Ezra S. (Ezra Slocum) Carr.

The patrons of husbandry on the Pacific Coast : being a complete history of the origin, condition and progress of agriculture in different parts of the world ; of the origin and growth of the order of patrons, with a general and special Grange directory, and full list of the charter members of the s online

. (page 1 of 51)
Online LibraryEzra S. (Ezra Slocum) CarrThe patrons of husbandry on the Pacific Coast : being a complete history of the origin, condition and progress of agriculture in different parts of the world ; of the origin and growth of the order of patrons, with a general and special Grange directory, and full list of the charter members of the s → online text (page 1 of 51)
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THE



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY



PACIFIC COAST.



BEING A COMPLETE HISTOKT OF THE ORIGIN, CONDITION AND PROGRESS OP AGRICULT
URE IN DIFFERENT PAETS OF THE WORLD ; OF THE ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF THE
ORDER OF PATRONS, WITH A GENERAL AND SPECIAL GRANGE DIRECT
ORY, AND FULL LIST OF CHARTER MEMBERS OF THE SUBOR
DINATE GRANGES OF CALIFORNIA.

ALSO, OF THE FOES OF THE FARMERS, OR MONOPOLIES OF LAND, WATER,

TRANSPORTATION AND EDUCATION; OF A PROTECTIVE

TARIFF, CURRENCY AND BANKING.



BY

EZRA S. CARR, M. D., LL. D.,

Late Professor of Agriculture in the University of California, and Past Master of
Temescal Grange,




SAN FKANCISCO:
A. L. BANCROFT AND COMPANY,

PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS AND STATIONERS.
1875.






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year of our Lord 1875, by

A. L. BANCROFT & COMPANY,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



TO THE
V\\ : . .



HUSBANDMEN, MATRONS AND TEACHERS



PACIFIC COAST,

AND ATT. WHO CO-OPERATE WITH THEM IN ITS INDUSTRIAL, SOCIAL
AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT,

THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED.




PKEFAUE.



To present in a compact and readily accessible form the
annals of the farmers movement in California, with a sum
mary of the advantages thus far secured by combination and
cooperation, was the primary object of this work. In addition,
I have thought it desirable to show the general relations of ag
riculture to human progress; to give the results of recent official
investigations into railroad affairs, and to treat of some other
questions of general public interest, by summarizing important
and recent reports not generally accessible to Patrons.

Again, I know of no single work in which the statistical in
formation which farmers so often need for reference can be
obtained. I have endeavored to meet this want, in the dis
cussions of the various subjects to which such information
appropriately belongs.

As the work grew upon my hands, I have found that the pres
entation of my subject involved a constant reference to author
ities. As far as possible, therefore, I have allowed each witness
to speak for himself, to the exclusion of all claims to originality
on my own part. I am greatly indebted to able writers, Pro
fessor Perry, President Anderson, Henry George, Hon. M. M.
Estee and others, who have placed their valuable papers at my
disposal, and I only regret that want of space has made it
accessary for me to exclude any portion of them.

The second chapter, denning the office of Agriculture in the
Social Economy," is a condensation of the instruction in Po
litical Economy, given more than twenty years ago, to college
classes, by the late John H. Lathrop, LL. D., first President
of the Universities of Missouri and Wisconsin. In the chapter
on " Agriculture in the Public Schools," it will be observed
that the agitation of this question is not a recent thing in agri
cultural bodies. The Grange has done little more than to
organize the public sentiment of farmers for the effective exer-



G PREFACE .

else of their legitimate powers. Its progress is no marvel to
tliose TV ho have been in sympathy with the working classes of
the country, who understand their needs, and are ready to lend
a hand in removing their burdens.

Great care has been taken to insure correctness in the sta
tistical part of the work, and to omit nothing of importance in
the documentary history of the State Grange. The names of
the charter members, having been copied from the original dis
pensations, where the signatures are not unfrequently nearly
illegible, it has been impossible to entirely avoid orthographical
mistakes. The attempt to preserve a complete record of the
founders of Subordinate Granges, will, we trust, excuse a few
unavoidable errors in its execution.

Valuable assistance has been rendered by the officers of the
State Grange, and especially by "W. H. Baxter, its Worthy
Secretary; also by the officers and agents of the various busi
ness associations. To Mr. Edward Vischer, of San Francisco,
who has kindly furnished the rural illustrations from his own
admirable sketches of California life and scenery; to the
editors of the Eural Press, " and other agricultural and local
journals, I am under many obligations.

