Ezra S. (Ezra Slocum) Carr.

The University of California and its relations to industrial education : as shown by Prof. Carr's reply to the grangers and mechanics; Prof. Swinton's testimony before the Legislature; the new education, by Columella; memorial to the Legislature by joint committee of the state grange and mechanics online

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Online LibraryEzra S. (Ezra Slocum) CarrThe University of California and its relations to industrial education : as shown by Prof. Carr's reply to the grangers and mechanics; Prof. Swinton's testimony before the Legislature; the new education, by Columella; memorial to the Legislature by joint committee of the state grange and mechanics → online text (page 4 of 13)
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propriation for current expenses, that the sum of $135,000
should be specifically appropriated to the practical work of the
Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges. The President and mem-
bers of the Board visited Sacramento, and by addresses, personal


efforts and newspaper articles and pamphlets endeavored to show
that the memorialists were in error and that Agricultural and
Mechanical Colleges were failures. Several Committees from
the Legislature visited Berkeley to examine into the administra-
tion and workings of the institution, and with singular unanimi-
ty, reported in favor of the memorialists. The Education Com-
mittee, in their report took issue with the President on his
presentation of the Industrial College. Learning that I was
accused of having furnished these Committees with informa-
tion, and as the matter of University reform was getting mixed
up with the Merritt investigation, I made an explanation to the
Advisory Committee of the Regents, no testimony from me
having been called for by any Committee of the Legislature up
to that time.

I showed them that I had no connection whatever with the
Legislative proceedings in the matter, except such as have neces-
sarily resulted from the kind of service in which I have been em-
ployed ; that while I had endeavored to carry out the intentions
of the Board, as first explained to me by Regents Tompkins and
Fitzgerald, and afterward by formal resolutions and instructions,
I had as faithfully represented the sentiments of the people to
them, and had repeatedly placed before them in writing the
measures which had been urged upon me as important to secure
a cordial feeling toward the University and its work ; that I had
had every reason to believe that the manner in which I had
represented the aims and objects of the University were approv-
ed by the Regents and by the public ; that I had been placed
without intention on the part of the Regents in the difficult
position of reconciling the various published announcements of
the Regents with the dormant condition of the Agricultural
College, and that I had been placed before the public in the po-
sition of apparent responsibility without the power to meet it.
Of this, the resolution authorizing me to emplo} r a gardner,
without providing materials for the prosecution of his work, or
locating grounds for his operations, was an illustration. In con-
clusion I said : " In the peculiar relation which the transference
of the Agricultural College ' from the closet to the field ' has
placed me toward the people of this State, I have neither been
disloyal to their interests nor to yours, but have always acted on
the belief that these were identical. If loyalty to the interests
of industrial education, to which I have given the best years of
my life, and mean to give what remains of it, is treason to the
University, or if it is so construed by your honorable body, I
must plead guilty to the charge."


Meanwhile the Regents (February 17, 1874,) memorialized the
Legislature for another Committee — a joint Committee — with
power to send for persons and papers, etc., to inquire into the
defects of their stewardship and the proper remedy. The Com-
mittee arrived on the 22d, sent for the Professor of Agriculture,
who was brought before them and sworn, but before any testi-
mony was taken, an adjournment was made to Sacramento, at
the request of the Begents, the Committee deciding, first — to
receive the statement of the Board Committee, Eegents and
President, winding up this stage of the investigation (?) with a
banquet at Regent Ralston's.

At this juncture, the Professor of Agriculture was informed
that the Regents contemplated his summary removal on the
ground of disloyalty to his employers. The charge of incom-
petency was not made. The Secretary addressed to me a letter
of inquiry as to what, in my opinion, " was feasible for the im-
provement for instruction in agriculture and horticulture," as if
no suggestions on that subject had ever been presented to them.
I replied by referring them to former communications, with some
new suggestions ; all of which was embodied in their " state-
ments " dated March 3, 1874, and published in pamphlet form.
(See pages 14, 15 and 16.) The House Committee on Education
had reported favorably to a change in the Management of the
University, on the ground that the various callings, interests and
sections of the State were not represented in the Board, eigh-
teen of its twenty-two members being lawyers and business men
having their offices in San Francisco. The Committee said,
" All admit that the Professor of Agriculture is not only a
scientist, but a thoroughly practical instructor. He should live
on the ground, and students should be allowed to labor, thereby
applying science under the direction of their instructor."


