-cycle 7i/2-horse-
power Doak gas engine. The air in the
tanks is maintained at 150 pounds pressure
by the compressor, which is manually con-
trolled by the operators in charge of the
station.

The pumps are of the horizontal, four-
stage, turbine type, built by the Krogh
Manufacturing Company. San Francisco.
The shaft of each is geared to the shaft
of its engine, the speed of the engines be-
ing 285 and the pumps 1,140 revolutions per
minute. A friction clutch is provided on
the engine shaft so the engine may be
started and brought up to speed before
the pump is thrown in. The driving gear
in each case is of cast steel and the driven
gear is wrought steel in one piece with
the shaft. The gear shaft is attached to
the pump shaft with a split coupling keyed
to both shafts. The gear shafts run in
ring-oiling babbitted bearings enclosed in
a tight cast-iron case fitted with stuffing
boxes.

The rated efficiency of the pumps is 60
per cent under full load. Their efficiency
also is required to be such that at any rate
of discharge against the adopted pressure
of 200 pounds to the square inch the load
on the engine does not exceed the rated
amount for the respective discharge. Final
tests showed a pump efficiency of 66 per
cent.

Each engine is equipped with a throttle
governor fitted with a controller by means
of which the speed is regulated. Levers
and quadrants also are brought to one
point from which the whole engine is con-
trolled. The operator can watch the pump
of the unit while standing at the point to
which these levers and quadrants are
brought, and with a couple of steps can
reach the clutch on the drive shaft of the
unit.

A pressure of 50 pounds per square inch
is maintained on the mains at all times
by an accumulator in the pumping station.
This accumulator is 3 feet in diameter and
10 feet high and is made tight for air and



water under a pressure of 100 pounds per
square inch. It is connected with the 14-
inch discharge force main by a 2-inch pipe
fitted with a gate and check valve, both of
which are built for salt-water and 250
pounds pressure. The accumulator also is
equipped with a 2-inch pressure relief valve
designed to release at 100 pounds. Water
for maintaining the pressure on the accum-
ulator is delivered by a 3x4-inch triplex
single-acting power pump that is brass fit-
ted throughout. This pump is geared to
a single-phase, 208-volt, 60-cycle, 2-horse-
power Wagner motor, designed to start on
full current and with full load on the
pump. The latter and its motor are
mounted on a cast-iron base and are con-
nected by a double-reduction cut gearing,
the motor pinion being of rawhide. The
motor is arranged to start automatically
by means of a controller which comes into
action when the accumulator falls below
40 pounds pressure and is thrown out when
the pressure reaches 50 pounds to the
square inch. The air compressor also is
connected to the top of the accumulator,
in order that the pressure from the air
storage tanks may be used to maintain the
required pressure on the mains.

The distribution mains of the high-pres-
sure system are laid as a gridiron, with
cross connections arranged so any one
length of them may be cut ofif without af-
fecting the balance of the system. The
protected area is girdled by 12 and 14-inch
mains with 10-inch cross lines connecting
them. The mains are not only of such size
as to give ample capacity, but also to allow
for incrustations from the salt-water with-
out decreasing the capacity of the system
to any serious extent. Bell and spigot
cast-iron pipe, made according to standard
specifications for material and methods of
casting, was used. The bells are some-
what deeper than in ordinary practice and
the thickness of the shell is increased
slightly over the standard for the various
sizes employed. This increase in thickness
is sufficient to allow considerable loss of
iron by corrosion, without weakening the
pipe too much to withstand the pressure
to which it is subjected. The sections of
pipe were coated with coal-tar pitch var-
nish, fluxed with sufficient oil to make it



DoAK Gas Engine Company.



213



tough and tenacious when cold, but not
brittle nor with a tendency to scale. After
the coating hardened, the straight sections
of pipe were subjected to a hydrostatic
pressure of 400 pounds to the square inch
and hammered while under this pressure.

The valves by means of which the mains
are divided into sections are in brick man-
holes having cast-iron tops and covers.
They are of extra weight and are designed
for the high-pressure salt-water service,
under a working head of 225 pounds to the
square inch. They have cast-iron bodies,
with bell connections, except for special
lengths. Their double gates are independ-
ently adjustable and are arranged so the
central pressure is removed entirely and
the disks freed from their seats before
being raised. All working parts of the
valves, including the entire gate disk and
all contact surfaces, are of bronze of a
special composition selected to resist wear
and corrosion by salt or brackish water,
the wedging surface on the spreader being
of harder bronze than those on the disks.
The upper end of the spreader nuts and
the inner surface of the top of the valve
case are finished to a close fit when the
valve is fully open, in order that only
slight leakage occurs when the stuffing
box is repacked without shutting down
the valves.

