F. (Franz) Ahn.

Ahn-Henn's second Latin reader. Selections from the writings of Justinus, Caesar, Cicero, and Phaedrus. With notes, vocabulary, and references to Ahn-Henn's Latin grammar online

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Online LibraryF. (Franz) AhnAhn-Henn's second Latin reader. Selections from the writings of Justinus, Caesar, Cicero, and Phaedrus. With notes, vocabulary, and references to Ahn-Henn's Latin grammar → online text (page 6 of 16)
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have the singular verb dedit. 542. non de ordme sed de nascendi
felicitate, not from priority, but from the lucky circumstance
of birth.

i The whole passage from nam AriaemSnem down to avlto vin-
cere (line 18) is in the oratio obliqua, depending on referebat which
implies dicens. It will be useful to the pupil to become accustomed
to arrange the sentences in the form which they would have in the
oratio recta or direct narrative; here it is as follows: "nam Ariae-
menes primus quidem DarSo, sed privato provenit: ego regi primus
natus. Itaque fratres mei, qui ante geniti sunt, privatum patrimo-
ntum, quod eo tempore Dareus habiiit, non regnum, sibi vindicare
possunt, ego sum quern primum in regno jam rex pater sustulit.
Hue aceedit, quod Ariaemenes non patre tantum sed et niatre pri-
vatae adhuc fortunae, avo quoque materno privato procreatus estj



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9. ego vero et matre regma natus et patrem nonnisi regem vidi; avum
quoque maternum Cyrum ego regem habfii, non heredem, sed con-
ditorem tanli regni; et si in aequo jure utrurnque fratrem reliquerit,
materuo tamen ego jure et avito vinco." The English word to
introduce the indirect discourse is THAT; sometimes it is well to omit
that in translation and to change the form to direct discourse, in-
serting the verb of saying by way of parenthesis.

s private, when a private citizen. provenisse and

9 natum (esse), Ace. w. Inf. of the Indirect Discourse. When a speech
is transferred to the oratio obliqua the following changes of mood
take place:

I. The Indicative in direct statements is changed into the Infini-
tive, becoming dependent on some such form as dixit, he said, ex-
pressed or implied, and the Nominative will then be changed to an
Accusative ;

II. The Indicative in dependent relative sentences is changed
into the Subjunctive;

III. The Indicative in questions becomes the Subjunctive, being
dependent on rogavit, expressed or implied;

IV. The Imperative becomes the Subjunctive;

Y. Verbs used by the speaker in the Subjunctive remain in the
same mood.

9 geniti essent, Subjunctive according to Rule II.

10 habuisset, Subjunctive according to Rule II.

11 vindicare posse, Infinitive according to Rule I. se esse, Ace.
w. Inf. according to Rule I.

12 quern sustulSrit, Subjunctive according to Rule II. tollere has
the same meaning as suscipere, above, to take up a child, to bring
up. accedere, Infinitive according to Rule I.

is non patre tantum &c. ; the Ablatives patre, matre, avo, are
governed by procreatus sit, a verb expressing origin. 604.

is patrem nonnisi regem vidisse; regem, as a king,\B in apposition
to patrem.

17 sL.reliquisset; the condition is represented as contrary to
fact, hence the Pluperfect Subj., both in direct and indirect discourse.

788. Ill-

is materno tamen se jure et avito vincere, that he by his mother's
and grandfather's right should gain the cause; Ace. w. Inf. according
to Rule I



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19 concord! ammo, of one mind, unanimously. 9.

21 cognita causa, having investigated the case, adeOque fra-
terna contentio fuit, ut. . insultaret. . doleret. . mitte'rent, &c.; Sub-
junctives of Consequence after adeo ut. 759.

22 victor, .victus, the winner, .the loser.

25 tanto moderatms, so much more moderately; the Ablative tanto
is used to denote the degree of difference. 612.

28 quinquennium, for 5 years; time how long is in the Ace. 674

29 quod; the Relative for the Demonstrative. 656. ubi primum
as soon as, takes the Perfect Ind. 737. n.

so apud Xerxen, at the court of Xerxes; apud designates nearness
in respect of persons. 630. amicior patriae; the Dative governed
by amlcus. 598,

33 cera delita, with wax which he had smeared over it; Abl. of
Means. 605; the participle rendered by a relative clause, sss. ne, in-
troducing a clause of purpose. 756. The ancients wrote with a style
on waxen tablets; the writing on wax was rubbed out with the broad
end of the style. To avoid discovery Demaratus wrote on wooden
tablets and then smeared them over with wax, so that it might seem
they had not been used at all.