Had been repeatedly brought before the Board, both before and
after our removal to Berkeley, by the application of students
for work, the favorable testimony of other institutions, notably
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan and Illinois, and in various
other ways. President Gilman invariably discouraged it in all
my intercourse with him, and the little work which students
have been permitted to do has had no connection with agricul-
tural instruction. I shall show in another place that I spared no
pains to call attention to the requirements of the law in this
respect. The Legislative Committee were strongly in favor of
its immediate adoption.



Near the close of the legislative session the House Committee on
Education reported a bill embodying their views of the changes
to be desired, etc. The disposition of the bill will be seen from
the following communication from its chairman, A. Higbie, to
W. H. Baxter, one of the Grange memorialists, after the Re-
gents had asked for my resignation. Under date of July 30,
1874, he says : " When the bill, proposing a radical charge in
the Board of Regents was introduced and referred to the Com-
mittee on Education, Regent Dwinelle and others were very
active for its defeat."

" I had a lengthy conversation with Dwinelle, in which he ad-
mitted that he and other Regents had been opposed to Professor
Carr ; but since the investigation of the University matters
before the Committee at Sacramento, he and other Regents were
fully satisfied with him, believing that the cause of the difficulty
and disaffection was found in Professor Swinton. While he ad-
mitted the justice of the bill, he thought that enough had beeu
said and done for one session. I replied that too much had al-
ready been said and done, and that he was one of the active
parties : that he had threatened to a member of the Committee
on Education that Carr had to go out — meaning, as understood,
that the Chair of Agriculture would be vacated. I further stat-
ed, that the people, the Committee of Investigation from both
Houses, as well as the Committee on Education were not satisfied
with the management of the University, and especially with the
Agricultural Department ; therefore the proposed plan to select
Regents representing the various callings and interests of the
State. He replied, " We now understand things better than we
did, and I pledge you my word on my own behalf and on the
behalf of the Board of Regents, that no attempt shall be made
to remove the Professor of Agriculture only for such causes as
would remove a Professor from any Chair." My reply was,
"Judge, if you feel free to say that this pledge shall be faithfully
kept, the friends of the bill will not urge it ; if not, the bill will
pass in less than one hour." Said the Judge, " I feel free to say
that this pledge shall be kept." I replied, " I hope it will, not
only for the benefit of the Agricultural Department of the Uni-
versity, but for the credit of the Regents."

" In a few moments after this conversation with Regent Dwinelle,
Alfred A. Cohen of Alameda sent for me, wishing an interview
with me on the same subject, viz : Professor Carr and the Chair
of Agriculture. Our conversation was very much like that be-


tween myself and Kegent Dwinelle. He said he was prepared
to say to me that the pledge made by Dwinelle should be faith-
fully kept, in case the friends of the new bill would not urge
it. My reply was, "Omnia justicia." So the friends of the bill,
thinking that the results contemplated therein, viz : justice to
Professor Carr, and a more careful consideration of the College
of Agriculture, would be secured by the action of the Kegents
under these pledges, concluded not to urge it, predicating their
action on the pledges made by the gentlemen just named."


While these questions were pending I received, between the
months of December and April, several urgent requests from
Commissioner Watts, of the Agricultural Department, at
Washington for the necessary information to fill the report from
our State for the general account of the Industrial Colleges in
his forthcoming volume. The two first I gave or sent to the
President and so stated to the Commissioner. The third said :
" I have written to President Grillman and received no reply."
Still more important were the questions sent by Congress through
the Chairman of the Committee on Education and Labor, James

State what is the total value of the property of your institution.
State the cost of each building and the uses to which it is put.
State from what fund, national or other, each building has been paid for.
State what amount has been expended from the years 1862-1874, inclusive,
for —

An an experimental farm — class "A."

