F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 10 of 30)
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made great improvements in it: the drawing-room, con-
fervatory, and aviary, in particular, are fuppofed to be the
mod beautiful of the kind in Surry. It is now the propery
of Mr. Jewdwine.

ERITH, a village in Kent, on the Thames, 14 miles
from London. Sec Belvedere lioufe.

ESHER, a village on the road to Guilford, 16 miles from
London. See Claremont and

ESHER PLACE, the feat of the late Right Hon. Henry
Pelharn, and now of his daughter, Mifs Pelham, is a Go-
thic flructure of brick, with ftone facings to the doors and
windows. It was anciently one of the feats of the prelates
of Winchefter, was built by BiQiop Wainfleete, and greatly
improved by Cardinal Wolfey, when he held that fee in
conjunction xvith thofe of York and Durham. The whole
wab rebuilt by Mr. -Pelhamj in the fame ftyle as the origi-


rial, arid after the defign of Kent, except the two towers in
the body of the houfe, which belong to the old ftrudture.
In one of thefe towers is a very curious winding ftaircafe,
which has excited the admiration of many eminentarchitects.

This noble manfion is fituated in a low vale, on the
banks of the river Mole, which is approached, by a circu-
lar fweep, through a declining lawn. This river winds
pleafantly through the grounds, and forms a very beautiful
piece of water. On the left, entering the park, at fome
diftance, the ground takes a ferpentine form; and the
heights being planted with clumps of firs and other treea,
have a rich and bold effect. On a further advance, to the
right, the eye is attracted by a fine open country. An ele-
gant fummer-houfe, fituate on the moft elevated fpot in the
park, commands a variety of rich and pleafant profpeets.
Among the nearer views, are Richmond Hill, Hampton
Court, Harrow on the Hill, Windfor Caftle, the windings
of the Thames, &c. and, on the other fide, are Claremont,
and other fine feats Another building, called The Bower,
is overhung with ivy, the mafly foliage of which is at once
beautiful and picturefque. Almoft every ftep affords a new
and pleafing object ; and, to enrich the fcene, the river
frequently prefents itfelf through the trees, or in full view
from an open fpace ; and it is again obfcured by the inter-
vention of fome object, perhaps not lefs pleafing.

Thefe enchanting fcenes are immortalized in the charm*
ing poetry of Thomfon :

Ether's graves,

Where, in the fweeteft folinide, embrac'd
By the foft winding* of the Client Mole,
From courts and fenates Pelham findk repofe.

^ And the unaflumnig mufe of Dodfiey has feated the Ge-
nius of Gardens

In the lorely vale

Of Eflier, where the Mule gUdct, lingering; loth
To leave fuch fcenes of fweet fimplicicy.

The philofopher too will here find fubjects of medita-
tion; efpecially when he is difpofed to reflect on the infta-


94 ETON.

bility and vanity of all earthly grandeur. To this place
(theu called Ajbcr} was the magnificent Wolfey command-
ed to retire, ju It after he had perceived, for the firft time,,
that he had for ever loft the favour of his fovertign; and the
great mafter of the human heart has made him give utter-
ance to his feelings in this affecting exclamation :

Nay, then, farewell !

I have touch' J the highclt point of all my greatnefs;
And, from that full meridian of my glory ,
I haite now to my fetting : I ftull fall
Like a bright exhalation in the evening,
And no rrua fee me more.

The world that had paid him fuch abject court during
his profperity, now deferted him (all but the faithful Crom-
well) on this fatal reverfe of fortune. He himfelf was
much dejected with the change, and from the fame turn of
mind which had made him fo vainly elated with his gran-
deur, he felt the itroke of adverfity with double rigour.

In full-blown dignity lee Wolfey (land,

Law in his voice, and fortune in his hand :

To him the church, the realm, their pow'rs confign,

Through him the rays of regal bounty (hine \

Turn'd by his nod the ft ream of honour flows:

His frhile alone fccurity bcftows.

Still to new heights his refticfs wifhes foar ;

Claim leads to claim, and pow'r advances pow'r ;

Till conqueft unrcfifted ceas'd to pleafe,

And rights fubmifted, left him none to feize.