E. S. C.

OAKLAND, August 1st, 1875.




CONTENTS.



PART FIRST.

EELATION OF AGRICULTURE TO
CHAPTEK I.

ORGANIZATION OF LABOR.

PAGE.

The Masonic Fraternity Guilds Movements of Labor in the present cen
turyThe Spirit of Industry constructive What Equality is How Edu
cation promotes Equality Self-Love vs. Social Feeling Mr. Seward s
Opinion All great Movements Historical as well as Progressive 17

CHAPTER II.

THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY.

Man and Nature Agriculture the Foundation of Industry Eaw Materials
First Steps toward Manufactures Civilization regards all the Processes
of equal Value The Social Body, its different Parts and Functions
How Division of Labor increases Production, and begets Exchange or
Commerce Commerce a Charge upon Agriculture Magnitude of the
Tax How this enriches the Farmer Money as a Commercial Agent
Office of the Railroad and of Money to cheapen Exchange Relations of.
Agriculture to the Professions: to the growth of Towns: to Science... 20

>,

CHAPTER III.

AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD.

Civilization a relative Term Wealth Wild Wheat and Rice The Date:
Millet Egyptian Agriculture and Horticulture Flax Culture Grana
ries, Models of our Elevators Condition of the People China Confu
cius Teachings How Silk Culture was Promoted Implements Size of
Farms Wages Japan, compared with Great Britain Wheat Culture-
Rural Life in Greece Xenophon a Farmer Hesiod s Works and Days
Public Gardens Decay Aristotle the Father of a rational Polity
Slavery Rome Patricians and Plebeians Size of Farms Common
Pasture Tenants Cato s Steward The Rome of To-day 25

CHAPTER IV.

AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE.

Germany and England Ranks Folks Land and Rents Degradation of
the British Laborer Allowance of FoodElevation of the Mechanical



8 CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Class Proportion of Land Owners to Population Wages of Laborers
How England ijj_Fed Scotland a Wheat Growing Country Ameliora
tion of Climate through Agriculture Pedigree Cattle and Sheep France
Small Farming and Population Wheat Culture The Late War
Holland and the Low Countries A Model for California Deep Tillage
Diversity of Crops Use of Machinery Night-soil and Manures
Rotation Modern Germany Beet Culture Maize Culture in Austria
Russia our Rival in Wheat Conclusion. 38

CHAPTER V.

AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES.

American Independence due to the Farmers The South Atlantic States
Want of System Cotton and Tobacco Gov. Hammond on South Caro
lina Agriculture Georgia Silk Culture Gov. Collier on the Wants of
Alabama The Old Dominion and the Old Commonwealth contrasted
Emigration First Agricultural Societies and Journals established in the
South How diversified Industry would have secured Emancipation
Louisiana Texas 46

CHAPTER VI.

AGRICULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES.

Value of Statistical Reports Highest average Yield of Wheat in Massachu
setts A Southern View of New England Value of Hay Crop Vermont
and the Wool Interest What the New England States raise and what
they eat The Empire State- Genesee Wheat The Weevil Fish and
Fur Culture Profits of Cheese and Butter Factories Mr. Arnold on
the Future of Dairying Pennsylvania New Jersey a Market Garden
Cranberry Culture Peach Culture in Delaware and Maryland 53

CHAPTER VII.

FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES.

The World s Granary Relative Value of Corn and Wheat Stock Farming
vs. Wheat Farming Improved Implements Trial of American Ma
chinesMissouri, Tennessee and Kentucky California and Oregon
Agriculture of the Catholic Missions John Gilroy and his Neighbors
Large Wheat Fields Enormous Crop of 1872 Market for California
Wheat Farmers not enriched by this Stream of Wealth Tonnage-
Prices California the Centre of Wine and Wool Production Table
Showing Yield and Price of Farm Products in each State for 1873: Ex
hibiting Value of Farm Property: Number of Persons engaged in Agri
culture and other Occupations Gl



PART SECOND.

THE FARMERS GREAT AWAKENING.
CHAPTER VIII.

THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL.

