Exeter College (University of Oxford).

Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents online

. (page 5 of 61)
Online LibraryExeter College (University of Oxford)Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents → online text (page 5 of 61)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Viciorum.' Destructorium Vitiorum ex similitudine creaturarum appropriatione
per modum dyalogi, folio (122 woodcuts), Lugduni per Claudium Nourry 1509, is
the second ed. of the Dialogus Creaturarum moralizatus (compiled 1429, printed
1479). The English ed., Paris 1540, with some of the woodcuts, was reprinted by
Hazlewood. See Elyol's Governor ed. Croft i. 2S7, Alexander of Hales (Alex.
Carpenter, Tanner 155), Plain's Repertorium i. 72 v. Alexander Anglicus, Fabricius
Bib. Lat. i. 65, 353, Quetif's Bib. Dominicana i. 319, Wharton on Cave, Bodleian
Cat. V. Alexander Anglus, Collectanea (O. PL S.) i. 154.

^ ? Piarth. Glanville {floruit 1248-60), see Coxe no. xxxv.

* Warden of All .Souls 1 442-5, preb. of London 1448, archdeacon of Barnstaple
1450, precentor of Exeter 1467-71, R. of Mcnheniot 1471, d. ii Nov. 1477;
famous as the architect of All Souls 1437. Plenry VI brought him from Oxford to
superintend the building of Eton, with a salary of ^50 a year; Lyte 355, All Souls
Archives 126, 289, 385, 396, All Souls Statutes p. 68, Chitch iii. 114, Clark-Willis
Cainbridge i. 397, 426, 468, Bentley's ILxccrpta llistorica 45, 49.



HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE. xxxvii

take the book out without leave of the Rector and Fellows'. In
1446 the College bought parchment at Abingdon which it sent to
the monastery of Plympton in Devonshire where a book was being
copied for the College ^. But when Bishop Fox founded Corpus, he
expressly ordered his lecturer in theology not to use the interpreta-
tions of the Bible by Nicholas de Lyra or Hugh de Vienna, but
those of the Greek and Latin doctors. Such was the spirit of the
English Renaissance.

The fellows had their rooms free ; and ten shillings a year as well,
but the Rector and Chaplain received twenty. Each fellow was also
allowed ten pence a week for his ' commons ' but a proportion was
deducted for each day that he was absent, and so of his yearly allow-
ance if he was absent for more than four weeks in the year. We also
find a sum of 3J 4^ allowed for ' visiting friends,' and seeing to private
business ; and some clothes (liveries) ^ were supplied, apparently
once in three years. In 1544 the arrangement about liveries is as
follows. On the feast of All Saints every third year each fellow who

* Autumn 14S0, 'uni scriptori pro pargameno et labore circa Sermones Hugonis
de Vienna xiiiij id' ; Lent 1484 * xxwis viii^ a M. Johanne Combe pro complecione
operis Hugonis de Vienna'; autumn 1484 ' xxxs Johanni Bray pro ligacione et
illuminatura 2"'""™ voluminum operis Hugonis de Vienna, wd pro incathenacione
eorundem in Libraria.' (See Rogers iv. 504.) The book was written at Oxford
by William Salamon ' Leonensis dioceseos' in the years between 1450 and 1465 ;
see Coxe no. li-lxviii. For Hugo, see Reg. Palat. Dunelm. (Rolls Series) iv.
p. cxii. Magdalen bought his works in 7 volumes in 1502 for 46^ 4^, Rogers
iv. 600.

