Exeter College (University of Oxford).

Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents online

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Online LibraryExeter College (University of Oxford)Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents → online text (page 11 of 61)
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put to the vote, and the meeting is not to dissolve till a decision has
been come to. All residents were allowed, besides decrements, twelve-
pence a week for commons \ which was to be made up to eighteen-
pence on five festival weeks. The Rector's stipend was to be 20^',
that of the Chaplain zds did, of the Fellows 10^ each. There are
regulations about dress ^ and about not entering the Buttery without

* Some curious arrangements about commons occur in 1562-3. See Mullinger
i. 460. The reduction of the coinage caused difficulties; winter 1551 'xviii^ pro
imminntione 3°™ solidorum quos habuit in custodia sua M. Randall ' (reduction of
the coinage); Lent 1552 'xiit/pro folio pergameni' (6^ had been the highest price

'■* A college rule of 1554 shows that the men went bareheaded usually ; 1 1 Oct.
1554 ' Et si multis transactis annis consuetudo fuerit prescripta scolaribus ut noii
velato nee in collegio nee in oppido incederent capite, tamen diversis de causis
nobis visum est ipsis concedere ut in oppido pileis uti possint, hac lege ut in
collegio veteri uoii sint liberi consuetudine.' Bloxam i. p. iv.


leave, and all gaming is forbidden — except that at the usual festival
times, All Saints day, Christmas and Candlemas, the fellows might
play pictis cartis vulgo cards in hall at proper hours and for a moderate
sum. Latimer's famous ' Sermons on the Card ' delivered on the
Sunday before Christmas had a special relevancy to the approaching
season \ Shooting inside the College is forbidden, and no one may
keep hunting dogs, ferrets, rabbits, hares or hawks w-ithin the
precincts ^. The Bible was to be read during meals ^ in Hall, and no
one was to talk while the appointed portion of Scripture was being
read; afterwards they might talk in Latin or Greek but not in
English — except on great feasts or unless strangers were present
or there was some other reasonable cause such as College business.
The battellars were to talk Latin and Greek always while in College
unless they were excused for lawful reasons *. Nowadays any one
who quotes Latin in a College Hall at dinner-time is liable to be
sconced. The Fellows sat in messes, four to a dish, and only Masters
of Arts might sit at their table unless the Rector and five seniors
gave permission to some one else. Lever, the Master of S. John's
at Cambridge, in 1550 describes® his scholars as going to dinner at
ten o'clock, content with a penny piece of beef [about 2 lbs.] among
four, having a little parage made of the broth of the same beef, with
salt and oatmeal, and nothing else. 'After dinner they be either
teaching or learning until five of the clock in the evening, when as
they have a supper not much better than their dinner. Immediately
after the which, they go either to reasoning in problems or unto some
other study, until it be nine or ten of the clock, and then being without
fire are fain to walk or run up and down, to get a heat in their feet
when they go to bed.' Lady Mildred Burleigh ' gave a some of
money to the Master of S. John's, to procure to have fyres in the
hall upon all sondays and hollydays between the fest of All Sayntes
and Candlemas, whan ther war no ordinary /yres of Ihc charge of the
coUedg! Every one was to pay what he owed to the College within

' Mullinger i. 609. ^ Sec Mullinger i. 373.

^ In 1549 tenpence was j^iven for a New Testament for the use of the Hall.

* On tlie Latin requirecl for the ikjjree, see AylifTe ii. 141. Greek is quite
a modern requirement, Wonlsworth 1 16.

* Mullinger i. 3^39-70.


three weeks from the end of Term \ There were to be three copies
of the statutes kept, one by the Rector, one in the Common Chest,
and one chained up in the Library, and the statutes were to be read
aloud twice a year in Chapel at 8 o'clock in the morning, and any
fellow not attending lost a fortnight's commons. This custom of
reading the statutes lasted down to our own time. The gates were to
be locked at a quarter past nine in the evening and not opened again
till five in the morning without leave of the Rector, to whose bedroom
the keys were carried ; and there are heavy penalties against sleeping
out or scaling the College walls. The Domains of the College may
be leased out, but not complete manors ; and there are to be no
reversionary leases at all, and no leases of any kind for more than
20 years; tithes or rectories are only to be let for 10 years, and
no Fellow is to take a lease of the College. We see the reason for
this in the leases for 41, 50, or 63 years mentioned below as given

> MS. TN THE Bishop's Registry at Exeter.

