Exeter College (University of Oxford).

Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents online

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Online LibraryExeter College (University of Oxford)Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents → online text (page 13 of 61)
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* Gutch iii. 115, 117, Prince 452, Hist. Comm. iv. 598.


Anthony Ashley Cooper Earl of Shaftesbury was a member of
Exeter College in 1637. His account of his college career is
a curious contribution to the knowledge of University life in the
seventeenth century ^ ' I kept both horses and servants in Oxford,
and was allowed what expense or recreation I desired, which liberty
I never much abused; but it gave me the opportunity of obliging
by entertainments the better sort, and supporting divers of the activest
of the lower rank with giving them leave to eat, when in distress,
upon my expense, it being no small honour among those sort of
men that my name in the buttery book willingly bore twice the
expense of any in the University ^, This expense, my quality, pro-
ficiency in learning, and natural affability easily not only obtained
the good will of the wiser and elder sort but made me the leader
even of all the rough young men of that college, and did then
maintain in the schools coursing against Christ Church, the largest
and most numerous college in the University ^

' This coursing * was in older times, I believe, intended for a fair

* Autobiography quoted in Christie's Zi/e of Shaftesbury.

^ I doubt if this is literally the fact. In the Buttery Book for 2 June 1637
(twelfth week of fourth term) ' Barronet Cooper' pays 13J ^d, which is about
twice the usual amount, but Champemowney pays 13^ \od, and Bryan 155 id: the
next week Cooper pays 13J %d, but Champemowney 175 3^ and Bryan a pound.
University Reg. 24 Mch 163^' 'Anto° Ashley Cooper, Dorcester. de S' yEgid.
Wimbourne in Comitatu predicto baronettus annos natus 15.' He was admitted to
the Fellows' table 4 Mch 163!^ on paying (C6 caution, and his name continued on
the books until 12 July 1638; his brother George matric. i Ap. 1642 age 17.
Philip Champemowne son of Henry, of Modbury, Devon, matric. 21 Nov. 1634
age 16; he was admitted to the Fellows' table 18 Aug. 1634, and his name
remained on until 8 Aug. 1637. Henry Bryen son of Sir Barnabas Bryen of
Billing, Northants, matric. 19 Aug. 1636 age 15 ; he was admitted to the Fellows'
table II Aug. 1636, and his name remained on till 28 Nov. 1637. Cooper's aunt,
Martha, married Edward Tooker of Maddington in Wilts (Hutchins iii. 594).
John Toker had his name on the books from 31 Oct, 1635 to 20 July 1638 when
he was a bachelor (B.A. 24 Oct. 1637), but he belonged to a Cornish family.
Giles Tooker son of Edward Tooker of Salisbury, Shaftesbury's cousin, matric.
I Ap. 1642 age 17.

^ Gutch ii. 416 'In the second week in Lent (163I), about the 20 Feb. the
students of Christ Church and those of Exeter College grew so unruly (the Masters
interposing and wrangling in, and the Undergraduates fighting out of the schools)
that the Vicechancellor was forced to command an absolute cessation of all
manner of Disputations between the said two Houses.' Laud's Chancellorship 191,
Evelyn's Diary ed. 2, p. 7.

* Wood's Life i. 174, 297, 300, 353, ii. 75, 83, 129.


