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F. A. (Frank Albert) Waugh.

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IRLF




BORING-MARKET



F.-A. WAUGH



LIBRARY



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



Class



I



.
FRUIT HARVESTING

STORING, MARKETING



OTHER BOOKS BY THE
SAME AUTHOR : : :

LANDSCAPE
GARDENING



PLUMS AND
PLUM CULTURE



,



FRUIT HARVESTING
STORING, MARKETING



A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE PICK-
ING, SORTING, PACKING, STORING,
SHIPPING, AND MARKETING OF
FRUIT : : : : : : : : : .



BY

F. A. WAUGH




ILLUSTRATED



NEW YORK

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY
1908




utNtrtML



COPYRIGHT
NINETEEN HUNDRED AND ONB

BY
F. A. WAUGH



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PART ONE THE FRUIT MARKET

PAGE

I. The Two Markets 4

II. The Market Problems 6

III. Commission Men 8

IV. The Foreign Market 12

V. Selling Associations Pools 17

VI. The Home Market 22

VII. Production and Price 25

VIII. Utilization of Wastes 31

PART Two PICKING

I. Time to Pick -. 43

II. Picking Receptacles 46

III. Stems On or Off 47

IV. Conveniences and Inconveniences 48

V. Managing Pickers 52

PART THREE GRADING AND PACKING

I. The Practice of Grading 60

II. What is First-grade Fruit? 61

III. The Designation of Grades 63

IV. Sorting Tables 65

V. Good Judgment in Grading . . . ' . . .66

VI. Filling the Package 67

PART FOUR THE FRUIT PACKAGE

I. The American Fruit Package . . . . . -73

II. The Apple Barrel .......... 74

III. Berry Packages ......... 77

IV. 'The Grape Basket 79

V. Peach Packages 80

VI. Apples in Boxes 83

VII. Other Fruits and Packages 86

vii



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

VIII. Summary of Packages 88

IX. Wrapping Fruits 89

X. Marks on Packages = 89

PART FIVE FRUIT STORAGE

I. Requirements 95

II. Systems of Storage 97

III. Handling the Fruit 109

IV. Temperatures no

V. Grape Storage 112

VI.' Storing Vegetables 114

VII. Storage in Pits 117

VIII. Storage in "Dugouts" or "Caves" . . . 121

IX. Mr. T. L. Kinney's House 124

X. A Canadian Fruit House 128

XI. Professor Alwood's Storage House. . . . 131

XII. A Nova Scotia House 138

XIII. Mr. T. B. Wilson's House 141

XIV. Mrs. L. E. Allen's Storage House .... 144
XV. Notes on Various Storage Houses .... 146

XVI. Design for Simple Lean-to Storage . . . 155

XVII. Design for Commodious Hillside Storage . . 157

XVIII. Design for a Thousand-barrel Storage House . 161

XIX. Special Design for Arthur H. Hill . . . .165

PART Six APPENDIX

I. Imports and Exports of Fruits, United States . 171

II. Exports of Apples from Canada .... 175

III. State Fruit-package Laws 176

IV. Apple Shippers' Rules 186

V. The National League of Commission Merchants

of the United States 189

VI. Commission Charges ....... 206

VII. Shipment in Refrigerator Cars 206

VIII. The Apple Crop and Market 212

IX. The Cranberry Crop 217

X. Handling Southern Grapes 220

INDEX 223



PART ONE

The Fruit Market



OF THE

UNIVERSITY^

F %S



THE FRUIT MARKET



IT is of prime importance that the man who ex-
pects to grow fruit for sale shall understand the fruit
market and its requirements. For this reason the
discussion of picking, grading, packing, storing, ship-
ping, etc., may be postponed until this more funda-
mental matter has been investigated. When one
knows where his fruit is going and what is to be ex-
pected of it, he can the more intelligently prepare to
meet the needs and the whims of his customers.

Fruit growing for market has increased enormously
in extent, and has greatly advanced in its methods
during the past twenty years. At the present time it
employs vast sums of capital, furnishes a liveli-
hood to armies of men, and yields, on the whole,
tremendous profits.

The most characteristic development of the fruit
industry in the United vStates has been along the lines
of the wholesale trade, the peculiarities of which are
set forth below. At the present time it is unquestion-
ably true that America leads the world in the produc-
tion of fruit in large quantities and in the perfection
with which this fruit is distributed to distant points.

