Ezra S. (Ezra Slocum) Carr.

The University of California and its relations to industrial education : as shown by Prof. Carr's reply to the grangers and mechanics; Prof. Swinton's testimony before the Legislature; the new education, by Columella; memorial to the Legislature by joint committee of the state grange and mechanics online

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Online LibraryEzra S. (Ezra Slocum) CarrThe University of California and its relations to industrial education : as shown by Prof. Carr's reply to the grangers and mechanics; Prof. Swinton's testimony before the Legislature; the new education, by Columella; memorial to the Legislature by joint committee of the state grange and mechanics → online text (page 5 of 13)
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ment of other colleges) and to be performed under the Superintendence of the
Agricultural Professor and Gardener in the one case, of the Secretary or other
responsible officers in the other. For each dsy's work the student should receive
a check to be paid on presentation to the Secretary at the end of the month or


Second. — I wonld have all the land assigned for Agricultural and Horticultural
purposes ploughed deeply and well, this spring, for eradication of weeds, and of
gophers and squirrels who destroyed last year more than it would cost to exter-
minate them. I would have this ploughing repeated in the fall, using such
fertilizers ns may be advisable, preliminary to the permanent orchard work.

Third. — T would have the propagating house already provided for, put up in
connection with the farm-house, in case the latter is occupied by the Professor of
Agriculture, for the sake of economy and protection. I would have both these
erected as soon as practicable. The plan of farm-house submitted last year to
Messrs. Tower and Ough, they estimated to cost $4,000. House, small barn and
fence for barn yard to cost $4,500.

Fourth. — The Educational labor corps I would first employ in finishing and
planting the border around the Agricultural College, that it may be completed
before Comencement. Then, in laying out beds, walks, etc., in Economic gar-
den and in work on orchard ground. I would have a hundred thousand seed-
lings and cuttings prepared for use another year. The other labor corps I would
employ in grubbing out poison oak, in grading, clearing out grounds along the
banks, care of present plantations, road work etc., in the mechanical work
of making gates, rustic bridges, fences, etc., thus making these two departments
complement each other.

Fifth. — I would put a narrow coping of brick or artificial stone (a good specimen
of which may be seen at Mr. Spaulding's place, in Oakland,) laid around the
Agricultural College, within which I would have a variety of choice bedding
plants. As soon as the grading is finished, I would have the ornamental plant-
ing around both edifices pushed with vigor, water being accessible at these
points. I would" have preparation made for sowing a lawn of moderate extent,
at the proper season.

Sixth. — I would employ Robert Turnbull as gardtner as soon as his services can
be obtiined, and Wm. Brennan as laborer, forthwith. I would employ no other
work of outsiders, except for teaming and ploughing as a temporary expedient.

In respect to indoor instruction, I would like to have Dr. Wm. Gibbons, of
Alameda, give from four to six lectures on insects injurious to vegetation, this
term; also to secure (later,) two lectures from Mr. Livingston Stoue, on Fish
Culture in California, and two from Dr. John Strentzel, of Martinez, on the
culture of the Orange and the Fig. One or more from Prof. Bolander, on Indi-
genous Grasses would be very acceptable. This would do for the present year.

Next year, in addition to the foregoing, we ought to have six lectures on
Vineyard culture and wine making, and a short c turse on Veterinary Science.
I am not prepared to suggest names, but will do so, hereafter, if desired.

We ought also to have instruction in Descriptive Botany, from some one
familiar with the Flora of this coast, and I feel assured, that with this and the
special lectures provided for, and the holding of a Farmers' Institute, we shall
create a warm interest in the Agricultural community and increase the number
of students.

I enclose the last pamphlet from Illinois Industrial University, the Massa-
chusetts Agricultural College, plans of grounds and a copy of the last Depart-
ment report. Also, a request now made for the fourth time from said Depart-

It is certain that Agricultural Stations do not obviate the neceasity of Agricul-
tural Colleges, on the broad bases of that at Hohenheim, Wurtemberg, (see p.
144 of Dr. Hoyi's enclosed report,) or of Illinois and Massachusetts Agricultural
Colleges in our own country, but meet load demands for both experiments and
instruction. They are becoming more and more specially related to local indus-
tries, such as the beet sugar, for instance. (There are forty stations in Germany
for beet sugar alone,) I hope we may see three or four such stations on this
coast, connected with wine, silk, and sugar manufactories, and I hope to demon-
strate their utility in our University work.

