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F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 17 of 30)
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has repaired the gaps made in the woods by one of his an-
ceftors, who, " foe to the Dryads of his father's groves,"
had unveiled their haunts, and expofed their recefles to
the garifh eye of day. The plantations are not dotted
about in clumps, as it they had no reference to a whole or
general effect, but in broad and fpacious maflTes cover the
fummits of the undulating line, or flcirt the vallies in eafy
fweeps. Not to dwell, however, on " barren generalities,"
there are two points of view, among many others, that par-
ticularly deferve attention : the one is from the end of a
valley which goes in a fouthweft direction from the houfe.
It forms a gentle curve ; the groves rife magnificently on
each fide, and the trees (many of them beeches of the
Jargeft fize) are generally feathered to the bottom. The
manfion, with its towers and battlements, and a back
ground of hills covered with wood, terminate the vifta.
The time moft favourable for the profpect is a little before
the fetting fun, when the foreground is darkened by a great
mafs of (hade, and the houfe, from this circumftance, and
iis being brightened by the fun's rays, is brought forward
to the eye in a very beautiful manner. The other view is
from a rifiag ground of the fame valley, and of a different
kind from the former. On gaining the fummit of a hill,
a profpeft of vaft extent burfts at once upon the eye ;
woods, heaths, towns, and villages, appearing all in bright
Q_ confiuion ;



170 LAINDON HILLS.

confufion; and the fudden and abrupt manner in which
thr profpeel pi-dents itielf being in perfecl unifon with the
wildnefs of the fccnery. The eye takes in the greater part
of Welt Kent, a confiderable part of Suflex, and a diftant
view of the hills of Hampfhire. The foreground is woody;
the whitened fteeples riling every where among the trees,
with gentlemen's feats fcattered round in great abundance;
and Penfliurft, the ancient refidence of the Sidneys, ftand-
ing confpicuoully on a gentle fwell, forming a middle poiat
between the foreground and the South Downs that Ikirt the
horizon, reminding the reader of the fpot where the patriot
Algernon .Sidney, and the gallant Sir Philip were born,
and where the amorous Waller immortalifed his Sacharifla,
This delightful fpot is called River Hill. In the park is
abundance of fine deer.



LAIXDON HILLS, LANGDON HII.LS, or LAXGDON
WITH WEST LEA, a parifh in EfTex, contiguous to that
of Langdon and Baflldon, and lying in the road from
Chelmsford to Tilbury Fort, 22 miles . by N. of London.
This parifli was once fuppofed to be the higheft ground in
Eflex; but, on a furvey, it has been found not to be fo
high as Danbury. The afcent on the North fide ieafy;
but, on the South, S. E. and S. W. the traveller is afto-
nifhed at the* defcent before him, which exhibits a very
beautiful and extenfive valley, with a view of London to
the right, the Thames winding through the valley, and the
view extending to the left beyond the Medway. Mr.
Young, in his Six Week's Tour through the Southern
Counties, thus defer ibes this profpeft : " On the fummit
of a vaft hill, one of the molt aftonifliing profpects to be
beheld, breaks out, almoft at once, upon one of the dark
lanes. Such a prodigious valley, every where painted with
the fineft verdure, and interfered with numberlefs hedg%
and woods, appears beneath you, that it is paft defcription;
the Thames winding through it, full of (lifps, and bounded
by the hills of Kent. Nothing can exceed it, unlefs that
which Haunibal exhibited to his difconfoiate troops, when

he



L A M i;i

he bade them behold the glories of the Italhn plains! Jf
ever a turnpike road fhould lead through this country, I
beg you will go and view this enchanting fcene, though a
journey of forty miles is neceflary for it. I never beheld
any thing equal to it in the Weft of England, that region
of landfcape." This turnpike road is not now wanting.

LALEHAM, a village in Micldlefex, between Shepper-
ton and Staines,- famed for the entertainment it affords to
lover of angling. The Thames narrows confiderably
here; and, about the (hallows or gulls, the water is beau-
tifully tranfparent. The tranquillity of the fcenery, the va-
rious- objecls gliding on the ftream, and groups of cattle in
the adjacent meadows, prefent a pleating fubject to the con-
templative mind. Here the Earl of Lonfdale has a hand-
fome feat.

LAMBETH, a vilage in Surry, which the late increafe'
of buildings, in every direction, from the three bridges, has
now united to the metropolis. It extends a considerable
way along the banks of the Thames,, from Vauxhafl to
Southward; and the parifh, which extends to Norwood,
Stie.Uham, and Croydon, contains fix precincts, or libc:
namely, the Arch bi {hop's, the Prince's, Vauxhall, the Marfii
and Wall, Stockwell, and the Dean's. Near Weftmi-nfter
Bridge, isafpot of ground, containing an acre and IQ
poles, named Pedlar 'a Acre, which belongs to the parifh, and
ia faid to have been given by a pedlar, on condition, that
his picture, with that of his dog, be perpetually preserved
in painted glafs, in one of the windows of the church j
which the parifhioners carefully performed in the foutheaft
window of the middle aide. It has been fuggefted, how-
ever, and with great probability, that this picture was in-
tended rather zs a rebus upon the name of the benefactor,
than asdefcriptive of his trade; for, in the church at Swaff-
hnm, in Norfolk, is the portrait of John Chapman, a great
benefactor to that parifh ; and the device of a pedlar and
his pack occurs in feveral parts of the church ; which cir-
cumftance has given rife to nearly the fame tradition as at
Lambeth. But whatever be the origin of this gift, the time
of it was in 1504, when it was let at ss. 8d. per ann. but
in 1752, it was leafed at lool. per ann. and a fine of Bool.
0,3 It



If* LAMBETH.