1 recens cera, the freshly-written tablet. 10

2 perferendas tradit; the Gerundive is joined with the verb tradSre
to express the purpose. 841. jusso refers to servo, and may be
translated by a relative sentence, who had been ordered.

s quibus perlatis; the Abl. Absol. may be translated by a clause
with when. Lacedaemone, at Lacedaemon. quaestiOni res diu
fuit, the affair was doubtful for a long time; the Dativo of the object
for which is used after esse. 595.

4 quod neque scriptum allquid viderent nee frustra missas suspi-
carentur, because on the one hand they did not see anything
written, and on the other they supposed that they were not sent to
no purpose; quod usually takes the Indicative; but the Subjunctives
viderent and suspicarentur are used to express the thought and
belief of the Lacedaemonians. 782. nee is to be resolved into et
non, and the negative belongs to frustra; in this way arises the cor-
responsive conjunction neque .. et, -on the one hand not... and on
the other. 857. missas, sc. esse, Ace. w. Inf. after suspicarentur.

e tantoque rem majorem, quanto esset occultlor, putabant, and



- 68 -

Pagft

10. they considered the affair to le the more important, the more
mysterious it was; the words quanto. .tanto, signifying by how
much. . by so much, are usually to be translated by the emphatic the;
esset is in the Subjunctive depending on the Aoc. w. Inf. tanto rem
majorem esse. 826.

6 haerentlbus in conjectura viris, while the men were hesitating
in the conjecture; Abl. Absol.

7 erasa cera, having erased the tablet; Abl. Absol. 837.

10 utproditum sit, that there is a tradition; Subjunctive of result;
in clauses of result the verb of the dependent clause has the same
tense as it would have if the clause were a principal one. 745.

11 siceata, sc. esse, Aco. w. Inf.

is numero, in answer to the question, in respect of what? Abl. of
Limitation. o.v.

u si regem spectes, laudes; the condition is represented as pos-
sible or likely to be realized. 788. n.

is cum, though; Concessive Conjunction with the Subjunctive. 767.

16 opes tamen reglae superessent, the king's riches, however,
were more than sufficient.

is timldus, supply erat. sicubi metus abesset, wherever there
was no cause of fear; the Subjunctive is used to express the thought
of Xerxes.

19 fiducla virium, from confidence in his power; Causal Abl. 604.

20 convexa valllum, the hollows between hills.

21 quaedam maria pontlbus sternebat, some seas he made pas-
sable by bridges. ad navigations commodum, for the promotion
of navigation.

23 cujus; the Relative for the Demonstrative; begin with quam ter-
ribilis, as terrible as. . ; quam. .tarn, as. . so.

26 contemptu paucitatis, from contempt of their small number;
Causal Abl. 604.

27 Marathonia pugna, in the battle of Marathon; in is omitted
with an Adjective. 673.

28 qui = et hi. suos, their relatives. - - succedente inutlli
turba, when a useless crowd folio wed; Abl. Absol.



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29 triduo; duration of time is commonly expressed by the Accusa- 10.
tive, but occasionally, as here, by the Ablative. cum dolore et
indignatione Persarum, with - to the grief and indignation of the
Persians.

so dimicatum, sc. est, Impersonal Pass. 423. triduo dimicatum est,
the fight lasted three days. quarta die; this is the proper usage of
the Ablative in relations of time to express when an action is done
or completed. 672.

. si summum cacumen, the top of the mountain.

32 hortatur, recedant et se reservent, he exhorts them to retire
and save themselves; the regular construction with verbs of ex-
horting would be ut; but the simple Subjunctive may also be employed
(see Note on 3. 20; 4. 10.).

33 sibi cum Spartanis. .servandos; this sentence is in the
oratio obllqua, depending on hortatur, which implies dicens.

1 experiendam (esse) ; the Passive Periphrastic conjugation ex- 11.
presses necessity, the person by whom is in the Dative. 741.