^ Lent 1446, ' xs id pro xii quatemis et duabus pellibus pargameni emptis pro
quodam libro scribendo in monasterio de Plimpton, vi^ pro expensis Rectoris apud
Abindon pro eodem pargameno emendo, iid pro reparacione Libri Sententiarum,
iid pro vectura pargameni versus Devoniam pro predicto libro ' ; summer 1446,
' vis pro viii quatemis pargameni emptis pro libro nostro scribendo Pljinptone ' ;
autumn 1446 ' iiii^ vectori Cornubiensi pro pargameno misso Priori de Plympton.'
Peter of Cornwall, prior of Trinity Priory London, d. 7 July 1221, wrote a Panthi-
logion ; Tanner 694, Bibl. Corn. 461, 1310. Winter 1485 ' xxii(/ pro vectura
duorum magnorum voluminum unius operis theologici Panthilogion nuncupati
nobis dati a M. Gwille canonici in capella regia S. Stephani in \\ estemonasterio
per solas Rectoris industrias.' Will of William Brownyng canon of Exeter and
rector of the parish churches of Uggeburgh and Byr}Tierberd, 15 Aug. 1454
(Lacy's Reg. IH. 516") 'lego coUegio Exon in universitate Oxon ad librarian!
ibidem Librum Rubrum cum omnibus [illegible] quorum primus est liber
S. Augustini de Retraccionibus in dicta libraria cathenandus' (proved 8 Mch
1455)- For quaterni see Anstey 264, Peshall 45, Rogers i. 645, ii. 573 twice.

» Rogers vi. 549.



xxxviii HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE.

is M.A. is to receive 20^, each B.A. 16^ 8d, others 13J 4*/ — subject
however to the rule that £20 at least shall always be reserved
in the College chest ; at the same time an improvement was made in
the commons, especially in what were called ' thirteenpenny commons '
i.e. on 20 feast days ^ The common chest had three keys kept by
the Rector, Senior Fellow and Chaplain ; there is still an old chest of
this kind in the muniment room. The allowance of ten pence a week
may seem small, especially as the arrangement was made just after
the great famine of 131 5, but Exeter was poor, and the sum allowed
in the richer colleges was not much larger : it was raised to a shilling
in 1408. In 1326 the Oriel statutes give twelve pence as the sum,
which was to be made fifteen pence in times of scarcity. In 1340
the Balliol statutes allow eleven pence, which might be raised to fifteen
pence when food was dear ^. These allowances should be judged by
the general rate of living. Thus, poor mass priests had 6 marks
(£4) in the fourteenth century, Kellawe's Reg. Dunelm. 3 p. Ixxxviii;
and twenty nobles a year (£6 13^ 4^?) was a bare living for a priest
just before the Reformation.

The average prices of the period 1 261-1400 supply the explanation.
Wheat was 5^ lo^d the quarter, and we must allow a quarter to each
man in the year. Meat was a farthing a pound. Butter cost 'jhd a
gallon, but fluctuated much in price. ' Butter, I imagine, since it is so
commonly sold by the gallon, was melted — a process which preserves
it from becoming rancid, though at a great loss of flavour.' In other
cases it is likely that it was pressed into earthenware pans, or into
wooden tubs, the produce being salted in mass, as well as over each

* Reg. I June 1565 'decretum est hos sequentes dies perenniter fore limitatos ac
iiominatos dies minoris refection is, Anglice appellatos xiii^ gaudies, viz. : Circum-
cision, Purification, Matthias, Annunciation, Mark, Philip and James, Ascension,
Corpus Christi, birthday of the Baptist, Peter and Paul, James, Bartholomew,
birthday of the Virgin, Matthew, Michael, Luke, Simon and Jude, All Saints,
Andrew, Thomas the Apostle' ; see Clark's Colleges 186.

^ At New College in 1400 it was ordered that the allowance of 12 pence might
be increased to 13 or even 16 pence in seasons of scarcity, and even to 18 pence
when the bushel of com sold for more than two shillings. The Lincoln statutes of
1480 define a time of dearth as a time when a quarter of com sells for ten shillings
or more; ten shillings is also the limit fixed at All Souls in 1443; but in 1582 the
Visitor of All Souls ratifies the change of the allowance from 16 pence to 2s 8</
for a Master an<l 2s idiox another P'ellow; All Souls St.itutcs p. 90; Magdalen
Statutes p. 71 ; Brasenosc Statutes p. 22. See Waters' Gcneal. of L' Hesters 25.



HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE. xxxix

layer, just as in modern times. Salt was 6j^d. the bushel. Cheese
was a little over a halfpenny a pound. Eggs cost 4|</ for the long
hundred z.e. 120 : there are other indications which show that poultry
must have been raised to a larger extent than at present. Vegetables
were scarce, and owing to the want of vegetables scurvy and leprosy *
were very prevalent : onions, leeks, mustard and peas occur, though
rarely ^ ; turnips carrots and parsnips were not yet used. French
wine was a little over a penny a gallon. There are constant
entries for wine given to visitors, which we may suppose to have been
of a better quality than that usually consumed. In Lent 1361 3.? is
charged for 3 flagons (lagena), in Lent 1375 2s 4d for 2 flagons, in
summer 1380 2^ for 2 flagons, in summer 1401 2i6?for 3 flagons and

^ Denton 207, Wood's Cit_y ii. 505, Rogers on Prices v. 764, Rogers' Polltax
(O. H. S.) 187, Social England 1893 p. 369.

* Rogers i. 17, 27, 66, 147, 187, 223; Hist. Comm. vi. 569. Autumn 1457 'x^
pro modio ceparum venditarum'; autumn 1372 'in porris ilia^ ad gardinum';
autumn 1425 'quinque f/ pro leke plantis ad ortum' [leac and garleac and yneleac
and leaccerse i. e. leek and garlic and onion and nasturtium occur in Anglo-Saxon,
leactiin is a garden and leacweard a gardener] ; winter 1465 ' xiiiaf pro duobus
duodenis ciphorum et duobus discis ligneis et una oUa pro sinapis'; winter 1506
* x</ pro sinapis'; apples are mentioned Lent 1360 '\d pro pomis'; autumn 1398
'ins de vendicione pomorum in gardino'; pears in autumn 1356 ' v^ pro vino et
piris datis vicario de Blubry [Blewberry in Berks, mentioned again in winter 1485]
et Tome capellano de West Wyttenham quando idem vicarius venit pro emcione
lane nostre'; figs, grapes and almonds occur Lent 1358 ' vj viiia' ob. Alano Lenge
pro fructibus et speciebus viz ficis uvis amydol et aliis diversis fructibus et speciebus
positis in cervisia die S. Thome ' ; there is a doubtful mention of strawberries in
summer 1484 ' xd ob pro vino zucara et fragris (?) datis doctori Aggecumb '
[probably John Edgcomb]; winter 1522 '\d preparando mala punica,' an incidental
mention of pomegranates (Rogers i. 632); 'graffing stockys' is mentioned Lent
1524. Gardeners occur Lent 1361 * xx^ ortalanis pro seminibus ' ; Lent 1487 ' xiia'
ortalano mundanti ortos nostros.' A gardener was perhaps only employed occa-
sionally, the payments to regular servants were larger. Thus the manciple received
5J a term, the cook 25, the barber \2d, the washerwoman i^d; sums which are
raised in Lent 1374 to 6^ ^d, ^od, 2od, 25 6d, respectively and in the sixteenth
century they receive in all 15J lod a term. The amount of washing in the Middle
Ages was small. The tonsure of those who were in minor orders was shaved every
week. We may compare women's out-door wages: Winter 1408 'iiii^^uni mulieri
que laboravit circa stramina, wd oh pro yelmyng [laying it in convenient quantities
for the thatcher] eiusdem stiaminis ' ; winter 1435 ' duabus ylmestres xx^/' ; summer
1492 ' iiii iiiiff pro 5 bigatibus straminis pro horeo nostro apud Wytnam, solvendo
pro bigatu viiia' apud Suttun, xxaf pro vectura eorundem, \n vid ly thakere ibi
5 diebus, servienti ei 5 diebus xx^;', wd cumulatrici Anglice a ylmer illis diebus.'
The ylmer had 2,d a day, but a woman's wages were usually only a penny, Rogers
i. 273, 281, ii. 275, 710, H. Hall's Elizabethan Age ed. I. p. 23, Blomfield's
Bicester 47, Cunningham ii. 193. For yelming see Skeat, v. whelm.