A flush hydrant is placed at every street
intersection in the area protected by the
high-pressure mains. The hydrants are
each in a concrete manhole l)uilt at one
side of the main and below the surface
of the street, a location being selected in
each case as near the center of the street
intersection as possible. This type of hy-
drant was chosen because any possibility
of damage to a hydrant by a wagon or
other vehicle striking it was eliminated.
These hydrants also avoid the difficulty
occasionally experienced with the usual
type of post hydrant, placed behind the
curb at the corners of a street intersec-
tion, being rendered unsafe for use during
a fire in an adjoining building. The hy-
drant manholes each have a cast-iron
cover so that any part of the hydrant may
be repaired or replaced without disturbing
the surface of the street. The cover also
is of such design that two men can lift



it with ease. The fact that no frost oc-
curs in Oakland, of course, should be borne
in mind, since this condition permitted the
employment of a hydrant of this type.

Each hydrant has a manifold of 8-inch
pipe which is connected inside of the man-
hole to the main. A valve on this connec-
tion is provided with a hand wheel in the
manhole, placed where it can be reached
and operated readily. The quarter-turn on
which the manifold is mounted is carried
by a cast-iron chair anchored to the bot-
tom of the manhole. The blank flanges
on the ends of the manifold also are both
fastened to brackets embedded in the sides
of the manhole. Five 3-inch hose connec-
tions are attached to the manifold by
means of flanges. Each connection is
provided with a gate valve so it may be
operated independently. The manifold not
only permits a quite satisfactory arrange-
ment of these connections, but also re-
duces the loss by friction in the hydrants
to a minimum.

On each hydrant is a 4-inch connection,
by means of which standpipes for build-
ings can be supplied through a pipe laid
underground and provided at the hydrants
with a gate valve. These standpipes have
hose connections at the sidewalk which
are left open for use with fire engines and
fresh water. The connection with the
high-pressure system is made at the base
of the standpipe, so the one above it can
be left open without interference. Since
the hydrants are ordinarily only 280 feet
apart on the mains, it was considered bet-
ter to make the standpipe connections at
them, where they are readily found, rather
than along the main between the hydrant.

No connections to the high-pressure
mains are provided for automatic sprinkler
systems, since the latter are supplied to
best advantage from the fresh-water sys-
tem of mains for several reasons. In the
first place, the automatic sprinkler system
is most valuable in stopping fires before
much damage is done to other than the
contents of the building, and fresh water
causes less damage from this source than
does salt water. The automatic sprinklers
frequently become operative before the
alarm of fire is given, in which case the
salt-water system would not give an ef-



214



Greater Oakland, 1911



fective pressure nor enough water until
after the alarm had been sounded.

The total cost of the high-presure fire
protection system, embracing the pumping
plant and the 12,000 feet of mains that
were laid under the first contract, was $95,-
000. This amount included approximately
$4,500 for the replacement of pavements in
the streets in which the main had to be
laid. The cost of the pumping station
building also was somewhat higlier than
would ordinarily be incurred under most
conditions, amounting to a total of $23,000.
The contract for the entire mechanical



equipment amounted to $28,000 and in-
cluded all of the apparatus in the station,
The high-pressure fire protection system
was designed and installed under the direc-
tion of Mr. F. C. Turner, city engineer of
Oakland, Cal. Mr. P. F. Brown, assistant
city engineer, was directly in charge of
the design and installation and was as-
sisted by Mr. Charles S. Allardt, consult-
ing mechanical engineer, who made the
comparative study of the various classes
of power available and prepared the speci-
fications governing the mechanical details
of the equipment of the pumping station.




American Rubber Mfg. Company.



215



American Rubber Mfg. Company




HE American Rubber Manu-
facturing Company, whose
well equipped plant is lo-
cated at Park Avenue and
Watt Street, brings its share
of prosperity and activity to the city, and is
an important acquisition to the already large
list of Oakland industrial enterprises.

While the salesrooms are located at 9
and 11 Beale Street, San Francisco, all the
manufacturing, shipping and heavy work is



Online LibraryEvarts I. BlakeGreater Oakland, 1911, a volume dealing with the big metropolis on the shores of San Francisco Bay .. → online text (page 12 of 30)