Gathering of the Clubs Mr. Hyatt s telling Report on Shipping Proposal
for a Convention Expression of Opinion A Summary of Complaints






CONTENTS. U

PAGE.

Organization of the Farmers Union at Sacramento Fraudulent Wheat
Quotations. 75

CHAPTER IX.

HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES.

Meeting of the Board of Directors President Bidwell s Remarks Major

Snyder advocates building Cooperative Warehouses Judge McCune on r j
Fares and Freights Sonoma Club Mass Meeting at Stockton Thirty
Thousand Dollars subscribed Mr. Baxter appears on the Scene Con
vention at San Francisco How the Grangers negotiated for Sacks and
didn t get them Gen. Bidwell s Address A Lady s Suggestions Mr.
Hallett on the Future of the Wheat Market Convention recommends,
the Formation of Granges Winding up of its Affairs 87

CHAPTER X.

THE OKDER OI PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.

How established Messrs. Kelley and Saunders A Cloud no bigger than a
Man s Hand Significance of Names, "Grange" and "Patron"
Eligibility: Organization and First Officers: First Four Dispensations
Growth on the Upper Mississippi Eighty Granges a day in Iowa
Third Annual Session What the Patrons propose to do Official Decla
ration of Purposes Constitution and By-Laws 104

CHAPTER XI.

WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED.

Growth Causes of Numerical Strength Granges of the first and second
Growth Investments and Savings General and incidental Benefits
Worthy Master Adams Address at Charleston Summary of Proceedings
What was done about the Texas Pacific Railroad, and why it was dona, 118

CHAPTER XII.

ANNALS OF THE STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA.

Organization at Napa Representation Address of N. W. Garretson Spe
cific Objects stated Resolutions State Book of Plans Election of
Officers and Executive Committee Agencies provided for First An
nual Meeting One Hundred and Four Granges in Three Months-
Worthy Master Wright s Address Report of Committee on Irrigation-
Committee of Inquiry into Agricultural Department of University-
Election of Officers for two ensuing Years Presentation to Brothe:
Garretson Installation Professor Carr s Lecture , 131

CHAPTER XIII.

CONSTITUTION OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE BY-LAWS RULE9-OF- ORDER. . . 153

CHAPTER XIV.

BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS.

Agency established in San Francisco Mr. A. F. Walcott appears for E. E.
Morgan s Sons Firm endorsed by prominent Houses Agreements and
Precautions State Agent Competition produces better Prices Savings
of the first Year Grangers Bank Meeting Organization Dairy
Agency Stanislaus Saving and Loan Society Warehouses at Modesto



10 CONTENTS

PAGE.

Davisville Grange incorporates Colusa County Bank Waterford
Warehouses and Business Associations 153

CHAPTER XV.

THE SKCOND ANNUAL MEETING.

Large Attendance Worthy Master Hamilton s Address A Grange Funeral
Festival of Pomona Important Resolutions Abstract of Report of
State Agent: of the Executive Committee: of the Treasurer: of the Lec-
turer: of the Manager of Dairy Produce Department: of Committee on
the Agricultural College of the State University: of the Committee on
Irrigation: of the Committee on Education and Labor: of the Committee
on the Good of the Order 173

CHAPTER XVI.

THE PATBONS TEIALS AND TEIUMPHS.

The Wheat Shipping Business The Wheat King and Mr. Walcott Advance
in Freights in 1872-3 Exaggerated Estimates of the Crop of 1874-5
Mr. Walcott s various Enterprises The Sack Purchase Failure of
Morgan s Sons proves a Blessing in Disguise Called Meeting of the
Grange Practical Fellowship All s Well that Ends Well Discontinu
ance of Dairy arid Produce Agency The Business Association formed
Officers and Articles of Incorporation of the Grangers Business Asso
ciation 201



PAKT THIED.

GEINGE DIRECTORY AND EECORD.
CHAPTER XVII.

GRANGE DIRECTOEY.

Officers and Members ol the National Grange California State Grange Ex
ecutive Committee: of District and County Councils: of Organizing
Deputies Subordinate Granges of California, arranged by Counties Ne
vada Subordinate Granges The Grange Record: of the Charter Mem
bers of each Grange in California and Nevada Oregon State Grange
Officers Executive Committee and Organizing Depiities Subordinate
Granger of Oregon: of Washington Territory: of Idaho 211



PAET FOUETH.