A machine shop — class " B."
State what, under class "A," has been the total expenditure for actual instruc"
tion in —

Branches relating to agriculture.

Theory and Practice of Agriculture,

Chemistry applied to Agriculture.

Botany, Horticulture and Forestry.

Animal Physiology, Zoology and Breeding of Animals.

Veterinary practice.

Economic Entomology and insects injurious to vegetation

Field surveying, leveling, and mathematics pertaining thereto.


Geology, general and agriculture.

English language.

Physics and Natural Philosophy.

Moral Philosophy.

American and Modern History.

Social and Sanitary Science.
State under class "B," what is the total expenditure for actual instruction in
branches relating to the mechanic^ arts, as follows :

Dynamical engineering.

Mechanical engineering.

Theory and practice of machine construction.


Mathematics applied to machine construction.
Mechanical draughting,
^ree hand industrial drawing.

chemistry applied to manufacturing, mining and metallurgy.
tLysics and natural philosphy.
Building and architecture.
Mining processes and methods.
State what you have for necessary equipment in branches relating to agricul-
ture, viz :

' Fine stock, implements and machinery, models, veterinary, surveying and
; leveling instruments, etc., etc.

Stat* the annual and total investments on account of your experimental farm
and machine shops.

The Professors have also been called upon to state what
amount of instruction and expenditure is bestowed upon branches
other than those of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts in the sever-
al institutions ; the names, titles, duties and salaries of President
and each Professor; what is the amount of income derived from
donations and legacies ; the total income, number of students,
and number in each course ; subsequent occupation of students
as far as known ; and, finally, " Has your institution in good
faith performed all the conditions and requirements of the statute
of July, 1862, and the Acts supplementary thereto ? If not,
state for what cause," etc. As I could not state "for what
cause " — having no knowledge of the real state of the finances,
and the Regents having given want of means as the only reason
for delay, 1 referred the Congressional questions to them. I
have since been informed that no satisfactory replies were made.
The questions indicate what the National Government expected
the Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges to do and teach.

During this time, my old colleagues in the efforts to secure the
original grant were writing from Missouri, Wisconsin and Illinois,
urging me to help in procuring the proposed new benefaction.
Though I felt that we were not meeting reasonable expectations.
I was unable to prove it, the Regents contradictory and
self-condemning statements not having then appeared. Hence, I
left it with the Regents to clear or convict themselves before the
Legislatures of the State and Nation, hoping by this course
not to jeopardize the appropriations from either source, or to
fail in giving the Regents the benefit of every doubt.


The Legislature appropriated $50,000 for the current expen-
ses of the two following years, and $30,000 for the practical
development of the Agricultural and Mechanical Departments.
After the adjournment, Mr. Moulder resigned the office of Sec-
retary and became Land Agent. The law requires that " a


practical agriculturist must be chosen by the Board." R. E. C.
Stearns, an estimable gentleman and scientist of San Francisco,
late Clerk of the Harbor Commission, was chosen at Mr. Fried-
landers urgent request. A vacancy occurring in the Board, D. 0.
Mills, late President of the Bank of California, was appointed by
Governor Booth, though Mr. Ralston, President of the Bank and
Treasurer of the University, was already a member. The other
vacancies occurring during the year were filled by Governor Booth
in the appointments of J. Mora Moss, whose term of service will
be twenty-two years ; J. W. Winans and J. M. Hamilton. Upon
the adjournment of the Legislature, Mr. Higbei, late Chairman
of the Educational Committee, called upon and informed me
that my way had been made straight by the action of the Com-
mittee, and that no further obstructions would be made to the
progress of the Agricultural Department. I therefore sent
another communication to the Board, with respect to gardener,
etc., as follows :

University of California, April 6tb, 1874.

Gentlemen of the Board of Regents, I see from the "Statement of the Board
of Regents (page 68) that on the removal to Berkeley, the sum of $600 was placed
at the disposal of the Professor of Agriculture to secure the aid of competent
experts as occasional lecturers during the year, as this is the only intimation I
have ever received of this action, I would respectfully ask for further information,
and especially whether it is desired to have such lectures given during the present
collegiate year."