Regretting that time does not permit me to gather more information for your
immediate use, I remain Very cordially yours, EZRA S. CARR.


This communication was accompained by a carefully prepared
agricultural and horticultural map of the grounds, with estimates
of the cost of farm building, out-houses, implements, team,
materials, labor, etc., limited by the legislative appropriation for
these purposes as follows :

Building and outhouses, exclusive of prorogating house $5,500 to $6,500

Team and implements 1,500 to 2,000

Stock for garden and grounds 1,000 to 2,000

Labor of all kinds for Agricultural, Horticultnral and Botanical
purposes, including gardeners', students' and other labor,

exclusive of grading roads 6,000 to 8.000

Incidentals '. 1,000 to 1.500

$15,000 $20,000
It will be remembered that the Legislative appropriation for
practical purposes was $30,000. Had the mechanical labor of
students been employed on buildings and propagating houses, as
recommended, the above estimates would have been sufficient,
in case either the larger or smaller total expenditure was reached.
A few days later Mr. Ellis of Sacramento, was appointed gar-
dener, with a salary of $125 and a promise of increase, a matter
about which I had not been consulted, and the Secretary after-
wards informed me that he was expected to take charge of the
agricultural and horticultural work ubon the grounds, thus
relegating my work to the class room and the duties of my rov-
ing commission.


From that time until commencement I heard nothing further
from the Regents. There has never been the slightest discension
among the Professors. Between some of them and President
Gilman a coolness existed, natural for men to feel who were
aware of his secret efforts to remove them, but he has ever been
considerered more an officer of the Eegents than of the Faculty.
At his invitation I breakfasted with him on the morning of Com-
mencement day, without an intimation of any contemplated
changes in the Agricultural Department. The next afternoon,
July 23d, he took part in a meeting of the Regents, secret of
course, at which it was resolved to establish eight agricultural
lectureships, to be filled by four experts within the State and
four from the East. The sum of $5,000 was appropriated to
defray the expenses. A Student's Loan Fund was also establish-
ed. Mr. Stebbins then proposed to vacate or abolish the Chair of
Agriculture, which, being strongly objected to by the new Re-
gent, J. M. Hamilton, Master of the State Grange, was dropped
for the time and another resolution substituted requesting me to
resign. The following morning President Gilman left for the


East. Eight days after, the Secretary informed me of this action
in the following communication :

Prof. E. S. Carr: — At an informal meeting of the following members of the
Board of Regents, July 23, your resignation was requested by the Regents,
whose names are given below :

Booth, Hallidie, Mills, Winans,

Dwinelle, Stebbins, Martin, Swipt,

Moss, Haight, Gilman.

Nay, Hamilton.
And I was requested to communicate the same to you.

ROBT. E. C. STEARNS, Secretary.
Oakland, July 31, 1874.

The Seretary also verbally informed me that if this request was
complied with, my salary would be paid for the next three

Where the line of formality ceases in a meeting in whicn so
much important business is transacted, it is as difficult to under-
stand as it is the "well meant courtesy" of attempting summarily
to vacate a chair, and failing in that, to force a resignation. I
requested an investigation, the preferment of charges, etc.,
through Regent Felton, and placed my reply in his hands, as
follows :

To the Honorable Regents of the University of California — Gentlemen : I
have received, through your Secretary, the copy of a vote taken at an informal
meeting of Regents Booth, Stebbins, Hallidie, Haight, Swift, Winans, Mills,
Moss, Martin, Dwinelle and President Gilman, requesting my resignation and
the negative vote of Regent Hamilton.

So great have been the embarrassments of my position under the inability or
disinclination of the Board to develope the Agricultural College according to
public announcements and the official programme under which I accepted the
appointment, that 1 should have resigned long ago, painful as it would have been
to sever my unexceptionably pleasant relations witn the able and harmonious
Faculty and students of the University, had I not felt a natural ambition to
leave behind me some organized work as the results of my efforts here.