AIDS AND OBSTACLES TO AGRICULTURE ON THE PACIFIC^ COAST.

CHAPTER XVIII.

LAND MONOPOLY.

Mr. J. Stuart Mill s Axiom The Public Domain, and its Distribution Lands
in California Prosperity shown by the Proportion of Farms to Popu
lation Disposition of State Lands Effects of Consolidation of Landed
Interests in England Spanish and Mexican Domination Mexican



CONTEXTS. 11

PAGE.

Grants, and a discreditable Chapter of History Bounty of the Federal
Government How the State Lauds have been Manipulated Discrep
ancy between Federal and State Laws Eastern College and Indian
Scrip Swamp and Tide Lands Agricultural College Grant Kailroad
Grant California Peerage, and status. of our Landlords Discrimina
tion in Taxation Remedies. . . . 290



CHAPTEK XIX.

"WATER MONOPOLY AND IEKIGATION.

Canal and "Water Companies: How authorized Legislation favorable to Mo
nopolies Los Angeles Convention Voice of the People Gov. Dow
ney s Address Memorial of Colorado to Congress Congress appoints
Irrigation Commissioners for California Mr. Brereton s Views of Agri
culture in the San Joaquin Valley Conclusions ^arrived at by the Com
missioners^ _ 304

CHAPTER XX.

THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM.

Corit of Irrigation Loss by Absorption Amount of Water required per
Acre Amount used in Foreign Countries Primary, Secondary and Ter
tiary Ditches Bases of Estimates Ownership of "Water Mr. Estee s
Views concerning Legislation Italian Authorities quoted Dr. Eyer s
Hints toward a S-Qlution of the Problem Irrigation and Public Health . 319

CHAPTER XXI.

TRANSPORTATION.

Results of Railroad Investigation by Congress Committee : how formed
Exhaustive Researches Magnitude of Interests involved Inadequacy
of Means of Transportation Defects and Abuses Discriminations and
Extortions Stock Watering-^-Capitalization of Earnings Construction
Hings Unjust Discriminations General Extravagance and Corruption
of Railway Management Combinations and Consolidations Nominal
Capital and fictitious Stock Excess of Capital over Actual Stock Illus
trations How Evils may be remedied Summary of Conclusions and
Recommendations Congress may regulate Inter-State Transportation^ . 3/29

CHAPTER XXII.

RAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION TN WISCONSIN.

Railroad Legislation in Wisconsin Abstract of the Potter Law Abstract of
Report of Commissioners Nature of the Controversy between the Peo
ple and the Railroads Self-interest of Corporations not a sufficient
Guaranty against Extortions Competition tends to Consolidation Evils
of Railway Construction and Management Causes of undue Cost
Construction on Credit Corrupt letting of Contracts Misappropria
tion of Land Grants Illinois Law Supervisory Duty of States holding
Land Grants Illinois Decision . 336



12 CONTENTS

PAGE.

CHAPTER XXIII.

MANAGEMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION.

Management of Railroads in Operation Railroads as Merchants Rings
American Genius displayed in Stock Watering Unskillful Management
Excessive Charges Railroad Side of the Question Benefits conferred

Public Character of Railways established Necessity of Control, and

consequent Right of Supervision Interests of Capital require Control

Insecurity of Railroad Investments How Control may be exercised

Faulty Legislation Summary of Conclusions Ohio Commissioners -on
Railroad Rates 342

CHAPTER XXIV.

EAILROADS IN CALIFORNIA.

California Railroads: Routes, Length and Gauge Senator Cole on the Pub
lic Interest in Railroads Mr. Stanford s Report on the Financial Con
dition of the Central Pacific The Railways of the World Funded Debt
and net Earnings of the Railroads of the United States 350

CHAPTER XXV.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

First urged by Massachusetts Agricultural Society Manual of Agriculture
prepared Action taken by other States Obstacles to Success Profes
sor Turner on Text-book Monopolies Superintendent Northrup s Views
on the Educational Value of Labor 359

CHAPTER XXVI.

HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

How provided for by Foreign Governments: France: Germany: Royal Agri
cultural School at Wurtemberg: Russia Beginnings in the United
States The Congressional Grant Evasions and Perversions A Liter
ary Kite with an Agricultural Tail An Example of Good Faith The
Record of California President Anderson s Ideal of an Agricultural
College 361

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION OF "WOMEN.