trial of learning and skill in logic, metaphysics and school divinity,
but for some ages that had been the least part of it, the dispute
quickly ending in affronts, confusion, and very often blows, when
they went most gravely to work. They forbore striking, but making
a great noise with their feet, they hissed, and shoved with their
shoulders, and the stronger in that disorderly order drove the other
out before them; and, if the schools were above stairs, with all
violence hurrying the contrary party down, the proctors were forced
either to give way to their violence or suffer in the throng. Nay the
Vice Chancellor, though it seldom has begun when he was present,
yet being begun, he has sometimes unfortunately been so near as to
be called in, and has been overcome in their fury once up, in those
adventures. I was often one of the disputants, and gave the sign and
order for their beginning ; but being not strong of body was always
guarded from violence by two or three of the sturdiest youths, as
their chief, and one who always relieved them when in prison and
procured their release, and very often was forced to pay the neigh-
bouring farmers, when they of our party that wanted money were
taken in the fact, for more geese turkies and poultry than either they
had stole or he had lost ; it being very fair dealing if he made the
scholar, when taken, pay no more than he had lost since his last
reimbursement. Two things I had also a principal hand in when
I was at the College, the one, I caused that ill custom of tucking
freshmen to be left off; the other, when the senior fellows designed
to alter the beer of the college, which was stronger than other
colleges, I hindered their design. This had put all the younger sort
into a mutiny ; they resorting to me, I advised all those were intended
by their friends to get their livelihood by their studies, to rest quiet and
not appear, and that myself and all the others that were elder brothers
or unconcerned in their angers, should go in a body and strike our
names off the buttery book, which was accordingly done, and had
the effect that the senior fellows, seeing their pupils going that yielded
them most profit, presently struck sail and articled with us never to
alter the size of our beer, which remains so to this day.

' The first was a harder work, it having been a foolish custom of
great antiquity, that one of the seniors in the evening called the
freshmen (which are such as came since that time twelvemonth) to


the fire, and made them hold out their chin, and they with the nail
of their right thumb, left long for that purpose, grate off all the skin
from the lip to the chin, and then cause them to drink a beer glass
of water and salt. The time approaching when I should be thus
used, I considered that it had happened in that year more and lustier
young gentlemen had come to the college than had done in several
years before, so that the freshmen were a very strong body. Upon
this I consulted my two cousin-germans, the Tookers, my aunt's
sons (Martha 3 d. of John Cooper m. E. Tooker of Maddington, Wilts),
both freshmen, both stout and very strong, and several others, and
at last the whole party were cheerfully engaged to stand stoutly to
defence of their chins. We all appeared at the fires in the hall, and
my lord of Pembroke's son calling me first, as we knew by custom
it would begin with me, I, according to agreement, gave the signal,
striking him a box on the ear, and immediately the freshmen fell on,
and we easily cleared the buttery and the hall; but bachelors and
young masters coming in to assist the seniors, we were compelled
to retreat to a ground chamber in the quadrangle. They pressing
at the door, some of the stoutest and strongest of our freshmen,
giant-like boys, opened the doors, let in as many as they pleased,
and shut the door by main strength against the rest ; those let
in they fell upon, and had beaten very severely, but that my
authority with them stopped them, some of them being considerable
enough to make terms for us, which they did; for Dr. Prideaux
being called out to suppress the mutiny, the old Doctor always
favourable to youth offending out of courage, wishing with the
fears of those we had within, gave us articles of pardon for
what had passed, and an utter abolition in that college of that
fooHsh custom \'

The discipline'^ of the University needed keeping up. In 1634,

' Wood i^Life i. 134) describes this practice of 'tucking' as existing in Merton
when he entered in 1647.

^ Oxford specially needed discipline owing to the number of alehouses. Laud
(Chancellorship ed. 1853 p. 245, and see 179, 202, 237, 25S, 261, Burrows 285)
says there were 300 alehouses in the place : recusants frequented the Mitre (269 :
215 [? Bennet] Weale of Exeter College was one of those who Romanised). See
State Papers Addenda 23 Nov. 1556 for Wine taverns, Ayliffe ii. 242, Cunningham
ii. 169.


while the Vice-chancellor was witnessing a tragedy acted by the
scholars of S. John's, there was a disturbance in which John Gage
(? Gaye) and William Betenson, commoners of Exeter, among others
took part. They were forced to ask forgiveness ' on their bended
knees in the north chapel of S. Mary's, promising with weeping
tears that they would never do anything hereafter against the peace
of the academy \' The colleges were fond of getting up plays.
WiUiam Gager, of Christ Church (Tanner 303, State Papers Addenda
July 1575 p. 487, Nat. Biog.) had a controversy with John Rainolds
president of Corpus in defence of the lawfulness of plays. In Lent
1548 we find that ' 6s Sd was paid for the expenses of acting a comedy
in public'; Lent 1551 '5s ^d was paid to Dolye who painted what
was needed for acting comedies, and 18^- "jd for repairs in Lord's
house and the expenses in acting comedies.' In 1637 the College
presented a comedy to the University (Jieminiscences of Oxford,
O. H. S., p. 20). The College contributed to our great group of
dramatists one eminent name, John Ford, whom Charles Lamb praises
so highly,

. In 1623 the Vice-Chancellor Dr. Piers directed certain orders to
the College (Univ. Archives box P, fascic. 5, no. 7).