I especially wished to resign during the last session of the Legislature, but the
repeated assurances of the President to myself, and the pledges of the representa-
tive members of the Board that these embarrassments should be removed, together
with the consequent appropriations for the Agricultural Department induced me
to forego my personal wish.

Having consented to remain only upon such assurances and pledges, I cannot
now become a party to an action, which, without explanation, would necessarily
reflect upon either my professional or personal character. An unquestioned repu-
tation is the only heritage I can hope to leave my children at the close of a life
devoted to instruction.

And, aside from all personal considerations, I cannot now comply with the re-
quest of the Regents named without an apparent abandonment of the cause of
industrial education. I therefore respectfully, but positively decline to offer my
resignation. Very respectfully yours,


Oakland, August 6, 1874.



A semi-officical notice of the next meeting appeared in the
daily papers of August 12th.

The Board of Kegents held a special meeting on the 11th
instant, to settle the question of the Professorship of Agricul-
ture. There were present : Governor Booth, Rev. Horatio Steb-
bins, William C. Ralston, H. H. Haight, J. Mora Moss, J. W.
Dwindle, J. West Martin, Sam Bell McKee, Louis Sachs, John
B. Felton, D. 0. Mills, M. M. Estee, John S. Hager, A. S. Halli-
die, Lawrence Archer, Judge Hamilton and John F. Swift.

The Secretary notified Professor Carr of the views entertained
by the Regents as expressed at an informal meeting held July
23d, but had not received any reply.


Mr. Stebbins then, in behalf of the Advisory Committee, con-
sisting of Messrs. Haight, Stebbins, Moss, Martin and Dwindle,
offered the following resolutions :

First. — For the purpose of giving greater efficiency to the Faculty of Instruc-
truction in the University in general and to the Agricultural Department in
particular, which is impracticable without a change in the Professorship of Agri-
culture; and in view of the incompetency and unfitness of the present incum-
bent for the duties of that chair, the Secretary is hereby directed to notify Pro-
fessor Ezra S. Carr that his services in the University will be dispensed with
from this date, but that he will be allowed his salary for the present month.

Second. — That a Special Committee of three be appointed by the Chair, to
•onsider and recommend to this Board the name of a suitable person to fill the
chair of Professor of Agriculture.

After it had been decided to act upon the resolutions separ-
ately, Mr. Haight moved the adoption of the first and a discus-
sion followed, participated in by Messrs. Dwindle, Felton, Estee,
Hamilton and others.

Mr. Hamilton declared that no specific charges had been made
against Professor Carr ; that there was only a general statement
that he was incompetent, and that his removal would be looked
upon by the farmers and mechanics of the State as a blow
aimed at the mechanical and agricultural interests.

Mr. Felton j oined Mr. Hamilton in opposing the resolution for
the same reason, and insisted that if there were charges against
him, they should be investigated.

Mr. Dwindle said that he would not vote for the removal of
Mr. Carr, because during the last session of the Legislature he
had promised members that that gentleman should not be re-
moved*. Mr. Estee said his action might seem inconsistent, but
he believed it inadvisable to remove the Professor in the present
state of public sentiment upon the subject.

Governor Haight, Governor Booth, and other Regents, de-


clared that Professor Carr's incompetency was well known to all
the Regents, and was too notorious to need any investigation ;
that his removal had been determined on long ago, and that it
would be best for him and for the University that there should
be no useless discussion or publicity.


The following substitute for the first resolution was offered by
Mr. Hallidie :

Resolved, That the Advisory Committee is hereby requested to examine into
and report to this Board any irregularities, insufficiencies or incompetencies that
may exist, or may have existed, in the administration of any department of in-
struction in the University, and if in its opinion any changes should be made.
The Committee is empowered to add to itself any additional members of the
Board, to hold its sessions with open doors or otherwise, and to adopt such meas-
ures to further the public interest as their judgment may dictate or suggest, and
to report the facts to the Board.

The substitute was defeated by a tie vote and the original
resolution was then adopted by the following vote : Ayes —
Regents Booth, Mills, Winans, Stebbins, Archer, Martin, McKee,
Swift, Moss, Ralston and Haight. Noes — Regents Estee, Halli-
die, Dwindle, Sachs, Felton and Hamilton. Excused — Regent
Hagar. Absent — Regents Pacheco, Bolander, Carey, Bowie
and Grilman.