2 servandos, sc. esse.

3 audito regis imperio, having heard the order of the king.

i sciscitantlbus Delphis oracula responsum fuerat, to them when
inquiring for oracles at Delphi the answer had been given.

5 aut regi aut urbi cadendum, sc. esse, that either the king or the
city ought to fall 741.

7 parato ad moriendum ammo, with a mind ready to die; para-
tus, ready, takes ad with the Gerund 844.

10 dimissis sociis, may be translated by the perfect active par-
ticiple with Lycurgus as subject, Lycurgus having dismissed his
allies. hortatur, takes the Hortatory Subjunctive (memine'rint, ca-
vSrent), as above.

11 qnalitercunque proeliatis cadendum esse, that in whatever
way they might fight they had to die; caverent, ne fortius mansisse
quam dimicasse viderentur, they should take care lest it might seem
they had shown greater courage in remaining than infighting.

12 nee exspectandum (esse) ; this sentence is in the oratio obllqua,
depending on hortatur, which implies dicens, they ought not to wait
(he says).

is dum nox occasionem daret, while the night offered an op-
portunity.



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11. u securis et laetis superveniendum (esse), they ought to fall
suddenly upon the careless and exulting enemy.

is perituros, sc. esse, would die.

IG nihil erat difficile persuadSre persuasis mori, it was not at all
difficult to persuade those who had persuaded themselves to die,
i. e., were resolved to die; persuadgre governs the Dative. 589.

19 si ipsi oppress! essent, if they should have been oppressed
themselves. morituri, ready to die. 74i.

20 totis castris; with nouns qualified by totus, the Ablative with-
out a preposition is used to denote the place where? 687. postquam
invenlunt; postquam here takes the Historical Present.

22 ut qui sciunt, like men who know. spe victoriae, with the
hope of victory.

23 in mortis ultionem, to take vengeance for their death.

24 tractum, sc. est. vincendo fatigati, wearied of conquering.

20 duobus vulnerlbus acceptis, having received two wounds. ter-
restri proello, in the battle by land; Abl. of Time. 673.

29 bellum Persarum, the war with the Persians; Objective Genitive.
666. 2. in auxillum regis classe venisse, had come with a fleet to
the king's assistance; Ace. w. Inf. depending on animadvertisset.

so sollicitare in partes suas, to draw over to his side.

31 colloquendi coplam, opportunity of a conference; the Gerund is
frequently used with substantives as a complement. 843. symbolos
proponi et saxis proscribi curat, he had a proclamation issued and
written upon the rocks; curare takes the Ace. w. Inf. symboli,
symbols, significant letters} a proclamation is meant.

12. 2 quid si non haec Dareo prius et nunc Xerxi belli causa nobiscum
foret, quod vos rebellantes non destituimus? What cause of war
would there have been formerly with Dareus and now with Xerxes,
if not the fact that we did not forsake you when revolting?

4 quiu, why not?

e commisso proelio, the battle having begun. inhibeYe remis,
to row a ship backwards.

9 ad templum Apollmis diripiendum, to destroy the temple of
Apollo; ad with Gerund or Gerundive denotes purpose. 845.

10 quasi, as if, takes the Subjunctive. 772.
u imbribus et fulminlbus, Abl. of Means, eos.



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12 ut intellegSret; ut with the Subjunctive to express the purpose. 12.
750. i. quam nullae essent, how insignificant are; the Subjunctive
in Indirect Question, soi.

u vacuas hominlbus, empty of men, i. e. deserted.

16 praemonente Themistocle, Themistocles forewarning them =
forewarned by Themistocles.

is adventante Xerxe, upon the arrival of Xerxes.

19 consulentibus Delphis oraculum responsum fuerat, to them
consulting the oracle at Delphi the answer had been given (see
Note on 11. L). salutem muris ligneis tuerentur, they should secure
their safety behind wooden walls.

20 demonstration, sc. esse.

22 non in aedificiis, sed in civlbus positam, sc. esse, consisted not
in its buildings, but in its citizens.

23 commissures, sc. esse. All these Ace. w. Inf. constructions
depend on persuadet.

25 probato consilio, having approved the plan.

26 abditis insulis demandant, they send them to sequestered
islands for safety. relicta urbe, having left the city.