15S7, Sep. 25 'hoc anno factum est a domino Joanne Petraeo statutum de
annua in perpetuum Bursariorum electione ad summam Collegii scholariumque
omnium utilitatem.'

1588, June 30 'hoc anno electi sunt primi hujus Collegii Bursarii, Tho Pawly
et Gul. Huishe.'

1590, Sep. 'hoc anno extructa est cella in promptuario ad perpetuum et
summum Collegii beneficium scholariumque utilitatem, et reparata est aula, atque
elevata eiusdem area ; et extructum etiam sphaeristerium.'

Officers were now more regularly elected, and discipline became more strict.

Reg. 30 June 1589 'electi sunt in annum sequentem M. Guil. Orforde con-
cionator, M. Martinus Reade catechista, dominus Ellas Cocke moderator philo-
sophiae in capella, custodes clavium cistae de Germin dominus Bosisto, Helme,
Eveleighe, auditores M. Eveleighe, M. Sandie.' See p. xxxv.

15 Sep. 1592 'constitutus est M. Croslye pro circuitu et progressn cum Rectore
per terras et hereditamenta nostra infra 40** milliaria.'

Reg. 3 Sep. 1594 'decretum ut quicunque inter prandendum vel caenandum
aliquem, absentem, publico huius regni iure non convictum, detrectaverit, a mensa
statim ipso facto (vel cum ignominia) removeatur'; 30 Oct. 'quod omnes scholares
suscepturi gradum bachalauriatus solvant decano, vel ei saltem plenarie satisfaciant,
priusquam presententur, sin vero decanus propter nimiam suam incuriam et
negligentiam tunc non acceperit, nihilominus earn pecuniam Collegio solvere
tenetur'; 2 Nov. ' ut quicunque commensalis aut batelarius rus esset profecturus
illud Rectori vel Subrectori vel Bursariis indicet, ut communarum ratio habeatur ' ;
' ut unusquisque commensalis vel batelarius ad gradum bachalauriaUis vel magisteiii
promotus, vel eundem quem habuit, vel alterum fideiussorem producat e sociis, ut
ratio etiam communarum habeatur'; 29 Nov. ' quod tarn battalarii quam socii et
commensales habeant in unoquoque ferculo tempore caenae (exceptis diebus
pisculentis) cibum qui constat sex denariis.' See p. 349.


to Fellows in 1549 and 1559 \ Reasonable fines might be taken,
and the system of fines went on to our own days. A progress was
to be made every three years to visit the College estates, situated
not more than 40 miles from Oxford, by the Rector and one Fellow.
The statutes end with a description of the duties of the Visitor, and
the mode of removing the Rector or any Fellow.

By a later Ordinance ^ a Fellow was to be allowed, if Lord Petre
approved, to travel for four years to study medicine or civil law, and
this valuable rule was often acted on, the earliest instance being that
of Thomas Fortescue in 1566. Sometimes permission of absence was
given to Fellows engaged in the service of the Crown abroad (compare
Pembroke Statutes p. 20; so at Wadham, Jackson's Wad/iam 63).
The influx of new Fellows seems to have incited those of the old
foundation to draw up a list of the Fellows from the beginning ; and
such a list, though very imperfect, was compiled by Robert Newton
the Rector and William Wiott the Subrector in 1574. Seven Petrean
Fellows were named by Sir William Petre soon after Whitsuntide 1566
and admitted on the 30 June (except Spicer, who was admitted 2 July),
and an eighth was appointed by Petre in 1568 after his new gift of
three tenements to the College. One of the new Fellows had been
a Fellow of S. John's, another was incorporated at Oxford for the
purpose of taking the Fellowship, the first named had been a Fellow
of the College previously. It shows the unsettled state of men's minds
that several of the early Petrean Fellows left the country and became
Roman missionaries in England or abroad. John Howlett laboured in
Transylvania and at Wilna, Ralph Sherwine was hanged by the side
of Campian 20 Nov. 1581, John Cornelius was hanged at Dorchester
4 July 1594; Richard Bristowe became President of Douay, and was
the chief of the translators who put forth the Douay Bible. ' These
thine unnaturall sons,' says G. Hakewill in his address to Oxford, ' who

' See too the Act 13 Eliz. c. 10, Ilallam ConsL Ilist. ed. 6. i. 224, Ashley
Ecoti. 44.