Regent Hamilton then offered a protest against the removal of
Professor Oarr, embodying the objection he had urged in his
speech, and requested that the same be placed on record. It
was as follows :

I protest against the summary removal of Prof. Carr at this time.

First. — Because such removal will be in direct violation of pledges made by
friends of the University to the House Committee on Education of the last Leg-

Second. — I believe such an act is in opposition to the wishes of a large class of
the friends of the University, viz., the agriculturists and mechanics of Califor-
nia, and will go far to confirm the belief that the vacating of the Chair of Pro-
fessor of Agriculture at this time is more to gratify personal feeling than to sub-
serve the public interest.

Third. — Because such removal will have the effect of strengthening opposition
to the present management and give color to the charge now so openly preferred.
That the President and Regents are striving to build up a purely literary institu-
tion at Berkley a.t the expense of the agricultural and mechanical interests, and
are thus diverting the University from the original purpose for which it was
formed, by either ignoring entirely or making those objects secondary which the
organic act declared should be primary ones.

Fourth. — Because the summary dismissal of any Professor of the University
for alleged incompetency, without first granting the accused the privilege of a
hearing, and an opportunity to defend himself from the charges made against
him, is demoralizing in its tendency, and is not in accordance with the principles
of right and equity which should ever prevail in the management of the institu-
tion. J. M. HAMILTON

The Regents refused to receive it. A respectful, yet firm and
pointed protest was also presented from a Joint Committee of


nine, representing the State Grange, the Mechanics' State Coun-
cil and Mechanics' Deliberative Assembly. In the interval be-
tween the two meetings many respectable organizations had
passed condemnatory resolutions, and the newspapers, religious
and secular, had with almost entire unanimity voiced the popu-
lar sentiment with regard to the proposed action.


The falsehood contained in the resolution offered by Rev.
Eegent Stebbins is only equaled by its malignity. That the
Board should retreat behind the insinuation that it were " best
for me that there should be no useless publicity," though I had
asked for an investigation, was no surprise, for it was the line
adopted in Professor Fisher's case. It is the common policy of
cowardice to stab in the dark. Timely warning had been been
sent me from the East by parties to whom they had applied for
information, which they hoped might help to justify their action
with the public. They had even requested such information to
be telegraphed, so great was their need.


That Governor Booth should turn his back upon the men who
elected him, and tho principles he had professed to favor, was
consistent with his past history.

During the canvas for Governor he spoke warmly for the Un-
versity to the citizens of Oakland. That object attained, he
opposed the necessary appropriations for buildings, but the
measure was carried in spite of the " crack of the executive
whip," as Senator Tompkins expressed it. (See Senate Proceed-
ings in Sacramento Union, April 1st, 1872.)

He was severe in his criticisms on the administration and ex-
travagance of the Regents. He defeated the election of Regent
Tompkins to the Presidency and secured that of his obsequious
follower, Gilman, who he will doubtless drop as readily when-
ever his interest requires it. When Governor Booth was
inaugurated, Governor Haight urgently requested the attendance
of the University cadets to give eclat to the occasion, and help
to secure those very appropriations, but no hint was given as to
the way in which the expenses of the trip were to be met. The
Faculty voted the students leave of absence on condition that
$500 could be raised to defray the expenses of the battalion. No
money being obtained, at the last moment I gave President Du-
rant my check for that amount. A few weeks later, on the visit
of the Legislative Committee, they and the Regents were sumpt-
uously entertained at Blaise's and Tubbs' Hotel, at the expense


of the University. (See Mr. Moulder's testimony before the In-
vestigating Committee, 1873-4.) That


Was forced to resort to the desperate threat made to Regent
Swift, that unless he (Swift) would vote against me, he (Haight)
would resign, did not susprise me, for Governor Haight, through
his appointments, is responsble for the present condition of
things. The powers of the Regents have been more and more
centralized from the beginning, every vacancy, with a single ex-
ception, being filled with the personal friends or business
associates of the Regents. Those cunning provisions of the
Organic Act, which enabled him to dispense with confirmations,
and by which " no member of the Board of Regents of the
University shall be deemed a public officer by virtue of such
membership, or required to take any oath of office ; but his em-
ployment as such shall be held and deemed exclusively a private
trust," (See Organic Act, Section 11,) could hardly have escaped
his observation.