28 imitatae, sc. sunt.

29 ne circumveinri posset, Subjunctive of purpose. 750. i.

si deserto bello, may be rendered by the perfect active participle
with qui as subject, these having given up war. ad sua tuenda, to
protect their own property; ad, with the Gerundive, expressing
purpose. 845.

32 timens ne, fearing that; after timeo, ne must be rendered by
that. 161.

33 per servum fidum, by means of a faithful slave,- the person con-
sidered as means or instrument is expressed by per with the Ace.
uno in loco contractam Graeciam, Greece concentrated at one place.

i quod si; in order to indicate the connection with a preceding 13.
proposition the relative pronoun quod (which, however, loses its
signification as a pronoun) is frequently put before si, BO that
quodsi may be regarded as one word.

a vellent, dissiparentur, Subjunctives in indirect discourse.

3 ei singulas consectandas esse, lie had to pursue them singly;
Aco. w. Inf. depending on nuntlat. hoc dolo, Abl. of Means, eos.



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13. 4 adventu hostmm occnpati, surprised by the approach of the
enemy.

5 collatis viribus; the Ablative Absol. may be translated with
united forces.

9 ut . . ita cerneres ; transpose : ita ut cerneres, so that you could see,

10 juxta praeceptum Themistoclis, according to the order of
Themistocles.

13 circumspicientes fugam, looking out for flight.

is mersae, sc. sunt.

17 dublum consilii, wavering in resolution.

is ne quid seditionis; seditionis governed by quid which after ne
is used instead of allquid; the Partitive Genitive is often found after the
neuters of adjectives and pronouns. 566. 6.

19 fama adversi belli et in majus omnla, sicuti mos est, extollens,
the rumor of the defeat exaggerating every thing, as is customary;
this is the Subject of the final sentence introduced by ne.

20 sibi relinquat, Hortatory Subjunctive depending on hortatur.

21 aut perdomiturum se Graeclam aut cessurum (esse); this Aco.
w. Inf. is in oratto obllqua, and depends upon a verb of saying im-
plied in hortatur.

23 probato consilio, the plan being approved.

25 audlta regis fuga, having heard of the. flight of the king,

27 interclusus reditu, cut off from his retreat; intercludgre, being
a verb of separation, takes the Ablative. 620. desperatione rerum,
by the hopelessness of the undertaking.

29 timens ne, fearing that. 761. interclusi hostes, the enemy
when cut off; the Participle represents a condition. 833.

so quod altter non pateret, which otherwise could not be open;
quod = cum id; with the Subjunct. 792. n.

32 retinendo, by keeping them back, Abl. of Gerund as Abl. of
Means. 846.

33 cum vincere consillo ceteros non posset, as he could not win
over the rest by his opinion.

14. i certiorem consilii facit, he informs him of the plan. matu-
rata fuga, by accelerating his flight.



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2 perculsus nuntio, panic-stricken by the news. tradit milltes 14.
perducendos; the Gerundive is joined with the verb tradere, to ex-
press the purpose for which anything is delivered. 841.

4 solutum pontem hibernis tempestatlbus, the bridge destroyed
by winter storms. offendisset, had hit upon.

5 res spectaciilo digna et aestimatione, an event worth seeing
and estimating; dignus, worth, takes the Abl. 625.

6 rerum varietate miranda, by the wonderful fickleness of human
affairs; the Abiative depends on aestimatione.

7 vix capiebat, was hardly able to hold him.

s carentem omni etiam servorum ministerio, wanting all service
of slaves, i. e., without even a slave to wait upon him.

9 terris graves, oppressive to the countries; Dative of Advantage
or Disadvantage. 387.

10 felicius iter fuit, had a luckier march; esse with the Dative
denotes possession. 594.

11 neque enim, for.

12 multorum digram inopla, want of necessaries for many days.

13 ut viae cadaveribus implerentur, Subjunctive of result after
tantus. 759. cadaveribus, Abl. after a verb of filling. 622.

14 escae inlecebris sollicitatae, refers to alites et bestlae, allured
by the bait of food.

is etiam in majus restitutionem, rebuilding even on a larger
scale.

19 nullo pretlo, at no price; Abl. of Price after venalis. 617.
videt, Historical Present after postquani.