xl HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE.

one pottle. In 1395 a flagon of beer cost i^d, and a 'quarter' 20<f*.
In Lent 1361 the 'quarter' of beer cost 2s Sd, but this was better
beer as it was bought for the feast of S. Thomas the martyr. The
account of the preparations for the feast runs on thus ' i2d for spices
in the 3 quarters of beer, lod for a pound of wax candles, id for the
breakfast of two Carmelites who brought a "palleum" for the feast, id
to a poor man, 2d for incense (thimiama), 2id for loaves, 6d for
common beer, 121^ for meat, i2d for 4 ducks (anatinis), 2^- 10^ for
capons, I'jd for baking, 4^ 4d for spices, id for ' salsamentis,' 8^/ for
rabbits^, 22d for 6 ducks, 11^ for two little pigs (porcelli), 3^ for 3
flagons of wine, 'jd for eggs, id for onions, i\d for "gyncebrum"
(ginger was about is 6d the pound'), 6 J for ducklings (aniclis), iiii^
for tallow candles (candelis de cepo), I2d for charcoal and faggots
(carbonibus et focalibus) in the kitchen, iid for veal, i'md for lard
(pinguedo), honey 6d, cheese ■^d, flour 2d, the cook's services that
day 1 2d, 6d to the maidservant of Roger de Northwod, ^d for wine
given to the woman who keeps our public house (pandoxatrix nostra),
$d for wine to another woman who keeps a public house.' The
amount paid for spices on such occasions is remarkable (Rogers'
Holland 201, 1250). In the almost total absence of vegetables and
modern condiments, these were the choicest flavours which men
desired. Sometimes the fellows shared in greater festivities, for
instance in the Determination feast of Richard, the son of Thomas
Holland Earl of Kent, on the Monday and Tuesday before Ash



* Rogers i. 172 : ii. 644. The lagcna or flagon of wine was 16 pints, the pottle
4 pints. The quarter of beer, i.e. 17 ' lagenae cum potcllo ' was an Oxford measure,
costing I J 8rt', 15, or 10^/ according to quality. The gallon at \\d is of better
quality than that bought by the quarter. But the lagena seems to have been
a variable measure. Besides wine, gloves were constantly given to visitors, as
now at weddings and funerals. See Index, Rogers i. 119, iv. 581, Blomfield's
Bicester 120. It was not till the i6th century that beer was distinguished from ale,
as ale to which hops had been added ; autumn 1559 ccresisia et birra.

^ Probably rabbits were a,d or 5rt?each, as they were scarce; Lent 1.160 ' x</ pro
cuniculis'; Rogers i. 33, 340-1 and index iv. 345, 582, 717, 34 D. K. Rec. p. 285,
Denton 164. There were rabbits on S. Nicholas' Island, Plymoutli, in the 12th
century. Patent Rolls 3 Feb. 132^ p. 4. In the 15th century no inconsiderable
portion of good land was occupied by rabbit warrens. In 1431 a licence was given
to export 40,000 rabbit skins, 48 D. K. Rcc. p. 220.

^ Rogers i. 629. Compare the jiriccs in Lord William Howard's Household
Books ed. 1878 (Surtees Soc.) p. Ixxvi.



HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE. xli

Wednesday, 21 and 22 Feb. 1395. The account of the feast is
preserved among the archives of IMcrton, but several of the persons
mentioned are fellows of Exeter, and Thomas Hendeman a fellow of
Exeter was Chancellor ^ It was in fact a University feast as liveries
were given to the proctors and bedels. The charges are twofold, for
liveries and an entertainment. The liveries were either of coloured
cloth or of variegated pattern (stragulatus). The cloth was served
out in various lengths, from nine, eight, and seven and a half yards
to a yard and a half, the breadth being uniform. The hoods were
trimmed with fur -, the names of the material being various as miniver,
bugeye, popul, and stanling (perhaps the winter fur of the squirrel).
The pieces (panni) of cloth, containing 24 yards (virgae) each^ were
bought from John Hende a London cloth-merchant. The coloured
cloth was given to academics, the cheaper variegated cloth to other
persons and servants. 'To M. John Wykham 7I yards, M. John
Gylys 8 yards, each proctor 7^ yards, M. Ralph Rudryth 9 yards,
Lentwardyn 7 J yards, Talkaron 7 yards, M. Thomas Hendeman
8 yards ' (at the head of the list previously we find ' 1 2 yards of
coloured cloth for M. Thomas Hendeman, price of the yard iis id,'
probably given him as Chancellor), ' 2 9 determiners 7 yards each,
4 bachelors of law one piece 4 yards, 3 bachelors of arts 7 yards
each, five fellows of the College 16 yards, 29 esquires 2 pieces
18 yards ; 32 masters of arts pro furrura capuciorum xxxii furrurae de
Menever, 29 determiners pro furrura capuciorum xxix furrurae deBugey.'
The hall and kitchen are of course constantly mentioned. They
were not on the site of the present hall and kitchen but more to the
north. There was a large washing basin in the hall (lavacrum)
with a pipe to it (fistula), and once we hear of a ' lavacrum * pendens

^ Rogers i. 121, 582 ; ii. 643-7. M. John Gyles who managed the feast is
mentioned in an Exeter Computus of autumn 1390 ' viii5 de M. Johanne Gelys pro
pensione alte scole iuxta scolam ubi scamnum situatur in medio.' John Wykham
is mentioned in summer 1393 'vi^ viii(/ a M. Johanne Wykam in partem solucionis
unius aUe scole pro A.D. &c. nonagesimo secundo,'and in summer 1398 ' xvij iiiit/
de M. Johanne Wykham pro finali solucione scole sue.' Richard Lentwardyn,
archdeacon of Cornwall 1395, R. of All Hallows, Lombard St. 3 Feb. 140I ; but
there was also Thomas de Lentwardyn, chancellor of London 1401, provoit of
Oriel 141 4, Tanner 475.

^ Anstey 301, 360-1, Patent Rolls i Mch 132S p. 34.

^ All Souls Statutes p. 42 ; Hist. Comm. v. 436.

* Clark's Co//c^^cs 331, Kirby's IViiuhcster College 41. '



xlii HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE.

in aula.' There are constant payments for towels ^ There was a
large expenditure for tablecloths and napkins (mappae and manu-
tergia); winter 1417 ' 3J 2|</ for linen for a tablecloth, 22^ for
5 J ells for two towels to guard the tablecloth, i^d for two dozen cups
in the buttery, 146? for a brass candlestick, 3^T</for hemming (limbacio)
a tablecloth two towels and two hanging napkins (manutergiorum
pendencium), 2s 6d for three mats (storiis) for the hall.' A piece of
linen for a tablecloth cost 3^- Sd in the winter of 1382 and winter
of 1406, 3^- 16? in winter of 141 1, while in winter of 1441 3.? is paid
for a tablecloth of 6 ells. In wdnter 1360 1 26? was paid for a case
for the spoons of the House (casa pro coclearibus domus), and ^\d
for a 'tankard'; 5 spoons cost i6d in summer 1394 and autumn
1394, while in summer 1361 ^s 6d was given for making 18 ; a large
kitchen spoon cost '^d in Lent 1404; silver spoons occur constantly,
at Merton they were valued at 10^ each (Rogers i. 647; ii. 569,
57 7» 579)' The High Table (tabula alta) is mentioned in winter
1 4 1 8 ' 6j for II ells of linen for a tablecloth and two towels for High
Table.' The hall was lighted with torches, torticii, or rather large
candles; a great torch of wax cost ^s 6d in Lent 1358, a torch for
the hall 4^ ']d in winter 1360, io\d is given for making two torches
in winter 1385 ^ Charcoal (carbones), often in an iron frame, was
used for the fire. The University petitioned against cutting down the
forests of Shotover and Stowe Wood, since it would ruin the University
by destroying the wood necessary for fuel. Chimneys came into use in
the fourteenth century '. The word chimney at first meant hearth or
fireplace, and coal meant charcoal and collier charcoal-burner. In the
computus of winter 1354 ' 23^ 6d to a workman for making the wall of
the chimneys (parietis caminorum) and a window,' autumn 1401 ' 5;/ for