The fruit business in general in the United States



2 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

has increased in much greater proportion than other
agricultural industries. The following figures, show-
ing the percentage of increase in total production of
various agricultural crops in the United States between
1850 and 1897, are compiled from a chart in Fairchild's
Rural Wealth and Welfare : *

PER CENT INCREASE

Oats 551 Tobacco 313

Wheat 465 Rye 198

Hay 376 Buckwheat .... 163

Corn 557 Sweet potatoes . . 112

Cotton 355 Sugar 101

Potatoes 331 Rice 60

Butter 323 Barley .... 1,506

Fruits .... 2,000

The increase of total population in the country dur-
ing the same period was 270 per cent.

But while the increased production of fruit in the
United States as a whole has been thus enormous, it
has been proportionately still greater in the recog-
nized fruit sections. Fifty years ago there were no
fruit sections. Now there are neighborhoods prac-
tically given up to the growing of strawberries, other
localities engaged almost exclusively in peach culture,
and still other communities in which the apple is the
staple crop. In the eastern states, near the large
cities and in the neighborhood of manufacturing
towns, the progress of the fruit growing industry is



* Fairchild, Rural Wealth and Welfare, u. New York, 1900.



THE FRUIT MARKET 3

something marvelous. The following statistics * show
something of the trend of agricultural affairs in
M assachusetts :

VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY IN MASSACHUSETTS
COMPARISON OF 1885 WITH l8g5



CLASSIFICATION


Total value
1885


Total value
1895


/Vr /

increase
or decrease


Total property . . .


$216


,230,


550


$219


,957


,214


4- i.


72


Land


no


700


7O7


no


,271


,850


Q


OQ


Machines, implements,




, / ^"-'i


/ vy /






> ^0 V






etc .


7


,-107,


QQO


8


,128


.0^1


4- Q.


.87


Build insfs


/

74


1 O\7 1 >


W

218


77




y *-*J *


\ V - *

-4- 4-71


Domestic animals, etc. .


/ ^
17


,055-


153


/ /
14


,854


,417


I *T* / *

12.90


Fruit-trees and vines .


6


,658,


482


7


,924


,878


+ 19'


02



VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN MASSACHUSETTS
COMPARISON OF 1885 WITH 1895



CLASSIFICATION


Total value

1885


Total value
1895


/*^r ri /

increase
or deer ease


Total products ....


$47


,756,


033


$52


,880


,431


+


10.73


Dairy products . . .


13


,080,


526


16


,234,049 +


24.11


Hay, straw, and fodder .


n


,631,


776


12


,491


,090


-(-


7-39


Cereals


_


g-_


j .-


I


IO4


578





4O.46


Fruits, berries, and nuts


2


.252,


748


2


,850


> D i v

,585


-f


T^ T^

6.33


Vegetables


c


227,


IQ4


6


^80


ro


-f


22.24


Nursery products . . .


j


, ** / ,
138,


* VT"

439




182


^906




32.12


Hothouse and hotbed


















products




7^


083




07


,227


-f


31.42


Greenhouse products




688,


V J

813


I


V /

,749


,070




153.92



Inasmuch as the development of a fruit growing



* Census of Massachusetts, 1895, pp. 331-333- Massachusetts Bureau of
Statistics and I^abor. Boston, 1899.



4 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

industry is oftenest confined to a comparatively small
locality or a single neighborhood, the statistics of
smaller territories would be more instructive than the
statistics of an entire state. Take, for example, the
statistics of Plymouth County, Mass., drawn from
the same source as the figures compiled above:

VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN PLYMOUTH COUNTY,
MASS. COMPARISON OF 1885 WITH 1895



CLASSIFICATION


Total value
1885


Total value
1895


JT cr tern.

increase
or decrease


Total products ....


$2,343,878


$3,241,023


+ 38-28


Dairy products ....


585,017


731,869


+ 20.09


Hothouse and hotbed .


1,805


1,877


+ 3-99


Greenhouse products


8,833


28,845


+ 226.56


Nursery products . . .


9,358


21,696


+ 131-84


Fruits, berries, and nuts


172,144


694,984


+ 303-72


Cereals


51,820


20,887


50.60


Hay, straw, and fodder


506,775


626,762


3 V V
+ 22.68



I. THE TWO MARKETS

The fruit markets of the United States may be
divided rather sharply into two classes. The first of
these may be called the indirect, general, or wholesale
market. The second may be distinguished as the
direct, special, or retail market. The two are very
different in almost all their characteristics, and these
differences are of inevitable weight to the fruit
grower. Wherefore it will be profitable here to set
forth these distinctions with the strongest and most
convenient antithesis. The two markets differ, then,
in the following particulars :

i. Quantity. The general market handles fruits



THE FRUIT MARKET 5

in large quantities ; the special market in small quan-
tities.