20 incensis (supply iis) quae aedificare coeperant, having set on
fire what they had begun to build.

22 comraissum, sc. est.

24 referta regalis opulentiae, filled to overflowing with kingly
wealth; as a rule, refertus takes the Genitive. 567. I.; but it also takes
the Ablative following the analogy of verbs of filling. 623.

25 unde primum Graecos divitiarum luxuria cepit, since that
time the luxury of riches first took possession of the Greeks. diviso
inter se auro Perslco, when they had divided among them the
Persian gold.

28 navali proello dimicatum est, a sea-fight took place.



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14. so vicisse Graecos et Mardonii copias occidiOne occidisse, that the
Greeks had won and completely cut down the troops of Mardonius;
Graecos is Subject-Accusative and copias Object- Accusative in the Aco.
w. Inf. construction. - tantam famae velocitatem fuisse (supply
dicunt), the velocity of the report was so great, they say.

32 matutmo tempore, in the morning. meridianis horis, at
noon; time when is in the Abl. 672.

15. i tantum spatii; the Gen. after a neuter pronoun, see. 6. tarn
brevi horanim momento, in the short space of a few hours. de
victoria nuntiatum est, word was brought about the victory.

2 confecto bello, the war being terminated.

3 omnium judicio, in the opinion of all. praelata, sc. est.

4 princeps civitatum testimonio judicatus, being declared the
chief according to the testimonial of the states.

5. Sparta and Lycurgus.

7 ducibus Lacedaemoniis et Atheniensibus, under the leadership
of the Lacedaemonians and Athenians; Abl. Absol. 836.

12 trahgre, Historical Inf. 809.

is gestis rebus inlustres, famous by their exploits. propriis
viribus, Abl. depending on confidsbant. 628.

u institutis Solonis et legibus Lycurgi, Abl. of Means. GOS.

15 ex aemulatione virium, from jealousy of their power.

16 cum successisset. . .vindicare potuisset, though he succeeded
and could claim; cum, Concessive Conjunction with the Subj. 767.

19 summa fide, Abl. of Manner without cum. 613.

20 quanto plus pietatis jura valgrent, how much more influence
the rights of piety had; Abl. to denote the degree of difference. 612;
the Subjunctive in Indirect Question, soi.

21 medio tempore, in the mean time; time when in the Abl. 672.

22 non habentibus Spartanis leges instituit, he enacted laws, the
Spartans not having any; leges belongs to instituit and is to be
understood to habentibus.

23 magis..clarlor; magis is sometimes used with Comparatives
adding to their force.

25 documentum daret, would give an example; the Subjunctive
to express the opinion of Lycurgus.



Page

28 emi singiila jussit, lie ordered every thing to be bought. 15.

29 compensatione mercmm, by bartering.

i sublegendi senatum vel creandi quos vellet magistratus po-16.
tcstatem, the power of electing to the senate or to appoint those
whom they wished to be their magistrates; the Genitive of the Gerund
after potestas; vellent in the Subjunctive to express the opinion of
the Lacedaemonians.

3 aequata patrimoma, the properties being made equal = the
equality of property; a common translation of a participle is an
abstract noun.

4 potentiorem altero, more powerful than the other; Abl. of Com-
parison. 609. redderent takes two Accusatives. 578.

5 ne cujus; cujus, instead of alicdjus after ne. 762.

G non ampllus una veste uti, to use no more than one dress; uti
takes the Abl. 636; quam is omitted after ampllus without influence
on the construction, eio. toto anno, all the year round; duration
of time is commonly expressed by the Accusative, but occasionally,
as here, by the Ablative. permissum, sc. est.

s ne. .verteretur; the Subjunctive after ne to denote the pur-
pose. 758.

9 ut . . agerent, to pass; Subjunctive of purpose. 756.

11 nihil eos substernere, degSre, &c.; Ace. w. Inf. depending on
statiiit.

12 priusquam viri facti essent; the Subjunctive depending on the

ACO. W. Inf. 826.

14 ut eligerentur. .coercerent; ut with the Subjunctive to denote
purpose. 756. matrimonia sua, their wives.

is nullis frenis, Abl. of Means.

17 non divitum et potentmm esse, should not belong to the rich
and powerful; Genitive with esse to denote the predicate. 571.

is nee usquam terrarum, nowhere in the world; Partitive Genitive
with Adverbs. 566. 6.