At length his fov'reign frowns the train of ftate

Mark the keen glance, and watch the fign to hate.

\Vhere*erhe turns, he meets a (hanger's eye;

His fuppliants fcorn him, and his followers fly.

Now drops at once the pride of awful ftatc,

The golden canopy, the gtitt'ring plate,

The regal pahce, the luxurious board,

The liveried army, and the menial lord.

With age, with cares, with maladies opprefs'd,

He feeks the refuge of monaftic reft.

Grief aids difeafe, remember'd folly flings,

And his laft fighs reproach the faith of kings. JOHNSON.

ETON, a village on the Thames, in Bucks, oppofzte
Windfor, famous for its royal college and fchool, founded


F A i 95

ty Henry VI, in 1440, for the fupport of a provoft and
feven fellows, and the education of feventy youths in clafii-
cal learning. It con fills of two quadrangles; one appro-
priated to the fchool, and the lodging of the matters and
fjholars; in the midft of which is a copper ftatue of the
founder, on a marble pedeftal, erected at the expence of Dr.
Godolphin. In the other quadrangle are the apartments
of the Provoft and Fellows. The library is one of the fineft
.in England. The chapel is a (lately ftruclure, apparent-
Jy by the fame hand who defigned King's College, Cam-
bridge. At the weft end of this chapel is a raaiWe llatue,
by Bacon, of the " ill-fated Henry."

' The feventy King's fcholars, as thofe are called who are
on the foundation, when properly qualified, are elected, on
the firft Tuefday in Auguft, to King's College in Cam-
bridge, but are not removed till there are vacancieb in that
college, and then they are called according to feniority;
and after they have been three years at Cambridge, they
claim a fellowftiip. Befide thofe on the foundation, there
are feldom left than 300 noblemen and gentlemen's fons,
who board at the matter's houfes, or within the bounds of
the college. The fchool is divided into upper and lower,
and each of thefe into three clafTes. To each fchool there
is a matter and four affiftants. The revenue of the college
amounts to about 5000!. a year.

EWEL, a market- town in Surry, 13 miles from Lon-
don. Here a fpring. breaks out in different fpots, and 'be-
comes the head of a fine ftream, called Hog's Mill River, that
fells into the Thames at Kingfton. Here are the elegant
feat and pleafure-grounds of the late Philip Rowden, Efq.
and the manfionof bir George Glyn, Bart.

T7AIRLOP, a celebrated oak, in the parifh of Barking,

anil foreft of Hainault, in EfTex. Sec Hainaull Forejl.
FAIRY HILL, a villa at Mottingham, a hamlet of the
city of Rochefter, near Eltham, in Kent, was many years in
the occupation of the late Earl Bathurft, who greatly im-

96 FRO

proved the grounds, It is now the rcfidence of John Ran*

dalU Efq.

FETCH AM, a village near Leatherhead, in which is the
fine feat of Mrs. Hankey.

FINCHLEY, a village in Middlefex, near a noted com-
mon, feven miles from London, in the road to St. Alban's.

FITZROY FARM, the villa of Lord Southampton,
near Highgate. The grounds are kept in the higheft cul-
tivation of the/erwer ornce,

FITZWALTERS, the feat of Thomas Wright, Efq. at
Shenfield, near the 2 1 mile ftone, in the road to Chelmsford.
Being of an oftagon form, it is commonly called the Round
Houfe. Mr. Wright has formed a fine ferpentine piece of
water in the front of the houfe, over which he has built a
beautiful little bridge ; and, next to the great road, he ha*
creeled two lodges for porters.