It is now cftimated at 250!. a year. The annual value of
all the eftates belonging to this parifli is 968!. i6s. 8d.

The church is clofe to the palace. Mary Queen of James
II, flying wi:h her infant fon from the ruin impending
r family, after croffing the river from Whitehall,
took flicker beneath the ancient walls of this church, a
whole hour, from the rain of the inclement night of Dec.
6, 1688. Here fhe waited, a melancholy fpectacle of fallen
mnjefty, till a coach, procured from the next inn, arrived,
and conveyed her to Gravefend, whence fhe failed to
.Frame.

In this church were interred the mild and amiable pre-
lates, Tunfhl of Durham, and Thirleby of Ely, who being
deprived of their fees, for their confcientious attachment to
the Catholic religion, lived, for the remainder of their
i Lambeth Palace, under the protection of the good
Abp. Parker, who revered their virtues, and felt for their
misfortunes. The body of Thirlebye \vas found, in dig-
ging a grave for Abp^. Coruwallis, 'His long And venera-
ble beard, and every part, was entire, and, of a beautiful
whitenefs: a flouched hat was under his left nrm \ hiatlrefs
that of a pilgrim, as heefteemed himfdf to be upon earth.

In the churchyard is the tomb of John Tradefcant, fa-
ther and fon, founders of the Aflimolean Mufeum, at Ox-
ford. It was ornamented, on the fides, by emblematic de-
vices, denoting the extent of their travels, and their atten-
tion to natural hiftory. Thefe are nearly defaced , but, in
1773, a new flab was placed upon the tomb, and the epi-
taph engraved upon it, which no_ naturalift ihould neglccl
to read.

In 1769, an artificial ftone manufactory was erected by
Mrs. Coade, at King's Arms Stairs, Narrow Wall. It an-
fwers every purpofe of ftone carving, having the peculiar
property of refilling froft, and, confequently, of retaining
that fharpnefs in which it excels every kind of ftone fculp-
ture, and even equals marble. Here are many fine ftatues,
from the mafterly models of Bacon. It extends alfo to
every kind of architectural ornament, in which it comes
much below the price of ftone.

In this parifli is the Afrlum for Orphan Girls, whofe
fettlement, after a refidence of fix months in the bills of

mortality,



LAMBETH 1>ALAC'E. 1 J 3

mortality, cannot be found: it was inftituted in 1758.
Here alfo, is the Weftminfter New Lying-in Hofpital, in-'
ftituted in 1765. In this, particular; wards are appropri-
ated for the reception of unmarried worrren.

At Lambeth, the Danifh King Hardicamite, died fud-
denly, in 1041, during an entertainment given on account
of the marriage of a noble Dane. His death was imputed
by fome to poifon ; by others, to intemperance ; and the'
fcene of it was probably at Kennington ; where the vef-
tiges of an ancient royal palace were lately to be feen. In-
the beginning of the prefent century, Lambeth contained
1400 houfes. The prefent number, including thofe build-
ing, or newly built, and not yet inhabited (which are about
500) is 4150.

LAMBETH PALACE, the venerable manfion of the
Abps. of Canterbury, fituate on the Thames, oppofite
Weftminfter Abbey.

Its founder feems to have been Abp. Boniface, in the
1 3th century. Abp. Chkhele built the Lollards Tower,
in 1435. Abps. Stafford, Morton, Warham, Cranmer,.
Pole, Parker, and Bancroft, expended great firms oa this
palace. It had fuffered much in Wat Tyler's rebellion, ifv
1381, when the commons of Eflex there murdered Abp.'
Sudbury; and, on the decollation of King Charles the
Firft, it was purchafed for 1073!. by Col. Scott, who con-
verted the chapel into a dancing room, demoliihed the'
great hall, and, in other refpecls, reduced the venerable
pile to a ruinous condition. Abp. Juxon rebuilt the great
hall, at the expense of 10,500!. and the Abps. Sheldon,
Bancroft, Tillotfon, Tenifon, Wake, Seeker, and Corn-
wailis, (pared no coft to render this ancient {trucTure, not
only convenient and comfortable, but worthy of being the
refidence of the Primates of all England. In 1776, it was
determined to be extraparoch'ial, by a decifion in the Court
of Common Pleas.