Woman as an Industrialist The Field of Domestic Life Her Vocation as a
Paid Laborer Housekeeping as a Fine Art Training Schools for Women
in America and in Europe Dr. Kohler s Institute at Gotha How Wo
men are Instructed in the Cost of Living , 385

CHAPTER XXVIII.

PAPER MONEY AND A PROTECTIVE TARIFF.

False Lights General Principles What Currency is Legislation required
Professor Perry s Views Dialogue between Bonamy Price and the
New York Capitalists Origin of Tariffs Effects of Protection upon Ag
ricultural Industry Tariffs Take, but never Give Table showing Total
Amount of Property and Taxation in the United States 392



CONTENTS. 13

PAGE.

CHAPTER XXIX.

BANKS AND MONET.

Farmers need Cheap Money Legislation controlled by Capitalists Farmers
and Lawyers in Congress Exemption of Bonds from Taxation Eate of
Interest a Test of Prosperity: of Civilization Banks and Banking Sav
ings Banks Paper Promises made Legal Tenders Professor Bonainy
Price on Crises and Panics Financial Success of English Cooperative
Associations 412

CHAPTEE XXX.

EXCEPTIONAL CONDITIONS OP THE PACIFIC COAST AFFECTING AGEICULTUEAL PROSPERITY.

Summary of Advantages : of Disadvantages Wet and Dry Seasons Varia
bility of the Average Irregularity in each year Tabular Statement of
Extremes of Eain-fall Seasons of Drought Amount of Eain needed to
secure a Crop Amount actually Determined Fences and Fuel Forests
and the Eain-fall Forests and Inland Navigation . 424

CHAPTER XXXI.

AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITIES.

Isolation of Farmers Decrease of Agricultural Population : Causes Genesis
of the Middle-man : He devours both Farmer and Mechanic Better Ed
ucation the Eemedy Eecruits for the Agricultural Army Immigration
Table Scandinavia in America Superiority of the Colony System
Vineland, a model Eural Colony Outlook and Conclusions. . . ^ 432

CHAPTEE XXXII.

SELECTED POETRY FOR THE GRANGE.

The Granger s Politics, E. W. Emerson s Ode and Boston Hymn 4-45

The Granger s Religion, "No Sect in Heaven." 447

The Granger s Centennial Hymn, by J. G. Whittier 450

The Celestial Harvest Feast; or, the Eeaper s Dream, by T. B. Read 451

The Granger s Doxology 454




AUTHOES QUOTED.



ADAMS, D. W., "W. M. National Grange.

ALEXANDER, Gen. B.

ANDERSON, Hon. M. W.

ANDERSON, J. A., President Kansas Agricultural College.

ARNOLD, L. D., American Dairyman s Association.

BID WELL, Hon. JOHN.
BRERETON, Hon. B. M.

CARPENTER, S. H., Professor Wisconsin University
CAKR, Dr. E. S.
CARR, Mrs. JEANNE 0.

COLE, Hon. CORNELIUS.

DAVIDSON, Professor GEORGE, United States Irrigation Commissioner.
DODGE, J. B., United States Statistician, Department of Agriculture.
DEWEY, A. T., Pacific Kural Press.

EATON, Gen. JOHN, United States Bureau of Education,
ESTEE, Hon. M. M.
EMERSON, KALPH WALDO.

FELTON, C. C., President Harvard College.

FLINT, CHAS. L., Secretary Massachusetts Agricultural Society.

FLAGG, W. C. President Illinois Farmers Association.

GARRETSON, N. W., General Deputy, National Grange.
GEORGE, HENRY, Editor of San Francisco Evening Post.

HALLETT, Hon. EDWIN.

HAMILTON, J. M., W. M. California State Grange.

HOYT, J. W., United States Commissioner to Paris and Vienna Expositions.

HIGBY, Hon. A., Chairman of Legislative Committee on Education in California-

HITTELL, Hon. JOHN S.

HYATT, Hon. T. HART.

LATHROP, J. H., " Chancellor" University of Wisconsin.

McKuNE, Hon. J.

MEXDELL, Col. G. H., United States Irrigation Commissioner.

MOORE, Mrs. J. P.

MILL, J. STUART.