FOOT's-CRAY PLACE, 12 miles from London, in
the road to Maidftone, was built by Bouchier Cleye, Efq.
a pewterer of Cheapfide, after a defign of Pailadio's. It
became the property of Sir George Yonge, Bai t. who mar-
ried Mr. Cleve's daughter, and was fold for lefs than a
third part of the original expence, to Benjamin Harence,
Efq. The hall is octagonal, and has a gallery round, which
leads to the bed chambers. It is enlightened from the top,
and is very beautiful. The houfe, which is built of ftone,
ftands on a rifing ground, with a gradual defcent to the
water, which, from the houfe, appears to be a fmall river
gliding through the whole length of the ground; and in
that part of the water oppotite to the houfe, is a fine caf-
cade; but this water, which appears to be fuch a pretty na-
tural dream, is au artificial one brought from the river


FROGMORE HOUSE, near Windfor, lately the feat
of the Hon. Mrs. Egerton, of whom it was purchafed by
her Majefty, who has made very confiderable additions to
the houfe and gardens. The houfe adjoining, the refi-
ttence of the late Mrs. Macartney, has been taken down,
and its gardens added to thofe of her Majefty. In differ-
ent parts of the grounds, Gothic temples, rural huts, &c.
have been erected. Thefe give relief to the gardens,
which, from their being a dead flat, would otherwife have



too great a famenefs. Nearly adjoining, on the oppofite
tide of the road, is a neat houfe, the feat of the late Earl o r
Pomfret, as Ranger of the Little Park, within the limits of
which it is fituated. Near the houfe is the Queen's Dairy.

FULHAM, a village of Middlefex, fituated on the
Thames, oppofite Putney, to which it has a wooden bridge.
It is four miles from London: and to the prelates of that fee
the manor belonged a confiderable.time before the conqueft.
In the churchyard are the tombs of the Bifhops Compton,
Robinfon, Gibfon, Hayter, Terrick, and Lowth. The
epifcopal palace, on the bank of the Thames, is neither of
a very ancient date, nor does it contain any thing remark-
able : but the gardens have been very curious. They were
tirft noted in the time of Bifliop Grindall, one of the eadieft
encouragers of botany, and the firft who imported the ta-
mariflk-tree into this country, about o the year 1560. Bifhop
Compton, who was himfelf an excellent botaniil, made
them ftill more celebrated by the introduction of many
new plants and foreft trees, particularly from North Ame-
rica. Ofthefe, the following only were remaining, on a
furvey of the garden in 1793; and thefe may be regarded
with fome veneration by the botanift, as the parent-flocks
of their refpeftive races in this kingdom. The girths,
which were accurately taken at three feet from the ground,
are here given, with their computed height:

Girth Height
F. I. feet.

Acer Negundo, Afh-leaved Maple 64 4^;

Cnprejfus Semfeyvivens, Upright Cyprefs 2 3 30

'Jttnifems Virgtniana, Virginian Red Cedar 25 20
Juglans Nigra, Black Walnut-tree II 2 70

Pinus Pinafter, Chefter Pine 1 O 80

Quercus Alba, White Oak 7 i r 70

^uercus Suber, Cork-tree 10 10 45 '

Acer Ruhrum, Scarlet- flowered Maple 43 40

^uercus Hex, Ever green Oak So 50

Gleditjia Tricanthus, Three-thorned Acacia,

on the lawn . 8 3

Another, near the "-Porter's Lodge 8 u

On the fide of the Thames are likewife the handfome
"villas of Dr. Milman, Sir Philip Stephens, Bart. Sir Andre\v

K .Snape


Snape Hammond, Dr. Cadogan, and Mrs. Chauncey ; and
Stourton Houfe, a beautiful cottage, the property and refi-
dence of William Sharp, Efq. See It'alham Green.

GATTON, in Surry, 19 miles from London, in the
road to Reigate, was formerly a very populous place,
but now only a mean village. Ever fince the reign of
Henry VI, it'has fent Members to Parliament, who are re-
turned by its Conftable, annually chofen at the Lord of the
Manor's 'court, by feven electors. At the entrance of this
place from London, is Upper Gatton Houfe, the pro-
perty of William Petrie, Elq. and refidence of Mark Cur-
vie, Efq. This is furrounded by fine plantations, and com-
mands rich and extenfive profpe&s. A mile further is
Gatton Park, or Lower Gatton Houfe, a new and beauti-
ful ftrufture. This is the m an fion- houfe, which carries
with it the entire property of the borough, and was pur-
chaftd by Mr. Petrie of Robert Ladbroke, Efq. for i io,oool.
The approach to this houfe is thought to equal any thing
of the kind in the kingdom. From the lodge, which is on
the fummit of the hill leading to Reigate, the road winds
beautifully down the park, for a mile, amid woods and
groves of fir; prefenting, here and there, through breaks,
fome enchanting views of the country below. From the
fouth front of the houfe, the profpefts are rich, various,
and extenfive. At the foot of the doping eminence on
which it is lituated, is a fine lake of 40 acres, enriched
with two beautiful well-planted iflands, the haunts of fwans
and other kinds of water-fowl. The adjacent country is
finely broken and diverfified by wood-crowned hills and
luxuriant vales. Farther on is Ladbroke Houfe, the refi-
dence of Mifs Ladbroke.