^ Sir William Petre and his successors are to have the right of nominating two
fellows, one of the old foundation and one of the Petrean, ' who are to have full
power to absent themselves from College without loss or detriment, and to travel
into foreign parts, there to remain for four years so that during that time they
resort to some University and therein apply themselves to the study of Physic or
Civil Law.' These were to have an allowance of Cd i^s 41/ viatia (ansa, but not
commons. See ed. i. p. Ivi.


of late dayes forsooke thee and flcdde to thine enemies' campe,
Harding Stapleton Saunders Reynolds Martyn Bristow Campian
Parsons, even in their fighting against thee, showed the fruitfulnesse
of thy wombe, and the efficacie of that milke which they drew from
thy breasts.' The Government interfered to secure a safer state of
things, and Thomas Glasier of Christ Church was elected Pctrean
Fellow 4 Oct. 1578, on pressing letters from Sir John Petre, and
Rector on the 21st. The Royal Commissioners had held a Visitation
of the College on the previous 2 August ' in sacello horam circiter
octavam,' and this was the result of their inquiry. On 30 Aug. they
removed Carter and Clifife for a time (Bellott and Dun being elected
Sub-rector and Dean in their place), and expelled Cornelius ' for his
demerits.' Rector Newton resigned in Oct. 1578, and Glasier was
elected in his stead. Thomas Holland was similarly brought in as
Rector in 1592 on Glasier's death \ on Sir John Petre's and Queen

' The accounts of Thomas Evely M.A., Glasier's administrator, 27 Oct. 1592
contain some interesting particulars; paid unto Harris the draper for clothe for
mourninge coats for his children and servants iiUi, given unto the poore people in
breade and money x\s, Mistris Ellis for rosa Solis xviiid, Doctor Lilly in gloves
for his paines in preachinge at the buriall ys, Dr. Case for his paynes taken with
Mr. Doctor Glasyer in his sicknes a little table valued and praysed at vs, for
coveringe of Mr. D. Glasier's grave in Christchurche xviii(/, Mr. Crosse the
apothecary for ware had there in the tyme of his sicknes x\vs, Mr. Williams the
apothecary xviij- xid, John Day his man for his wages due from Michaelmas to
our Lady day in Lente xxs, Mr. Clarke for the teachinge of Jane Glasyer on
the virginall for halfe a yeare xxj, a messenger which was sent into Sussex
touching Richard Glasier iiij- iiii(/, the bordinge of Jane Glasier from the x*h of
Marche to the xi''' of August beinge xxi weeks after iij aweeke xliiiij-, the bordinge
of Richard Glasier from the x'^ of Marche to the xxix"* of September beinge xxix
weeks after iis the weeke Iviiij, for his teachinge or scholinge duringe this tyme
and for three books bought of Mr. Joseph for him viii^ vi(/, a new coate made for
Richard Glasier ixs iiiii/, a hat a paire of stockings and two paire of shoes and
a girdell \ns \id, John Jennings for ware and phisicke had in Jane Glasier's
sicknes and for her funerall xxxixi'. The expenses of the administration came
to \'\li xs yd, the payments from which the above are extracts came to xxmUi xxiul.
The debts due were, to the Bursars for battels \x\\nli \\s y'ld, an arrerage of the
yeares rente of the Vicarige of Kidlington y'nli y\s, an arrerage of the Rector's
chamber next the gate due for five yeares rente y\li xms imd, halfe yeares
rente of litle Tewe iiii// y'ls y'md, part of an arrerage of Tyntinhull received by
D. Glasier of Mr. Peter iVuli xvj, arrerage of the halfe yeares rente of Maynhenntt
receaved by doctor Kennall and answered Doctor Glasier xli, quarters rente of
Coggan's brewhouse xvii^, quarters rente of Clifton ferry xs, quarters rente re-
ceaved of Jennings the baker y'ms \\id, halfe yeares rente of the Vicarige of
Kidlington uUi xiiis, halfe yeares rente of three chambers due at the Annunciation