2. Margin of profit. In the general market the
profit on each bushel or quart or package is much less
(usually) than in the special market.

3. Salesman. The fruit grower who grows fruit
in large quantities for the general market sells it
through a commission man. He never reaches the
final customer. The man who grows fruit in small
quantities for a special market frequently, or usually,
sells to the customer direct. He is his own salesman.
He thus becomes more immediately responsible for his
goods.

4. Competition. In the general market one meets
the competition of the world. The price of apples in
London is influenced by the crop in Tasmania, New
Zealand, Canada, or the United States. The price in
London (sometimes) influences the price in New York.
Missouri apples in the general market meet the apples
from Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and New
York. In the special market the fruit grower meets
only local competition ; and when regular customers
are secured, even this competition is eliminated.

5. Varieties. The general market demands a few
varieties. The private market demands more, and will
accept an almost unlimited number. Furthermore,
the general market demands standard varieties those
which are known, and which are commonly offered in
such quantities as to have a regular rating. The pri-
vate market cares not whether a variety is a standard
or not, so it suits the customer.



6 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

6. Quality. The general market gives adequate
consideration to appearance, but pays little attention to
quality. Ben Davis and Kieffer, proverbially inferior
in quality, are standard and profitable market sorts.
In the direct or private market quality is a matter of
first importance. Appearance counts for less.

7. Shipping quality. Fruit for the general market
must be such as will bear shipment and much rough
handling. That for the private market need not sub-
mit to this test.

8. Package. The wholesale market requires a
standard package. Almost any neat, clean package
may be used in the direct market, and sometimes fruit
is delivered in bulk, from sacks, boxes, barrels or bas-
kets, without any package. In the wholesale market
a gift package is practically always required. The
man who has private customers frequently has his
boxes or baskets returned to him.

9. Season. The general market accepts fruits only
in season. There is no sale for Fameuse apples after
Christmas, and no general sale for strawberries before
April. The private market often pays extra for fruit
out of season. The sales of strawberries which are
made every year during January and February are
made to special customers. Such berries do not come
into the general market.

II. THE MARKET PROBLEMS

There are several successive problems which face
the man who grows fruit for sale, whether he have in



THE FRUIT MARKET 7

view the general or the special market. The principal
problems are the following:

1. Growing the fruit. The fruit must be grown
before it can be sold, and fruit growing is a long, long
art. Dozens and dozens of books have been written
on this subject alone, which is one reason why we may
devote this entire book to another subject. The pro-
duction of fruit for market is quite a different problem
from the growing of fruit for home use. It differs
most conspicuously in the fact that the market grower
must always count the expense to see that it is kept
below the cash returns. The man who grows fruit
for his own gratification may do so without regard to
expense. (Sometimes he does it without much regard
to the fruit!)

2. Grading. Fruit for home use is seldom sorted
and never graded. For market grading is indispens-
able. We shall devote a chapter to this subject.

3. Packing. "The package sells the fruit" has
come to be a fundamental doctrine of the American
fruit trade. The selection of a suitable package and
the attractive installation of the fruit in it are the best
"tricks of the trade."

4. Storage. All fruits, except those which are so
perishable as altogether to prevent it, are frequently
stored for longer or shorter periods. This permits the
grower (or buyer) to regulate the supply of fruit to
suit the demand. Glutting of the market is prevented,
and better prices are realized. The subject of storage
is fully treated in Part V.



8 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

5. Transportation. No other one condition so
positively determines the nature, the localization, and
the profits of fruit growing as transportation. Facilities
and rates are both of paramount importance. This
subject is one which does not admit of much general-
ization. Shipping facilities are different for every rail-
road station, and rates also vary considerably.

6. Discovery of the right market. Finally the man
who has fruit to sell must find the man who wants to
buy it. Porter apples sell well in Boston, but are not
wanted in New York ; Tolman Sweet sells in Phila-
delphia, but can't be given away in Rochester. In a
more general way it may be said that the man who
has grown many fancy varieties for a special market
must find his private customers. It will not do for
him to ship to a city commission man. Equally the
man who has grown large quantities of standard sorts,
like Ben Davis and Kieffer, need not search for a
fancy home trade. I know a man who has 1,000 to
2,000 barrels of fine apples every year, and who is dis-
gusted that he can not sell them in his home town for
as much as they will bring in New York. But the
fact and the explanation is that his whole business is
run on the general market plan.