GIDEA HALL, the feat of Richard Benyon, Efq. near
Rumford, was originally a venerable manfion, bugun in the
reign of Edward IV, by Sir Thomas Cooke, whofe fuf-
ferings during the civil wars, obliged him to leave it unh-
nifhed at his death, in 1478. Sir Anthony, his grandfon,
rme of the preceptors of Edward VI, finished it in the
reign of Elizabeth; whom he had the honour of entertaining


in 1568*. Queen Mary de Medicis was lodged here, in
1637. It was purchafed by Sir John Eyles, Bart, who
took it down, and built the prefent ftruclure, which he
fold, in 1745, to Governor Benyon. The houfe has been
lately raifed and enlarged by his fon, Mr. Benyon, who has
much improved the grounds by plantations, and a fine
piece of water, which the great road crofles, over a bridge
of three elliptic arches, defigned by Wyatt.

GOB1ONS, in the psrifh of North Mims, Herts, fb
named from the Gobions, its ancient lords, was afterward
the feat of Laciy More, mother-in-law of that illu'ftrious
character Sir Thomas More; on whofe execution it was
wrefted from her by the tyrant Henry, notwithstanding it
was her jointure from her fit ft hulband. This venerable
manfion, once famous for its fine gardens in the ancient
tafte, is now the property of John Hunter, Efq. who here
devotes his attention to tillage and grazing. His teams
and ploughs are drawn by oxen, which is a great fmgula-
rity in this county.

* Sir Anthony Cooke was particulaily fortunate in his four daughters,
all eminent for their literary attainments. Mildred, the deleft, was for-
ty-two years the wife of William Lord Burleigh. She was learned hi
the Creek, tongue, and wrote a letter in that language to the Unmrfity r-f
Cambridge. She had great political talents, was a patror.efs of literature,
and diftinguilhed for her numerous charities. Anne, the fecond, was ths
fecond wire of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, and mother of thcgrr.;t
Lord St. Alban's. Eminently (killed in Greek, Latin, and, (he
had the honour of being appointed Governefs to Edward Vf. To her iu-
lirudions was probably owing the furprifing knowledge of that y(. ;
prince. Her font Ar.thony and Francis were not a liitte indebted tor
reputation they acquired, to the pains taken with them, by this excellent
woman, in their tender years. When they grew up, they found in her <i
fevere, but admirable monitor. She tranfhtcd from the Italian, tlie Ser-
mons of Jhrnarline Occhini ; and, from the Latin, Bilhop Jewel's Apo-
logy for the Church of England; both which met with the higheft ap-
plauie. Elizabeth, the third, was equally happy in improving the advan-
tages conferred upon her; for fuch was her progrcfs in the learned lar-
uagcs, that (he gained the applaufe of the moft eminent fcholars of the
age. She was rUft the wife of Sir Thorn js Hobby, Ambaffador to France)
and, afterward, of John Lord Ruflell, fon of Francis Earl of Bedford.
For the tombs of both her hulbunds, (he wrote epitaphs in Greek, Latin,
and Englifti. Catharine, the fourth, married to Sir Henry KilKgrew,
was famous for her knowledge in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin tongue?,
aad foi her flulJ ia poetry. -



GODSTONH, a village in Stirry, 19 miles from Lon-
den, in the road to Lewts, has its name from its excellent
tiunrries. See Ztunlen.