Allow me to state that the services of a competent gardener, and of a very well
trained assistant for general work in gardening are at command whenever the
Board are ready to authorize the prosecution of the work discontinued last year:
If the grounds for practical operations, propagating house, etc., have been loca-
ted, I have not been informed of it. Valuable seeds have been sent from European
Agricultural Stations, which will be worthless unless ussd the present season. It
is very desirable to obtain for experiment a few of the more valuable timber
trees of the east, and this is the proper time for sending them. I should be grati-
fied to have the ground immediately contiguous to the agricultural or south
college building prepared for ornamental planting, (that being the only point
where waler can now be commanded) in such manner as will not obstruct the view
or require after modification. Nothing will grow in the drift material with
which the original surface has been covered to the depth of several feet, except
the coarsest weed.8.

"I have received from the Chairman of the Committee on Education and
Labor," in the House of Representatives a request for a statement of our condi-
tion and progress in practical operations, and from other sources we are informed
that a Congressional Committee will probably visit all the institutions which have
received the benefit of the grant of the National Government sometime during the
summer. Wishing to make as good a showing as possible, and realizing that
the working season is nearly over for this year, I will make no apology for asking
early attention to these subjects on the part of the Board."

Respectfully yours, E. S. CARR.




( University of California,
I San Francisco, April 17th, 1874.
Ezra S. Can', Dear Sir . — The Committee to whom was referred your recent
communication to the Board of Regents, would like to have you give them in
writing some additional data, in order that they may be able in the most complete
and satisfactory way to bring the subject of Agricultural Education before the
Board. First. — Will you give them your plan for out-door work — stating it in
as much detail as possible so the Board may understand just what you would like
to see done when the outlays you ask for are authorized. Second. — Will you
state what improvements if any you would like to see made in the indoor instruc-
tions pertaining to Agriculture. Third. — Will you suggest the names of persona
whom you would like to have secured as lecturers in the special cultures to which
you have referred. In your reply you need not feel restricted in space — but
rather at liberty to open the whole subject as freely as possible. The communi-
cation of any printed documents on the subject of Agricultural Education else-
where will be acceptable to the Committee, and especially some facts respecting
Agricultural Experimental stations in Europe. The Committee will meet again
on Tuesday morning when it is important to receive your reply. The Board
has received the communication which you refer to from Washington, and pro-
pose to make an answer to it. Respectfully yours,

ROBERT E. C. STEARNS, Secretary.

This application for information, and printed documents on
the subject of Agricultural Education to an incompetent party,
by those who know so well what Agricultural Education is at
home and abroad, and who as stated, by Governors Booth and
Haight on the 11th inst., had decided "long ago " to remove said
party, was promptly answered.

Oakland, September 19th, 1874.
R. E. C. STEARNS, Secretary of Board of Regents.
Yours of the 17th inst. is received. In reply I would say that very careful
detailed studies were made of the entire University domain with reference to its
capacity for Agricultural and Horticultural purposes, in the year 1870 and 1S71,
in which I was assisted by Elisha Lewelling, Mr. Hart Hyatt, and other special
culturists whose long experience on this coast and great success entitle them to be
considered authorities on these subjects. The lands then owned by the Uni-
versity and afterwards sold to Mrs. Brayton were regarded as well adapted to the
purposes of an experimental station or farm on account of the sheltered position,
water supply, etc. Mr. Lewelling was then a member of the Legislature, and
believed it practicable through public and private donations to bring the Univer-
sity domain up to six hundred acres, "little enough " as he expressed it, " for a
great State like California." He and many others with whom I conversed about
the Agricultural College looked to the enlargement of the domain as necessary."
"The plans and studies referred to, including the kind of soil, exposure, drain-
age, etc., of this and contiguous parcels of land were necessary preliminaries to
intelligent work, if we should carry out the principles which have generally
been adopted elsewhere. I did not consider that we had land enough to carry
on stock raising to any great extent, but was satisfied that with that exception,
we could do all that is essential to a thorough Agricultural education on the
property then owned by the University. After the sale of the portion lying up
and along Strawberry Creek, and the death of Mr. Lewelling, my efforts were
chiefly directed to carrying forward the Horticultural and experimental work ;
on a smaller scale and mainly to the following points. [See Appendix, a.]