* Tuellum, see Glossaries v. toella and toacula, Warton's Zi/e of Pope 341 :
winter 141 3, (ys -y^diox 3 towels for the chapel ; winter 1430 four shillings for four
towels. For naj^kins, Rogers i. 574, iv. 554, 561, v. 552, vi. 522.

' There was a great consumption of wax, especially in churches, Rogers iv. 365,
Roscher Pol. Eton. i. 2S9. The Cordwainers of Oxford paid "jd for a pound of
wax 1483 (Cordwainers' Guild p. 14); cereus and torticius, Peshall 210.

^ Rogers i. 421, iv. 370,610, Magdalen Muniments 122, Southey's Common-
place liook i. 431, 536, ii. 619. Wood's Life i. 133, 304 'set up a chimney in
the up]ier room looking Eastward,' ii. 98; Pepys 5 Dec. 1663 'a house so
smoky that it was troublesome tu us all, till they yxA out the lue.. and made uiic uf
charcoal.'



HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE. xliii

a plank for the kitchen chimney (fumerali coquine), and 2d for " spiks "
for the chimney and for an old dressmghoard! See a. 1384. Chimneys
in the smaller rooms are mentioned Lent 1522 ' 9<f for building
a chimney (camini) in the chamber of M. Nycholls and M, Slad.'
Lent 1547 ' 13J 4(/to Jacson a mason (lapidario) mending a chimney
(fumarium) in the chamber of M. Whiting.' The smoke of wood
was of a fragrant character, and was thought to be medicinal and
beneficial. With coal smoke it was different, and coal could hardly
be used under such primitive conditions \ But by Tudor times wood
was becoming scarcer and dearer, and owing to the need of using
cheaper fuel chimneys came into use even in common houses.
Previously, says Aubrey, ' ordinary men's houses, and copyholders'
and the like, had no chimneys, but flues like beaver holes/ And
Harrison in 1577 notes the use of chimneys in inland towns as one
of those things that had marvellously altered within the recollection
of old men, whereas in their younger days there were not above two
or three in most uplandish towns, except in great houses. Students
liked to remain round the fire in hall after dinner, partly for the
warmth, or for the sake of an occasional drinking bout (bibesia);
hence several Colleges have stringent rules against staying in hall
after dinner. Thus at Magdalen ^ all are to leave the hall at curfew
time, hora ignitegii, except on Saints' days when they may stay on and
amuse themselves with ballads and read historical poems, chronicles,
and the wonders of the world. At Balliol there was fire in the Hall
on certain feasts and their vigils {Early Balliol by I\Irs. de Paravicini
294). Candles were dear, nearly twopence a pound, that is two
shillings of our money ; men could not afford to read in their rooms
after dark, they lacked the genial inspiration of good candlelight. In
rude ages men have few amusements or occupations but what daylight
affords them. Other students, besides Sixtus V, may have had to read
by the light of the lantern hung up at the crossing of the streets.
The French scholar Amyot read by the light of the charcoal in the

^ Among Warden Clayton's misdeeds Wood reckons {Life i. 396) ' burning in
one year threescore pounds worth of the choicest billet that could be had, not only
in all his rooms, but in the kitchen among his servants ; without any regard had to
cole, which usually (to save charges) is burnt in kitchens, and sometimes also in
parlours.'