The Romanist controversy caused some bitterness at this time.
In John Gee's Foot out of the Snare 1624, among 'the names of
Romish priests and Jesuites now resident about the City of London
26 Mch 1624' occur 'Father Bastin, sometime butler of Exon
Colledge in Oxon. He was turned out of his place for cutting
twenty pounds off from a brewer's score and coozening the Colledge
contrarie to his oath ; Father Edwards, sometime of Exon Colledge
in Oxon. He went thence with a wench in man's apparell, but belike
since a sanctified man.'

In 1634 the College leased ground to the University on which the
west part of the Bodleian was built ^.

On 24 Feb. 164^ a Protestation in favour of Liberty and Religion,

* Nichols' Topog. and Geneal. i. 21 1, Gutch ii. 397. For comedies at Magdalen,
see Rogers iii. 683, 685.

'^ Univ. Archives box F, no. 6 draught of lease, no. 7 arbitrament of the ground
5 Ap. 1634, "^o. 8 acquittance from the College 4 Aug. 1634 for {.idi, 13^ A,d. Iq
1821 leave was given to the University to erect a furnace to warm the Bodleian, at
the upper end of the garden next the Rector's lodgings, at an annual quit rent of lOJ.


made pursuant to an order of the House of Commons of 30 July
1641, was signed by the members of the Colleges \

In 1636 Charles I visited Oxford, when William Herbert of Exeter
College made a speech. The College paid £32 6s 8d towards the
expenses of the royal visit (Evelyn's Diary i. 662). The king had
for some time planned the foundation of fellowships for the benefit
of the Channel Islands, to be held at Exeter, Jesus, and Pembroke,
and the fellowships were first filled up in this year ^.

When the Civil War approached, Prideaux the Vice-chancellor
abruptly left the University about 24 June 1642 without properly
resigning office, and Convocation made Dr. Robert Pink of New
College Pro-Vicechancellor (Wood's Life i. 52). Oxford became the
king's head-quarters, many students joined the army, and the work
of education was suspended. The College plate offered the king
a ready resource for the war. Lord Say had let the Colleges keep
their plate on condition that it should not be employed against the
Parliament (Wood's Li/e i. 64). The Colleges, considering themselves
as trustees of the plate, at first hoped to buy themselves off with ready
money; thus Exeter presented the king with £310, of which £138
had to be borrowed, but the king's needs were too pressing and he
took the plate as well, on a promise of repayment : it was valued
at £750, the pound weight of silver plate being reckoned as worth
£3, and of gilt plate somewhat more. This of course allowed nothing

1 Hist. Comm. v. 131.

* Laud's Chancellorship 140, Wilkins' Concilia iv. 534, State Papers 15 June
1660, Madan's Materials 78, 124. See Reg. 4 Aug. 1636. About the Bishop of
Winchester's scholarships for the same purpose see Charles II's letter of 1 1 Dec.
1678 in the Reg., and Reg. 30 June 1680 (Hook's Archbishops xi. 302). A royal
letter sent in 16S0 allowed fellows to be henceforth elected from either Jersey
or Guernsey if there was no candidate from the other in its turn. Reg. 1735. On
14 years of the previous lease of property in Lad Lane, London, expiring 25 Mch
1732, a fine of £82 was paid for renewal. Of the Exeter third a quarter, )C6 ids Sd
was due to the Treasury of the College; the rest, ^20 io.f was divided, the Rector
receiving £1 14^' 2d, 22 fellows 175 id each. See Rawlinson MSS. class C,
no. 421, fol. 62, and Univ. Archives box K. i. fol. 188, letter 27 Aug. 1680
from C. le Couteur to the Archbishop on the little advantage of the fellowships to
the Church. Sir Philip de Carteret (Nat. Biog. ix. 215), according to Prynne, was
the only man that procured scholarships and fellowships at Oxford for the islanders
of Jersey. Royal letter (Reg. p. 80), 28 June 1680. Charles' Letters Patent are
dated 7 June 1636: copy of letters patent in Tanner MSS. 338 fol. 54, see 177,
188 (Evelyn's Diary i. 662): Huber i. 223.