19 solutis antea morlbus, their manners having been formerly
loose.

20 et inde se detulisse; Aco. w. Inf. depending on fingit.

21 consuescendi taedlum, the trouble of getting accustomed.



Page

16. 22 vincat; in this sentence the Present Subjunctive is used after
the historical Present in the leading clause according to the general
rule. 743.

23 obllgat takes the Ace. w. Inf., nihil eos mutaturos (esse).

24 priusquam reverteretur; the Subjunctive after priusquam implies
intention: before he should return.

25 consulturum, referring to se (Lycurgum), denotes purpose: to
consult the oracle. quid addendum mutandumque legibus viderg-
tur, what seemed worth changing or adding to his laws; the Sub-
junctive in Indirect Question, soi.

27 morions, when dying. 833.

28 ne arbitrarentur, lest they should consider. relatis Lacedae-
monem; supply osslbus, ivhen they were bought back to Lacedaemon.
sss. solutos se religione, that they were freed from their obliga-
tion; verbs of separation take the Abl. 020.

29 in dissolvendis legibus, in abolishing the laws.

6. Sicily. Invasion of the Athenians.

31 Itallae adhacsisse, was united with Italy; adhaerere being
compounded with ad takes the Dative. r>oz.

32 diremptamque, sc. esse. a corpore; Abl. of Separation with
preposition after dirimere. 620. majore impetu, Instrumental Abl., by
the greater violence.

17. i toto undarum onere, with the whole burden of its waves.

3 ut patgat, Subjunctive of result after ita. tota ferme, nearly
the whole of it. nee non, sc. est, and there is besides; nee non is
emphatically affirmative.

4 ignibus generandis nutriendisque; the Dative of the Gerundive
denoting purpose: for producing fire and feeding it. soli ipsius
naturalis materia, natural material of the soil itself; this is the
Subject of the sentence.

5 quippe intrinsecus stratum sulphure et bitumine traditur, for
indeed they say it (the soil) is covered on the inside with sulphur
and pitch; Ace. w. Inf. depending on traditur.

6 ut..eructet, Subjunctive of purpose. 758. spirltu cum igne
in materia luctante, while the air is fighting with fire in the ma-
terial.



I (

Page

7 compluribus locis; the Ablative is used without a preposition 17.
to denote the place where in the case of loco, locis, when qualified
by Adjectives. 687.

11 nomine, by this word; Abl. of Means.

12 mirum, supply est. in quern res tot coiere mirae, where so
many wonderful things (concur) are to be found.

13 quod nusquam latius torrens fretum, because the straits are
nowhere rolling in a wide stream; torrens is a Participle, and
latius an Adverb qualifying the same.

14 nee solum citato impetu sed etiam saevo, not only ivith
rapid motion but even a raging one; Descriptive Abl. GIG.

is experientibus, for those who experience it. procul visenti-
bus, for those who see it from afar.

is ut videas . . exaudias, that you may see, hear; Subjunctive of
result after tanta.

21 veluti, as i/, takes the Subj. 772.

22 in tarn angustis termmis, within so narrow limits. aliter
durare potuisset, could have lasted otherwise. tot saeculis, for so
many centuries; time how long is here expressed by the Abl.

23 nisi, .aleretur; the condition is represented as contrary to fact.
788. m. nutrimentis, Abl. of Means, cos.

25 hinc latratus audltus, sc. est, from this source comes the
barking which is heard. hinc monstri credita simulacra, sc. sunt,
hence the phantoms of the monster are believed (to come). navi-
gantes is Subject to putant, the sailors believe.

26 magnis verticibus pelagi desidentis exterriti, belongs to
navigantes: being terrified by the great whirlpools of the tumbling
sea. latrare undas, Ace. w. Inf. depending on putant.

29 raptum secum spiritum in imum fundum trahit, carries the air
with it AND draws it to the lowest bottom. It is sometimes con-


1 2 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Online LibraryF. (Franz) AhnAhn-Henn's second Latin reader. Selections from the writings of Justinus, Caesar, Cicero, and Phaedrus. With notes, vocabulary, and references to Ahn-Henn's Latin grammar → online text (page 6 of 16)