III. COMMISSION MEN

Fruit which goes into the general or wholesale
market is practically all handled through the media-
tion of the commission man. As the general market
is the one most sought in America, it follows that the
commission man has flourished and multiplied and re-
plenished the earth. His presence seems to be ab-



THE FRUIT MARKET 5

solutely necessary to the sale of fruit in large quantities,
though growers have mostly come to regard his pres-
ence as a necessary evil. According to the ordinary
practice, the grower ships his strawberries, his plums,
or muskmelons to a certain commission man in the
city say to Murphy & McBride, of Baltimore.
Murphy & McBride send a postal card acknowledging
the receipt of the shipment, and specifying that the
fruit was received in good or bad condition, as the
case may be. When the fruit is sold they make their
returns to the shipper. If Murphy & McBride are
honest and solvent the returns are made promptly, ac-
companied by a check for the balance due the shipper.
The memorandum returned to the shipper shows the
packages of fruit sold, the selling price of each lot,
and the gross amount received. Kxpress or freight
charges are deducted, as is also the commission charged.
The accompanying copy of an account sales will give
a clearer idea of the transaction.

This arrangement works very well if the commis-
sion house is thoroughly honest, and if a condition
equally important the fruit shipper is also honest.
As soon as either one begins to cheat the whole basis
of the business is immediately destroyed and the most
deplorable results follow. Unfortunately the stren-
uous competition among commission men, as well as
the profound duplicity of many consignors, forces
every commission house with the least pregnable con-
science into some form or other of cheating. The
simplest trick, of course, is to sell a consignment of
fruit for a hundred dollars and return only seventy-
five. But there are hundreds of others quite as effect-



10 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

ive and equally well known to the experienced fruit
dealer. The result, as a whole, has been to give the
commission men the reputation among fruit growers
of a band of unprincipled thieves. Sometimes this



C. W. KINNEY,



FRUITS, * PRODUCE, * ETC.,

276 WASHINGTON STREET.





FIG. I ACCOUNT SALES FROM A NEW YORK COMMISSION HOUSE

reputation is deserved. Much oftener*it is not. Some-
times the shipper is as bad as the commission man.

This organization of the fruit trade is certainly far
from ideal. The shipper is completely at the mercy
of the commission man. The whole bargain is on one
side of the transaction. It will take a long time, how-
ever, to change matters to another system. The
present writer certainly disclaims any intention of
offering a new system. If the following suggestions



THE FRUIT MARKET II

are carefully observed, however, it will go far toward
mitigating the evils which one meets in dealing with
commission men:

1. Stick to one man. If it seems necessary to ship
to two or three markets as to Pittsburg, Philadel-
phia, and New York stick to a single commission
house in each city, but, as far as possible, ship to a
single market. The man who is conducting business
on a very large scale, like J. H. Hale or Roland Mor-
ril, and who can keep his hand on the commission
men, can afford to transgress this rule. Such men are
superior to all rules. Most of us are not. For the
ordinary fruit grower and shipper this rule of dealing
always with one commission firm is of the utmost con-
sequence.

2. Ship the same varieties year after year, and make
the grade just as uniform as possible. Even if some-
thing short of the best fruit is shipped, uniformity of
grade is highly advantageous. The commission house
knows what to expect, and customers get used to the
brand and the grade. There are hundreds of shippers
growing all classes of fruits whose products are com-
monly already sold when they arrive in the market.
Uniform and honest packing does it.

3. Select a brand which is neat, catchy, and not
too large, and see that it goes on every package.
Some men have made reputations and money out of
their brands.

4. Grade and pack with the most rigid honesty.
Don't try to cheat a commission man. It can't be



12 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

done. The commission man has the last turn, and he
is absolutely sure to protect himself, whatever happens
to the shipper. Moreover, any evidence of dishonesty
immediately destroys the dealer's confidence in that
consignor, and selling is seriously interfered with.
Thereafter packages must be opened and examined
before they are sold, and they are not offered to the
best customers.

5. Follow the advice of the commission man as far as
possible when you have settled on a good one. Ship
fruit when he wants it. Send the varieties and grades
that he wants, and in every other feasible way con-
form to the requirements of his business. His busi-
ness is the fruit grower's business. He is the fruit
grower's agent. He should be treated as such.

IV. THE FOREIGN MARKET

Before leaving the general subject of the wholesale
market, it may be best to give some attention to the
European outlet for fruit. There are considerable
quantities of apples shipped from the United States to
Europe every year, the larger majority going to Eng-
land. A few shippers have their regular European
customers, who require a certain quantity of American
apples each year. The Albemarle Pippins of Virginia
and the Newtown Pippins of New York are particular
favorites in England with special buyers. There are
hardly any of our hardy fruits except the apple, how-
ever, ever shipped out of the United States. Mr.
Peter Barr, I remember, was very sure, when he was
visiting here, that a good trade in American grapes
could be built up in London by proper management.