for the workmanship. The College however still possesses an old
saltcellar and an egg set in gold\ Several of the fellows became
officers in the army, such as Matthias Prideaux son of the Rector,
and Digory Polwhele. Polwhele was one of the last of those who
held out for the king in Pendennis Castle under Sir John Arundel,
another member of the College. The College had also contributed
an eminent officer to the royal cause in the person of Sir Bevil
Grenville ^ one of the leaders of the Cornish force which won victory

^ The king's letter is dated 6 Jan. 164! ; 24 Jan. the College petitions that it is
against statute, 28 Jan. the king sends a peremptory order, 29 Jan. the College
asks that the £1^8 borrowed may be deducted from the proceeds of the plate,
30 Jan. this was refused ; the plate given up 2 Feb. consisted of white plate
208 lb. 4 oz. 18 p. w. worth iC625 4^ 6d, gilt plate 38 ft. 3 p.w. worth iCi25 8s gd.
A catalogue of the donors of the plate and of their arms was kept ; see Hist.
Comm. ii. 127, iv. 467, and Gutch ii. 439. The Reg. 28 Mch 1622 shows
that the amount of plate was large : see also Reg. pp. 30—4. The College also
paid some of the king's foot-soldiers for a month at four shillings a week each
(the king's letter of request is dated 27 June 1643). See Heame's Diary 19 Sep.
1707. For S. John's, see Zz/e of Wood i. 94.

Inventory of Reproductions in metal, &c. (South Kensington) p. 112.

Cup and Cover, gold, given by George Hall, bishop of Chester. It has two
handles, and is decorated in repousse with lozenge-shaped gadroons, and engraved
with flowers and an inscription. English work, i6th century, height 6 inches,
diameter 5 inches.

Cup and Cover, an ostrich ^^g, moimted in silver-gilt repousse. The base is
engraved with ostriches, and scrolls with inscriptions. The egg rests on the stem
of three ostrich legs, and is supported by hinged bands engraved with shields of
arms and mottoes. The cover has three plumes, dolphin brackets, and at the top
an ostrich. English work 1610, height 21 inches, diameter 5^ inches.

Cup and Cover, a cocoanut mounted in silver-gilt. The stem is formed by thin
bars, resting on leaves ; the cover has a crested rim, and a ball enclosed in leaves of
open-work tracery. English work i6th century, height 10 inches, diameter 4 inches.

^ He was Collector Juniorum in Lent 16 14: Reg. p. 223 ' 1613 (161 4) in Festo
Ovorum electi fuerunt duo Collectores ex hoc Collegio Dominus Bevillus Greene-
feild per suffragia et Dominus Henricus Carey ut Collector Honorarius ambo filii
equitum auratorum natu maximi : formula creationis Henrici Carey per procura-
tores u&urpata hie subsequitur : Insuper cum Academiae plurimum intersit nt
illustris generis et spectatae doctrinae Juvenes omni modo pro meritis suis honoren-
tur, Hinc est quod nos procuratores plurimis gravissimis causis nos eo impellentibus
cum consensu Vicecancellarii et sententiis Doctorum creamus et nominamus Hen-
ricum Carey artium bacchalaureum e Collegio Exoniensi Honorarium CoUectorem
una cum nominatis pronunciamus atque hoc summopere gratum designatis.' Bibl.
Com. 190.

For Collectors see p. xxxi, Laud's Chancellorship 257, Terrae Filius no. 42, State
Papers 22 Ap. 1656 p. 289 (in Puritan times). Heylin (Bloxam v. 51) says that in
his canvass for the Collectorship 7 Feb. 16 if he was betrayed by Exeter College,
and that next year Magdalen voted against Sir Dod of Exeter in revenge.


after victory for the king till Grenville fell at the battle of Lansdown

near Bath, and with him the Western army lost its onward impulse.