- Statutes p. 71.



xITv HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE.

brasier. Dr. Wood at S. John's, Cambridge, read by the rush light
on the staircase (Wordsworth 410). Alexander Adam in the last
century read his Livy in the early morning by the light of splinters
of bogwood. The burning candle was sometimes protected by
a lantern ^ In 1596 a fire occurred through one ' intempestive
studentis.' Hence partly the ' ignitegium.' It was noted that
at S. John's Cambridge some candles were lit before 4 in the
morning. A very old lantern is preserved in the Ashmolean museum ;
it is of bronze and the light is transmitted through crystals. The
wick of the better candles was made of cotton, which at that time
grew in Cyprus, Sicily and Italy; but rushlights continued in use
down to our own days (in 1662 Wood paid 6d for a pound of double
rush candles, in 1666 5f(/ for a pound of single rush candles).
Much use was made of rushes in other ways. They were used to
strew the hall and chapel. In summer 1358 i\d was paid for rushes
(cirpi) for the chapel (Blomfield's Lower Heyford 42), and in summer
1473 sixpence for the same purpose; straw was used at Christmas,
rushes at Whitsuntide ^. The men too were much crowded in their
rooms. Two fellows sometimes lived in one chamber. John Hennok
was chamber fellow with John Dagenet in a room ad ostium ; Lent
141 5 '\\\d pro emendacione sere in camera Hele et Yate'; and so
others, winter 1429 ' iii^ \\\\d pro camera Pleasaunte et Martyn pro
ultimo anno ' ; John Wesdake fellow had a room in College with
Thomas Copleston sojourner in 1442. The churches and castles
were splendid, but the inmates of collegiate houses were closely
packed and indifferently lodged, while the furniture was rough and
scanty. The Magdalen statutes^ order that in each of the better
rooms there shall be two chief beds and two beds on wheels, ' lecti
rotales, Trookyll beddys vulgariter appellali,' and in each of the other
rooms two chief beds and one truckle bed if the size of those rooms



' Rogers i. 415, iv. 367, Ayliffe ii. 241.

* Peshall 217 ; Pictorial Hist, of Englatid iii. 474, Magdalen Muniments 8S,
140, Elyot's Governor 121, Burgon's Grcsham i. 12, Wood's City i. 478, Jusserand
p. 124, Eng. Cycl. v. Rush bearing, Ancient Charters (Pipe Roll Soc.) i. pp. 60, 63
'earliest notice at Tavistock 1386,' but at Ex. Coll. it is 1358 : for Rushbearing
day at Grasmere see Pall Mall 29 Sep. 1892 p. 3.

^ P. 72, see statutes of All Souls p. 73, of Brasenosc p. 34, of Corpus Si; Gutch
i. 597 this increased the plague.



HISTORY OF EXETER COLLEGE. xlv

allow of so many. The viusea, or studies, were very small'. The
services of a ratcatcher had to be called in sometimes, autumn 1363
' 8</ to a ratter (ratonarius) when he destroyed the rats in the rooms.'

The Chapel occurs constantly. A chalice is procured in winter
1413 which costs 34^ 2d. Wine is bought, and wax candles, and
incense. Thus in Lent 1334 'wine ^d, a quarter of oil 3</, 2 pounds
of wax i^d, tallow candles 2.' Resin, called also ' thus,' was employed
for ordinary incense^; it was about i\d z pound, but in summer
1478 5</is paid for one pound. In summer 1334 and Lent 1355 id
is paid for ' thimiama,' and this is the more common name in the



Online LibraryExeter College (University of Oxford)Registrum Collegii exoniensis. Register of the rectors, fellows, and other members on the foundation of Exeter college, Oxford. With a history of the college and illustrative documents → online text (page 5 of 61)