First. — A specimen orchard, (see my communications to the Board of Regents
1870 and 1871,) and also the enclosed statement of School of Horticulture of
Illinois Industrial University.

I "wished this orchard to display all the various methods of training trees, as
standards, or on espaliers and supports, and to have it contain one or more speci-
mens of every kind of fruit or nut which can be grown in our climate without
artificial heat. Second. — A Garden of Economic Botany, in which a few
specimens of all useful plants shomld be arranged as in one section of the Garden
of Plants at Paris, i. e., according to their uses as dyes, textiles, medicines, etc.,
(an excellent description of this is given in Robinson "s Parks and Gardens of
Paris.) I have received lists of these plants from Professor Milne-Edwards, the
director in chief. Third. — An Arboretum,, and Botanic Garden which while for-
ming a part of the ornamental planting, would also form a grand collection of trees
and shrubs, like that to which Dr. Grey of Harvard College is now giving his exclu-
sive care, and to which one hundred acres of the most valuable property is devoted.
I would have the aboretum so arranged and catalogued that the visitor or student
could go through it as through a piciure gallery, determing the rate of growth,
uses and other important facts concerning each species. Fourth. — To make a be-
ginning in Forestry, by rehabilitating the hill land, as soon as a water supply is
provided. By putting in Redwood and Fir trees near the reservoir and distribu-
ting points, and enlarging from these centers year by year we should be able to
re-clothe the hills without continued irrigation. The grounds allotted to these
purposes should not be obstruded upon more ornamental portions, but they should
be convenient of access both to students and visitors. I shall greatly regret, if
the requirements of an "Educational Park" prevent the adoption of plans
which I have previously submitted, not because they are mine "but because they
embody the views of the highest authorities in practical and aesthetic horticul-
ture, which I have been at great pains to obtain. Messrs. Wilder, Downing, Ell-
wanger and Barry of Rochester, Mr. Robinson of the "Garden" and many
other experts, Patrick Quinn, the most successful small fruit cnlturist in the
country, have each given to me on the spot, the benefit of their judgement and
experience. With entire unanimity ', the grounds on both sides of both ravines,
including from two to three acres above their confluence, (leaving a chance for
the future excavation of a small lake or pond at thai 'point) down to the west line
of the domain, has been considered as the best adapted to Agricultural and Hor-
ticultural work. Nearly all the parties referred to have suggested the desirable-
ness of enlarging our borders in a westerly direction. If roads of importance
must traverse this part of the domain, I would conceal by plantations the ruder
and more experimental plots, orchards and gardens would need no other conceal-
ments than enclosing hedges, which I would have exhibit all our best hedge
plants, native and foreign. One of the most beautiful objects in California is the
wild Cherry hedge of Mr. Wheeler of San Mateo, now fifteen feet high . Such
hedges, following by curved lines the natural divisions uf the surface could not
mar the general effect. So of avt-nues of walnut, olive or fig trees. The exact
permanent location of grounds for these purposes, as well as those more strictly
Agrcultural, having been determined by the Board, the work I would recom-
mend for the next two years would be as follows :

First. — The immediate organizntion of a students labor corps into two divisi-
ons. First. — The Educational division, where the labor is applied directly in
connection with Agricultural and Horticultural instruction. And Second. —
The Remunerative division, employed in grading and such work as has hitherto
been employed at a cost of from lour to six thousand dollars per annum. Both
these divisions should be enrolled for regular work, not to be remitted without
excuse, either for two hours a day, or four hours on alternate days, (see docu-

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Online LibraryEzra S. (Ezra Slocum) CarrThe University of California and its relations to industrial education : as shown by Prof. Carr's reply to the grangers and mechanics; Prof. Swinton's testimony before the Legislature; the new education, by Columella; memorial to the Legislature by joint committee of the state grange and mechanics → online text (page 4 of 13)