Elizabeth's recommendation : he was one of the translators of the Bible
appointed by James L These able rulers soon worked a great change,
and Exeter became remarkable for its discipline and learning, tinged by
Puritan views. The state of education had not been good in Oxford
for some time ; see Pocock's Burnet vi. 405 (letter of Jewel), 410, 434.
William Turner's Herbal, Cologne 1 561, in the dedication to Elizabeth
mentions the low ebb to which the study of botany had sunk in the
Universities and in England generally. We now find many donations
of books to the Library.

Leicester as Chancellor enforced subscription to the Thirty-nine
Articles in 1581 to exclude Romanists or Romanisers; James I in
1 616-7 to the 3 articles of the 36th Canon of 1603 to exclude
Puritans. By the 33rd Canon it was a title for Orders if a man was
a Fellow, or an M.A. of 5 years' standing ' that liveth of his own
charge in either of the Universities.'

In 1592, when Elizabeth came to see the amendment in learning
and manners, the old rents of the Colleges were taxed, to entertain the
Queen, at one per cent. Exeter was rated at a total of £200, the
Rectorship was worth £70, the whole annual income £600, there
were 30 commoners ^. There were feasts at degrees and at elections ^
The constant mention of poverty at this time may be partly due to the
fact that the value of silver fell during Elizabeth's reign.

In 1572 we find a list of the members of the College, but without
their Christian names. Besides the Rector and 20 fellows, 91 other
names occur, including 3 masters, bachelors, undergraduates, servitors
and servants. Some can be identified in the matriculation lists
(printed ed. i. p. 185 in the order of the MS.), since Davells, Banfilde,
Evelighe, Strete, Barret, Merser, Zewarde, Coode, Bawden, Davie,
West, Foxwell, Sandwithe, Turner, Crandon occur in both lists nearly
in this order. See Clark i. 389-91, ii. 32, 63. The Hst runs thus : —
Mr Newton rector, Wyot subrector, Smale, Paynter, Bearblocke,
Westlake, Lewkenar, Carter, Randall, Symson, Batshyll, Leache,
Brystowe, Raynolds, Batle, Sherwin, Carpenter, Cliffe, Hole, Donne,

xxxiiij iiii^. The Inventory of goods and chattels amounts to Ci 84 ji 2</. A few
of the administrator's payments were not allowed.

' Gutch's Collectanea i. 190-1, 195, Rogers vi. 661, 709, Boase's Oxford 132.

^ Keg. jejune 1615 ' probationarii vice convivii quod pro more solebant parare
omnibus iociis 4"'' libras intra duos menses post admissioiiem CoUegio solverent.'


Cogan : M^ Whydden, Palmer, German : Sr Blake, Conyngsbye,
Currie, Cowlye, Carewe, Bucland, German : Fitzherbert, Philpot,
Habinton, Vernye, Billit, Brunynge, Bonde, Paschall, Fearne,
Roscharocke sen., Roscharocke jun., Davells, Drurie capellanus,
Baker, Banfelde, Cophed, Pawlet, Pettyte, Fulforde, Bedlowe ; S^
Scutte, Harryson, Cooke, Yerworthe ; Conyngsbye sen., Conyngsbye
jun., Paynter, Ambrose, Turnar, Clyffe, Habyngton, Throgkmorton,
]Maxfelde, Kyrrye, Eveleghe, Wryghte, Halle, Best, Mortemer, Heliare,
Williams, Collamore, Marke, Hyll, Brunynge, Carpenter, Paschall,
Younge, Strete, Bamforde, Barret, Merser, Zewarde, Coode, Conacke,
Baker, Bawden, Davie, Nutcombe, West, Foxwell : Orton, Smale,
Bickell, Paynter, Broughton, Pryckett, Morishe [7 servitors] ; Lynell
famulus rectoris ; Williams ; Austine Pryckett plebeii filius Oxoniensis
annos natus 15, Cooper, Sandwithe, Tourner, Brunlye, Thorne,
Smale, Cheyvenye, Browne, Cramdon, Warde, Robenson [12 poor
scholars]. Very few of these men went on to the degree of B.A.
Originally the fellows were the only members of the College. But as
the College grew in size and the number of rooms increased, it was
natural to let them out to other members of the University, or to
wealthy clergymen and abbots who preferred living in University
society to residing on their livings. This system of non-residence
was very prevalent from the Middle Ages down to the present
century, notwithstanding Acts of Parliament, the protests of the
Puritans, and the efforts of Laud and others to check it. Gradually
ordinary undergraduates were admitted as well. These sojourners, or
commoners, either had a table of their own, or dined with the fellows
at the High Table, the latter being called in later times fellow-
commoners ; they were all called commensales, and all had the regular
commons or weekly allowance. Besides this each of the fellows was
allowed to introduce a poor scholar, or servitor, who waited on him,
and had his food and education gratis or nearly so. Intermediate
ranks occur. Thus the battellars were below the commoners but
above the servitors, and did not have the full commons, but smaller
allowances for which they paid a special battels, i.e. account. It
is a mere guess that the word battels means 'little bats,' i.e. the
tallies or notched sticks on which the accounts were kept. One of
these tallies still exists in a chest of the muniment room. The