THK FRUIT MARKET



His belief is based on the best of reasons, but as yet
there is no export business to speak of in this line.

Shipments of fruit from Canada to England and
Scotland are more regular, and, at least comparatively,



CORN-EXCHANGE BUILDINGS. 27 FENNEL STREEti



ACCOUNT SALES




_______ Sold for account /



22

by

t

3ff
91
14
HO

yd

L



/o



t />'
/Z L
t,

Y

y ">

/ 2



CRARQEB?
Frtight
Duty Paid

Manchttter Ship Canal Tolls and Quay Cfutrgti
Cartage and Porterage at Docks ^and Warehousing-
Sampling and Taring
Clearing and Forwarding
Warehouse Kent
Fire Insurance
Interest on Freight *
Brokerage & i- ft -

Postages, dc.




/ *



y to



/i V



FIG. 2 ACCOUNT SALES OF CANADIAN APPLES SOLD IN
MANCHESTER, ENGLAND



14 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

are much greater. The Canadian home market, though
unapproachably good in certain localities, is not, on
the whole, at all equal to the large city markets of the
States, either in capacity or liberality. This is one
reason why exportation is commoner. Another reason
lies in the closer political and trade connections between
Canada and England; while a final and very important
reason is that the Canadian government has system-
atically assisted in these exportations. Naturally the
chief exports from Canada are apples. Nova Scotia,
in particular, has a high reputation for its export apple
trade. Other fruits, however, have been shipped to
some extent, and in an experimental way a great many
different things have been sent over, such as peaches,
grapes, and tomatoes. While each one of these has
been successfully shipped and sold in particular in-
stances, no regular business has been established with
any fruit except the apple. Possibly the pear comes
nearest to being an exception, but the Canadian ex-
portation of pears is still a small matter. Perhaps
when the Canadian Kieffer orchards get to bearing, this
will be changed.

In years of excessive crops, however, when the
markets of the United States are over-supplied, the
European outlet becomes a very important factor in
the situation. This was most conspicuously the case
in 1896, when the bumper apple crop of America was
harvested. It seems perfectly certain, so far as we
can know anything for ^ie future, that there will never
again be such a congestion and such a stressful com-
petition in the fruit market. Certainly something was
learned in 1896 concerning the European market, and



THE FRUIT MARKET 15

whenever another large crop comes exportations will
be more carefully and intelligently handled.

As a primary consideration it is plain that Ameri-
can shippers could take much better advantage of the
European market if they could supply it more regu-



CANADIAN APPLES ex Manchester Trader. '

I 1 f| | || - ' - -Barrek

AHlVuittA- 49 Greenings IS (?) 13 M'3

Son 50 34 (I damp) 34 11/9

Fruit Grovm-> 51 20 2G I 2/~

Grimsliy, Oat. 52 ,, 17 ( 1 <!atop) 17 J 1/9

'53 .. 20 20 JIO/3

54 ,. Slaok and Wet 12

Very xlact i

' Open 2 [5 .8/9

55 T. C. Kiiijj 7 ( -. ) 7 1!

"56 -i ^ Siil_J6/9

"57 Sh-k an.! Wft I

< '[-en I 2 __ 12/3

58"(\ Pipj-in :; i (lj 4 M> ; 3

59 -I ' 4 12,3

60 < hi Sltew - 4 14/C.

61 "Wealthy"" 1 2

St. Lawrence 'J



FIG. 3 REPORT OF SALES OF CANADIAN FRUITS AT MANCHES-
TER, ENGLAND, SHOWING "SLACKS" AND "WETS"

larly. Shipping a great quantity of fruit one year
and leaving the market vacant the next year does not
foster, but rather prevents, the establishment of a
profitable business. Considerable markets for our
apples were opened in continental Europe in 1896, and
a horticultural friend of mine who traveled there in
1897 told me that there was a frequent call for Ameri-



1 6 FRUIT HARVESTING, STORING, MARKETING

can apples and a general disappointment that none
were offered. The crop of 1897 was short, however,
and prices were so good in New York, Boston, Phila-
delphia, and Baltimore that nobody cared to take the
risk of shipping to Germany. This is likely to be the


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Online LibraryF. A. (Frank Albert) WaughFruit harvesting, storing, marketing : a practical guide to the picking, sorting, packing, storing, shipping, and marketing of fruit → online text (page 1 of 14)