GORHAMB.URY, near St. Alban's, a manor, which
belonged to the church of that place, was granted, at the
diflblunon, to Sir Ralph Rowlet, who fold it to Sir Niehok.s
Bacon, the Lord Keeper, who built that magnificent ipeci-
men of ancient architecture now demolifhed, and adorned
it with very famous gardens. Sir Nicholas was fucceeded
by his fon Anthony, at whofe death it devolved on that
glory of our country, Francis Vifcount St. Albau's, whofe
matchlefs talents, deplorable weaknefles, and merited fall,
h.,ve been the fubja of fo many able pens. Forefeeing
his lull, hi: (vnveyed his eftate to his faithful Secretary Sir
Thomas Meautys, from whofe heirs it pafled by (ale nuo
the family oi the prefent Lord Grimfton.

Here, "in 1557, Quern Elizabeth was entertained by Sir
Nicholas Bacon, from Saturday, May 18, to the Wednesday
following, at the expence of 577!. 6s. ;{d. befide 15 ; bucks
and two ftags. Among the dainties of the feathered kind,
in this entertainment, we obferve herons, bitterns, god-
\vittes, dotterels, fliovelers, curlews, and knots; and it may
not be improper to add, that in Mr. Nichols' relation of
her Majeftv's vifit to Cowdry in Suffex, where fhe fpent
fome days,' we find " the proportion of breakfaft was three
oxen and i4ogeefe !"

Mr. Horace Walpole complimented the late proprietor
on his good tafte in preferring the venerable manfion ho-
noured by the vifits of Elizabeth, and the reGdence of the
treat-Lord St. Alban's. But, alas! we may apply to
Fafhion what the Poet fays of Love, " Omnia vincit Amor,
& nos cedamus Amori." The modern Gorhambury was
built bv the prefent Lord Grimfton. N -

GRAVESEND, in Kent, the firft port in the Thames,
as miles from London. The pariflies of Gravefend and
Milton were incorporated by Queen Elizabeth, and are
governed by a Mayor, 12 Jurats and 24 Common Coun-
cilmen. It has a' market every Wednefday and Saturday.
The manor of Gravefend being in the pofleffion of the Ab-
bot of St. Mary la Grace, of Tower Hill, he obtained of
Richard IJ, a grant to Gravefend and MiltOQ of the exclu-

G ff E" ICXi

five privilege of conveying paflengers to London, on con-
dition that they mould provide boats, and carry all per-
ibns, at two- pence a head, or the whole boat's fare at four
(hillings. They dill enjoy this privilege:, but the fare is
now ninepence each. The boats depart on the ringing of a.
bell a quarter of an hour : they go to London with every,
flood, and return from Billingfgate with every ebb. Coaches
attend, the arrival of the boats, to convey the palfengers to.
Rochefter, at is. 6d. each.

In 1727, the church and great part of the town were
eonfumed by fire. Soon after, the prefent church was erecl-
ed. The town-houfe was built in 1764. In 1/72, an
ad was obtained for new paving and lighting the fireets.

GREENHITHE, in Kent, a hamlet of Sw.anfcomb, oiv
the Thames, has a horfe -ferry to Weft Thurrock, in Effex..
Great quantities of lime are conveyed hence to, London,
for building; and not only the farmers on the EiTex coaft,.
but coafting vefTels alfo, from different parts of the king-
dom, frequently take in here a freight of chalk. Extra-
neous foflrls are often found imbedded in the chalk.

GREENSTED, a village near Chipping Ongar, in Ef-
fex, remarkable for its ancient little church, a plate of
which is engraved by the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. II.
Plate VII. Its walls are formed of the folid. trunks of
trees placed in rows, and feem calculated to endure for ages,
more, though anterior to the Conqueft. Greenfted HalL
is the feat of John Redman, Efq.