distinction between these classes is marked by the different amount
of Caution money they paid. Thus a fellow-commoner paid in 1629
£6, an ordinary commoner or sojourner £5, a battellar £4, a poor
scholar £2. In the second Caution book 1686 poor scholars are
raised to £3, and the figures 6, 5, 4, 3 altered, in a later hand, to
8, 7, 6, 4; but £3 occurs as late as 1726. A few were excused
paying Caution altogether, and their names do not appear in the
Caution books at all. A poor scholar paid Sd a term for his cubicle,
while the rent of the better rooms was 2s 8d, while a Prior of Bodmin
would pay 5^, and a few rooms were even more expensive. A year's
rent for one of the College schools was 6s Sd. A paper of uncertain
date gives the Juramentum Commensalium, Battellariorum, et pau-
perum Scholarium thus : —

You shall swear to maintain and defend the honesty and good fame
of this College, as much as in you lyeth.

You shall swear to be faiihfull and true to this College in putting
on or causing to be put on : whatsoever you shall take for the relief
of your self or of any other ; and that you shall not by any means or
ways seek the hurt or detriment of this College.

You shall swear to observe and keep the ordinary exercise of this
house appointed for you, or to endure and sustain the usual and
ordinary punishments inflicted for your defaults ; neither shall you
shew your self any ways untractable or unconformable to the good
orders and discipline of this College.

James I sometimes sent mandates for the election of men to
Fellowships, as in 1604 and 1607: and he did the same in most
colleges. Thus at Magdalen (State Papers 10 June 1604) 'he wishes,
should Caple be rejected, to see the return of the votes, that he may
proceed as he shall see cause,' and only desisted on a strong

The plague was grievous in 1579, in Sep. 1603, in 1609, and in
1625 when three Fellows died, Maynard, Lane, and H. Ilide '.

* Gutch ii. 279, 356 : Reg. 27 Aug. 1609 'ingruente pestc Subrector et Scholares
dimissionem coUegii a 28" die ciusdem mensis usque ad 25"™ diem Septembris
decreverunt ; remanentibus ibidem interea Mr. Chambers ; Mr. Flemmynge ; Mr.
Whetcombe ; Mr. Vivyan : quibus separatim singulis concessi sunt, qualibet
septimana decern solidi, ad ubcriorem vitae sustentationem, reliquis vero nempe
Mr. Rectori; Mr. Subrectori ; Mr. Standard ; Mr. Piowse; Mr. Warmstrye ; Mr.