NORDHOFF, CHARLES, Author of "Communistic Societies in U. S.," etc.., etc.
NORTHRUP, Hon. B. G., Superintendent of Schools, Connecticut.



1(5 AUTHORS QUOTED. *

PINNKY, Hon. GEO. M.

PERKY, Prof. A. L., Professor of Political Economy, William s College, Mas.s.

POWELL, GEORGE MAY, American Institute.

PRICE, Prof. BONAMY, Professor of Political Economy, Oxford, England.

EYER, Dr. M. W.
BEAD, T. BUCHANAN.

SEWARD, Hon. W. H.

STOCKBRIDGE, Professor Massachusetts Agricultural College.

SNYDER, Hon. J. E.

SKARS, Prof. CHAS.

TURNER, Professor J. B., Jacksonville, Illinois.

WRIGIIT, J. W. A., W. Lecturer of California State Grange.
WHITTIKR, J. G.

Hon. X. A., President New York Dairyman s Association.




PAET FLBST,



KELATION OF AGEICULTUEE TO PEOGEESS.



CHAPTEE I.

ORGANIZATION OF LABOR.

Order is the condition of all progress; progress is the object of order. It is rational to look
at the evolution of society from a historical stand-point." Auguste Comte.

THE MASONIC FRATERNITY GUILDS MOVEMENTS OF LABOR IN THE PRESENT CEN
TURY THE SPIRIT OF INDUSTRY CONSTRUCTIVE WHAT EQUALITY is How
EDUCATION PROMOTES EQUALITY SELF LOVE vs. SOCIAL FEELING MR.
SEWARD S OPINION ALL GREAT MOVEMENTS HISTORICAL AS WELL AS PRO
GRESSIVE.

THE history of the Masonic Fraternity is that of the first at
tempt of labor to elevate itself by organization. Originally con
sisting of a simple association of practical builders, who trav
eled from place to place in pursuance of their calling; they
gave the name of lodges to their temporary camps, and bound
themselves by the solemnities of an oath and ritual to coopera
tion and fellowship. The advantages thus gained for defense
were equally powerful for improvement the skill of each be
came a tangible benefit to all; the offices were elective, and
conferred honor upon the most skillful and capable, From
this simple beginning, a purely industrial and social order was
not only enabled to maintain and extend itself through the
most turbulent periods of European history, but to become a
teacher of democratic and religious principles, and to exercise
in many cases a controlling influence upon the policy of govern
ments. In process of time, actual participation in a particular
calling was no longer required, a symbolic representation of the
underlying truths and principles of the order, sufficing to pre
serve its unity and usefulness.
2



18 ORGANIZATION OF LABOR.

During the middle ages, other classes of laborers organized
into guilds, and wrought out their emancipation from the condi-
. tion of serfs to that of freemen. In all these movements, those
mechanic arts which were nearest to the necessities imposed by
war, took precedence. Next in order were those which minis
tered most directly to the luxury and vanity of kings and
nobles. It was reserved for the latest and most Christian era
to witness the uprising of the agricultural class to a true un
derstanding of its office in the social economy, of its disabili
ties, and their proper remedy.

The movement which has been so nearly simultaneous in
England and America, finds its explanation in conditions and
dangers almost identical in their nature and effects, though
differing in many important particulars. In England, for
instance, a monopoly of land, without suffrage, has degraded
the farm laborer to a state of helplessness, for which emigra
tion seems the only remedy. In America, though land is
abundant and cheap, and suffrage universal, the centraliza
tion of the power of capital has created other monopolies,
which, having obtained a controlling influence in the govern
ment, are equally subversive of the interests of the people.
The English farm laborer tills another man s land at starvation
wages; the American farmer tills his own at starvation prices,
while the rich are growing richer, and the poor poorer, and
the separation of society into antagonistic classes, is becoming
more and more complete.

No single individual, or class of mankind, has intention
ally set itself to construct an oppressive system; these are
evil growths in the rank soil of human selfishness. The
responsibility of their existence should be shared even by



Online LibraryEzra S. (Ezra Slocum) CarrThe patrons of husbandry on the Pacific Coast : being a complete history of the origin, condition and progress of agriculture in different parts of the world ; of the origin and growth of the order of patrons, with a general and special Grange directory, and full list of the charter members of the s → online text (page 1 of 51)