GREEN STREET HOUSE, the feat of William Mor-
ley, Efq. in the parifli of Eaft Ham. It ftands about <n
mile N. W. of the church, and is partly ancient, and.
partly modernized, with an old tower in the garden, ro
feet high. This houfe is faid to have been built by King
Henry VIII, for Queen Anne Boleyn. The eftnte h is
been in the family of the Nevils, Earls of Weflmorhnd-
and Lords Latimer, fome of whom are interred iu the

GREENWICH, a town in Kent, 4 miles f,rom London,,
was the birthpJace of Queen Mary and- Queen Elizabeth :
and here Edward VI died. A palace, erecled here by
Humphry Duke of Gloucefter, who named it Placentia, was
enlarged by Henry VII, and completed by Henry VIII:
K 3. but


Lnt being afterward fuffered to run to ruin, was pulled
down by' Charles II, who began a magnificent edifice, and
Jived to fee the firft wing finiflied. He alfo enlarged the
park, walled it round, planted it, and erefted a royal ob-
fervatory on the top of the hill, for the ufe of the cele v
brated t'lamfteed, whofe name the hill retains. He like-
wife furnifhed it with mathematical inftruments for aftro-
nomical obfervations, and a deep dry well for obferving
the ftars in the day time. On the fite of this ancient palace
is the handfome refidenre of the Ranger of the park. This
park is well flocked with deer, and affords as much variety
in proportion to its fize, as any in the kingdom ; but the
views from the Obfervatoi v and the One-tree Hill are
beautiful beyond imagination, particularly the former.
The, projection of thefe hills is fo bold, that you do not
look down upon a gradually falling flope or flat inclofures,
but at once upon the tops of branching trees, which grow
in knots and clumps out of deep hollows and imbrowning
dells. The cattle feeding on the lawns, which appear irt
breaks among them, feem moving in a region of fairy land.
A thoufand natural openings among the branches of the
trees break upon little piclurefque views of the fwelling
furf, which, when illumined by the fun, have an effect,
pleating beyond the power of fancy to exhibit. This is the
fore-ground of the landfcape; a little farther the eye falls
en the noble hofpital in the midft of an amphitheatre of
wood ; then the two reaches of the river make that beau-
tiful ferpentine which forms the Ifle of Docs, and prefents
the floating commerce of the Thames. To the left, appears
a fine trad of country leading to the capital, which there
terminates the profpeft.

The church, rebuilt by the Commiffioners for creeling
the fifty new churches, is dedicated to St. Alphage, Abp.
of Canterbury, faid to have been flain by the Danes, on
that fpot. A college at the end of the town, fronting the
Thames, (for the maintenance of 20 decayed old houfe-
keepers, 12 out of Greenwich, and eight to be alternately
chofen from Snonifham 2nd Caftle-Rifing in Norfolk) is
called the Duke of Norfolk's College, though it was found-
ed, in 1613, by Kenry Earl of Northampton, brother of
Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, and fon of that illuftri-



ous warrior and poet, Henry Earl of Surry. In 1560,
Mr. Lambard, author of the Perambulation of Kent, built
an hofpital, called Queen Elizabeth's College, the firft
erected by an Englifh Proteftant fubject.

At the fummit of Maize Hill are Vanbrugh Fields, in
which is a houfe huilt by the celebrated Sir John Van-
brngh, in imitation, it is faid, of part of the late Baftile at
Paris, in which he was certainly confined for fome time.
Jt is the refidence of William Webber, Efq. Not far from
it are fome other houfes in the fame ftyle of building, one
of which was the feat of the late LordTyrawley, but is now
inhabited by Henry Goodwyn, fen. Efq. See Blatkheatb,
Wejicomb Park, and Woodland Houfe.

GREENWICH HOSPITAL, was founded in 1694, by
King William and Queen Mary, for the ufe of difabled
Englifh feamen and their children, and for the widows and
children of fuch as were flain at fea*.

It is creeled on the fouth fide of the Thames, on a ter-
race 860 feet in length, andconfifts of four diftinc"l piles of
building, called King Charles's, Queen Anne's, King Wil-
liam's, and Queen Mary's. The interval between the two
mod northern buildings, King Charles's and Queen Anne's,
forms the grand fquare, which is 273 feet wide.

In the centre of the grand fquare is a fine ffatue of
George II, by Ryfbrach, fculptured out of a fingle block of
white marble, which weighed 1 1 tons, and was taken from
the French by Sir George Rooke. On each of the four
fides is a fuitable infcription in Latin.

King Charles's building is on the weft fide of the great
fquare. He refided in the eaft part of it, which was erect-
ed by Webb, after a defign by Inigo Jones: it is of Port-
land (lone, and rufticated. In the middle is a tetraftyle

Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 10 of 30)