Some improvements were now made in the garden. Lent 1566 ' \s
sociis Collegii Ballioli pro indentura quadam pro horto eius CoUegii.'
A house near Balliol was given them 6 Oct. 1572 in exchange for their
garden (near the School of Theology), adjoining the Exeter garden ;
the wall between the two gardens was pulled down, and £5 spent on
a new wall (finished 2X June 1573, Reg. 24 June) for the garden
thus made square. Savage's Balliofergus 34-5, 79 'there is a deed
to Exeter College for exchange of our land adjoining to that House
for a house and garden lying near to ours, which house and garden
must be upon part of the ground where Hammond's lodgings now
stand, for it is set lying on the north part of the way leading from
Balliol to Magdalene church, on the West part of the wall of Balliol,
and therefore it extendeth itself further that way than now it does, viz.
quite to the low wall end without ; and on the east part of certain
tenements belonging to Balliol. Exeter did covenant to pay a yearly
rent of 2s 6d for ever to be issuing out of a tenement of Exeter in
Magdalene parish, indenture dated 6 Oct. 14 Eliz.^'

Among the eminent members of the College at this time was Arthur
Chichester, afterwards Lord Chichester of Belfast, so famous in Irish
history. Prideaux says in the dedication (to Dr. Hakewill) of his sermon
preached at the consecration of the Chapel 5 Oct. 1624 'It was the

Hele; Do. Collyer ; Do. Battishill ; Do. Polwheele ; Do. Peeter; Chaffyn, qui
huic decreto interfuerunt, concessum est iisdem frui collegii commodis ac si domi
residissent ; stipendio promi solidnm et sex denarios, subcoqui duos solidos et
sex denarios adiicere singulis septimanis placuit.' See a previous entry 6 Sep.

' Decretum est a nobis 4°'' Mr. Chambers ; Mr. Flemmynge ; Mr. Whetcombe ;
Mr. Vivyan ; quibus (eodem tempore) designata est potestas per maiorem partem
Scholarium ; ut stipendio Townsend adiiciatur tribus septimanis solidum et collegii
lotrici Clarke duo solidi et sex denarii.'

In 1637 Convocation was put off from 3 July to October on account of the
plague ; but Inceptors were to be taken as having completed what was necessary
for the M.A., &c., a M.A. paying 10 shillings, a Doctor iCio, absentees paying
double ; Wood's MS. E. 29.

In 1643 there was such a plague of Morbus Campestris [Wood's joke on the
deaths in the War] that there were few determiners for B.A. ; Peshall 69.

' Clark i. p. 159, 27 Jan. 157I ' applicatum ut angiportum inter Coll. Exon. ex
una parte et Coll. Line, et ^n. Nas. ex altera medium ferens intercludi publicis
Universitatis sumptibus liceat. Causa est partim quod sterquiliniis eo undique
conjectis publico aspectui deformitas fiat, partim quod a noctumis grassatoribus nee
fenestrae tutae nee studentes securi esse possint. Concessa est, modo praefata
collegia Exon. Line, et JEn. Nas. os^ia suis sumptibus fieri procurent.'

h 2


honour of my immediate predecessor Dr. Holland [see note in Fuller's
Church Hist. ed. Oxon ii. 266], his Majesty's Professor of Divinity
and father of so many famous bishops and doctors, to be Rector here
when Dr. Chetwynd and Dr. Daniel Price now Deans of Bristol and
Hereford, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Fleminge, Dr. Winniffe, Dr. Whitcomb,
Dr. Standard and Dr. Sampson Price (besides Drs. Vilvaine and
Baskerville known to be worthy physicians) laid those grounds which
have since attained that height which now the world takes notice of.'
He then mentions 'Dr. William Helme his faithful and industrious
Tutor, and those two religious and constant preachers Mr. W. Orford
and Mr. Isaiah Farringdon who forgot us not when they left us,
but so wrought on the pious dispositions of those excellent men
Sir J. Acland and John Peryam Esq. that Exeter College by their
bounty got a new Hall and lodgings of more charge and worth than
all the former buildings.' A number of foreigners were trained under
Prideaux himself, such as John Sigismund Cluverius, son of the
geographer, and James and Frederick D'Orville, from Heidelberg
(Clark i. 278, ii. 346, iii. 351); besides men like James Casaubon,
Secretary Spottiswood, the Duke of Hamilton, &c. Sixtinus Amama
the Dutch scholar, who taught Hebrew for 12 years in Oxford, speaks
in high terms of Prideaux' management ^ in the preface to his edition
of Drusius de Sectis Judaicis, Arnhemiae 161 9.

Prideaux was a thorough representative of his University and of his

Online LibraryExeter College (University of Oxford)Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents → online text (page 11 of 61)