The rhyme ran :

'Grenville, Godolphin, Trevanion, Slanning slain,
The four wheels of Charles' wain.'

Other royalist officers were John Trevanion, Sydney Godolphin the

poet who was slain at Chagford 1643, Robert Dormer Earl of

Carnarvon killed at Newbury 20 Sep. 1643, Philip Stanhope who fell

in defending Shelford House 27 Oct. 1645, Arthur Champernon

and Col. H, Champernon in Devon, Lord Charlemont treacherously

murdered by the O'Neils 1642, Falkland's son Lorenzo Cary killed

in Ireland 1642, Lionell Cary killed at Marston Moor 2 July 1644,

Nicholas Kendal at Bristol July 1643 (Clar. vii. 132), F. Glanvill

at Bridgwater, Hatton Farmor slain at Culham bridge 11 Jan. 164^,

Thomas Fulford at siege of Exeter 1643, William Helyar of Somerset,

John lord Powlet, James Praed of Cornwall, Sir Robert Spottiswoode

executed by the Covenanters at S. Andrews 20 Jan. 1646 ^

Some however joined the Parliament, such as Robert Bennett
governor of S. Michael's Mount and of S. Mawes, John Billingsley
who left for S. John's Cambridge and came back as fellow of Corpus
1648, John Blackmore said to have been knighted by Cromwell, — one
of the regicides. Even of those who remained in Oxford about half
conformed to the Parliamentary system in 1648, about the same
proportion as in the University at large '^.

Thomas Chafyn was among the royalists who suffered loss after

the war. Chafyn was one of the royalist fellows who suffered as

delinquents (Walker i. 55, ii. 66, Rushworth iv, 202, Nalson i. 734,

782): Commons Journals ii. 72, Die Sab. 23 Jan. 1640-1 'ordered

that Dr. Chaffin be forthwith sent for as a Delinquent by the Serjeant

at Arms attending on this House, for words by him delivered against

the Parliament, in a sermon preached by him in the Cathedral of

Salisbury the 22nd of May 1634, the which words were here in the

House witnessed by one witness and attested by the subscriptions of

several other witnesses ' : ii.84, i3Feb. Die Sab. 1 640-1 'DoctorChaffin

who was formerly sent for as a Delinquent by the Sergeant at Arms

* Fuller, Church History, Oxon. ii. 265-6, remarks on the literary ability of
the Devon and Cornish men of the College.
^ Burrows 470.


attending on this House, upon an information delivered against him
Jan. 23, was now called into the Bar; where, after he had awhile
kneeled, he was bid rise ; and the said information against him was
read ; to which he was suffered presently to make his answer ; which
when he had done he was commanded to withdraw. The House fell
into a debate and consideration of the whole matter : but before they
came to any resolution, the Committee that retired into the Court
of Wards returned and ' [the Chaffin business dropped that Sitting] :
ii. 94 Die Lunae i INLirtii 1 640-1 ' Whereas Dr. ChafFm was by order
of this House formerly sent for as a Delinquent by the Sergeant at
Arms attending on this House, for speaking indiscreet words in
a sermon preached by him in the Cathedral Church at Salisbury, at
a INIetropolitical Visitation held there ; the which words admit of such
an interpretation as reflects, in an ill and scandalous sense, upon
Parliaments; the question being now put whether for these words
Dr. Chaffin should be committed a prisoner to the Tower ; the House
was divided, Tellers for the Noe were appointed Sir Jo. Wray
Mr. Moore, Tellers for the Yea Lord Compton Sir Neville Poole.
With the Noe were 190, with the Yea 189. It was then resolved,
upon the Question, that Doctor Chaffin shall be called in to the
Bar and, kneeling there, receive a sharp reprehension and admonition,
and be enjoined to make a publick explanation of his words, in a
sermon, at the Cathedral Church of Salisbury on some Lord's Day
within convenient time. He was called in accordingly and Mr. Speaker
pronounced this sentence against him, to which he yielded a willing
submission ; and on his submission of a great deal of sorrow for what
was past, is discharged, paying his fees' : 20 Oct. 1642 post mer. ii.
817' Resolved, upon the Question, that Doctor Chaffin be sent for
as a Delinquent, for publishing in his parish church the Declaration
under the hand of the Marquis Hertford and others his adherents,
in justification of their rebellion.' Hist. Comm. vi. 161, i Mch 164!-
Draft ordinance to clear the following persons of their delinquency
(Lords Journals ix. 44-8 in extenso) George Trevilian . . . Thomas