The recent presentation by Governor Haight of " Our Uni-
versity " at the Yale College Commencement shows plainly
enough that the aim of the Regents has not been to execute the
noble purposes of Congress and the State, but still further to
enlarge and concentrate their own powers. The skillful manipu-
lation of and changes in the Organic Act and laws relating to
the University, such as making the President a voting member
of the Board, conferring upon it the power of removing Profess-
ors at pleasure, which changes were effected by Governor Booth's
Code examiner, Regent Dwindle, are sufficient illustrations.

The managing Regents, known as the Advisory Committee,
are not for the first time on the defensive. They were deeply
and equally implicated, and President Gilman with them, in
whatever " informalities " or irregularities attended the construc-
tion of the College of Letters. They are equally responsible
for the sale of the agricultural farm and other landed property
at Berkeley, and for the use of the funds in speculative enter-


That Mr. Dwindle felt himself committed to an offensive
neutrality did not surprise me, nor will it the Legislative Com-
mittees, who were acquainted with the damaging reasons which
made such pledges necessary in his case.

That honorable men in the Board, personally unacquainted
with me, should lend themselves to an act of almost unparallel-
ed injustice in the history of public institutions, is to be accounted


for only on the theory that they are ignorant of the facts and
acting upon false information. Of those members who urged an
investigation into the true reasons for this action, and whose re-
jected resolution furnishes sufficient evidence of their uprightness,
it can only be said that they did what they could. The only
member of that Board who ever held a College office, and whose
honored name is known through the world of letters, has most
earnestly resisted these arbitrary measures. They had, unfor-
tunately, placed too much power in the hands of the President,
a person without experience in Government, without knowledge,
interest or sympathy in industrial education, and who had ob-
tained a recognized position among the obstructionists. They
would be the first to see the absurdity of asking a Board of Far-
mers and Mechanics to control the affairs of a law school. Yet
they have opposed the admission into their body of any repre-
sentatives from the classes the foundation was primarily intended
to benefit. There are plenty of men in those classes who are
the peers of the Regents in intellectual ability. The Board of
Regents, as at present constituted, is an anomaly in the history
of democratic institutions. It is virtually a self- perpetuating
close corporation, managing a property already worth more than
a million dollars, commanding an important and constantly in-
creasing political influence. Already the skillful dispensing of-
patronage has made itself felt at Berkeley. What it may be-
come in the future requires no illustration.


In no institution with which I have been connected or have
any knowledge, is the position of the Faculty so depreciated,
ignoble and insecure. No talents, however eminent, no zeal or
ability however tried, can count as an element of success where
there is a secret policy to be maintained which the teacher is ig-
norant of. Every Professor wishes to keep his department
abreast of the time, and should feel at liberty in the employ-
ment of means and methods of which he is the best judge. The
Faculty of our University have been working in the dark, es-
pecially those engaged in scientific instruction. When Professor
Rising was appointed to the Professorship of Mining and Metal-
lurgy it was reasonable to suppose it meant instruction in those
branches — the possible practical opening of the College of Mines.
But when he arrived, Regent Stebbins had written to him that he
was not expected to give instruction in mining or metallurgy,
and, as my appointment as Professor of Chemistry had never
been revoked, we were in doubt what position it was expected he
would fill. We could only understand this : That there was


one policy presented to the public and another quite different
policy, never plainly expressed, which was directing the educa-
tional features of the institution.

The former President had no seat in the Board, and no re-
sponsibility in determining its action.

It is no singular that the Regents should wish to exchange
my services for those of a stranger to the events herein narrated.
I came to California to study its industries with a view to em-
ploying the information thus gained in another field.

My letters of introduction presented to Governor Haight, Mr.

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Online LibraryEzra S. (Ezra Slocum) CarrThe University of California and its relations to industrial education : as shown by Prof. Carr's reply to the grangers and mechanics; Prof. Swinton's testimony before the Legislature; the new education, by Columella; memorial to the Legislature by joint committee of the state grange and mechanics → online text (page 5 of 13)