The Parliamentary Visitors in 1648 expelled 10 fellows, and 18
ethers ; Henry Tozer, John Bidgood, William Standard, John Hitchins,
John Barbon (scholar), Francis Chichester, Thomas Clifford, Richard


Langworthy, Thomas Browne, John CutcHflfe, William INIorris, John
Proctor, Thomas Carew, Erisey Porter, Francis Munday, Thomas
Finch, Daniel Cudmore (servitor), Henry Bull, George Bull, William
IManning, George Berd, John Berry (or Bury) B.A. probationer,
Robert Teigh (or Teige, servitor), John Vicary, Baldwyn Acland,
William Webber, Bernard Gealard, William Harding (cook). Besides
these 28 persons expelled, Polwhele, Blatthews and Braine are
mentioned in the Visitors' Register in connection with Tozer. Those
who submitted were John Martin, John Conant, Antony Clifford,
Robert Hancock, Thomas Ince, Richard Guntion, John Francis,
Charles Sambe, Thomas Voysey, John Maudit, Edward Searle, John
Bartin. The persons put in by the Visitors were Samuel Conant,
Peter Fyatt, Francis Howell, Edward Searle, Edmund Davis, Lewis
Bradford, Jonathan Wills, William Chidley, Thomas Masters, John
Slad, Eaton B.A., [Robert Collins chaplain fellow 1654, William
Oliver B.A. fellow (his vacancy 1654 to be filled by a chaplain),
E. Anderson B.A. to be fellow 1654,] Michael Dolling, Nathaniel
Adams scholar, Samuel Turner scholar, Dollingson to have next
vacancy 1648, Antony Jett cook vice Harding, Abraham Batten 1648.
These arrangements do not quite correspond to what actually took
place. Thus William Standard must have afterwards submitted. It
is doubtful whether Gealard vacated or was expelled. Anderson did
not become a fellow. A new subrector, bursar, and dean were of
course appointed. Even the cook was removed. Henry Tozer, who
had been a leader among the fellows, retired to Rotterdam and died
there as chaplain.

Articles put by way of Question to Mr. Tozer, subrector of Exeter
College, 21 Mch 164I.

1. What leases have been let by you the subrector and other fellows
of Exeter CoUedge since the surrender of Oxon.

2. Whoe and how many have been admitted Scholars or Fellows
of Exeter Coll. since the beginning of this Visitacion.

3. Whether you have not set up the Common Prayer-booke in
Exeter Coll. since the use of it was prohibited, and you yourselfe had
for a while layd it aside.

4. Whether you did not check and revile IM^ Jo. IMathewes of
Exeter Coll. for not comcing to Common Prayr.


5. Why you permit M"" Polewheele, a scandalous person and a man
of blood, to enjoy the profits of his place at Exeter Coll.

6. Why doe you connive at the notorious miscarriages of Teige,
your servitor.

7. Why Tho. Voisey, commoner, was expelled your House.

8. Why you did not censure Mr Bury, Fellow of your House, for
a scandalous and daingerous Libell delivered by way of oracion in
your hearing \

9. Why you discouraged Braine, an ingenious youth of a tender
conscience, when he expressed his zeale against supersticion -.

10. Why you did not punish Bidgood and others for drinkeing
of healths to the confusion of Reformers ^.

11. Why you contemned the Order of the Visitors for prorouging of

Online LibraryExeter College (University of Oxford)Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents → online text (page 13 of 61)