The gardens and park, which contain near 13 acres, arc
laid out with great tafte. They have been enlarged and.
rmich improved by the prefent Arcbbifhop, who (befide
building an extensive brick wall) has made a new accefs to
the houfe, for carriages, through the park. In the garden
are two remarkable fig-trees, of the white MadeilJes, whacfi

beau



I 74 LAMBETH PALACE.

hear delicious fruit. Tradition fays, they were planted by
Cardinal Pole. They cover a furface of 50 feet in height
and 40 in breadth. The circumference of the fouthernioft
is 2 8 i nches, of the -other 2 1 < .

We are now to take a curfory view of the apartments :
The Chapel: when this chapel was converted into a danc-
ing-room, the body of Abp. Parker was taken out of his
tomb here, and buried in a dunghill. After the refloration,
Sir William Dugdale acquainted Abp. Sancroft therewith,
by whole care the body was difcovered, and again depofited
in the fpot whence it had been taken. Over it is a Latin
ihfcription, the Englifli of which is : " The body of Mat-
thew the Archbifhop here refis at laft." Another monu-
ment, recounting the demolition of his tomb, and the
treatment of his body, was fet up, by the fame prelate, in
the fouthwefl corner of this chapei.

The Gateway : The archieves of the fee are kept in a
room over the gateway, called the record-room. This
gateway, and the adjoining tower, which are of brick, were
built by Abp. Morton, about the year 1490.

The'Ne r u} Buildings : A houfe on the right hand of the
tirft court, built by Abps. Sancroft and Tillotfon, is thus
called.

The Great Hall: The dimensions of this hall are 93 feet
by 38. It has a gothic roof of wood.

The Guard Chamber, anciently ufed as fuch, is 56 feet by
S7|, and is fuppofed to have been built before the year
1424. It is roofed like the hall. Adjoining to this are a
drawing-room and dreffing-room, built by Abp. Corn-
wall is.

The Prrfence Chamber has three windows adorned with
painted glafs, reprefenting St. Jerome and St. Gregory,
with old Knglifh verfes beneath them. The middle win-
dow has a painted fun-dial, with a view of the theatre at
Oxford, and the arms of the fee, and of Abp. Sheldon, at
whofe expence it was done.

The Lobby : In this room is the portrait of Henry Prince
of Wales, fon to James I.

The Long Gallery, built by the mild and amiable Cardi-
nal Pole, is 90 feet by 16. The wainfcot remains in its
Original ftate, being all of mantled carving. In the win-
dows



LAMBETH PALACE. 175

dows are coats of arms of different Prelates of this fee. It
is filled with portraits, chiefly prelates, among which are
Abps. Warham and Parker, by Holbein ; another of the laft
prelate, by Lyne; and Bp. Hoadly, by his fecond'wife.

The prefent Abp. has made a very handfome bay win-
dow, in the modern tafte, from the ceiling to the floor.
This affords a fine view of the lawn and plantations ; and,
in the latter, openings have been made, through which
Weftminfter Abbey, the Bridge, the Patent Shot Manu-
faftory, St. Paul's, and the Monument, are feen to great
advantage, and produce a fine effecl.

The Great Dining Room has all the Abps. from Laud to
Cornwallis. That of Laud is by Vandyck ; Juxon, from
a good original, at Longleate ; Tenifon, by Dubois; Her-
ring, by Hogarth ; Hutton, by Hudfon ; Seeker, by Rey-
nolds ; and Cornwallis, by Dance. In thefe portraits may
be obferved the gradual change of the clerical drefs, in the
articles of bands and wigs. A large ruff anciently fupplied
the place of the former. Abp. Tillotfon was the firft pre-
late that wore a wig; which was then not unlike the natu-
ral hair, and worn without powder.

The Lollards Tower : At the top of this tower, is the room
in which the Lollards were confined. It is only 12 feet long
and nine broad. In the wainfcot, which is of oak, are
fattened eight iron rings; and there are many half fen-
tences, with names and letters, cut with a knife, as is fup-
pofed, by the perfons confined here. It is here to be ob-
ferved, that the Archbifbops, before the Reformation, had
prifons for the puniihment of ecclefiaftical offenders.
Queen Elizabeth frequently made this palace a prifon;
not only committing the two Popifh Prelates Tunftall and
Thirleby to the cuftody of the Archbifhop, but other per-
fons of rank ; here the Earl of Eflex was confined, before
he was fent to the Tower. It was ufual for them to be
kept in feparate apartments, and to eat at the Archbifhop's.
table.

The Library was founded by Abp. Bancroft, in 1610.
His fucceflbr, Abbot, took great pains to fecure the books
to the fee, and, at his death, much increafed them. During
the civil war, they were depofited at Cambridge, at the
fuggeflion of the celebrated Selden, that Trinity College,

in



176 SOUTH LAMBETH.

in that univerfity, had a reverfionary right to them, on the
abolition of the hierarchy. Here they remainrd till the
reftoration, when they were returned to Abp Seldon, who
made a ronficlerable addition to them. Abp.Tennifon, alfo
bequeathed a part of his books ta this library, as did Abp.
Seeker; many valuable books have been added by Abp.
Cornvvallis; and the number of them amounts to 2^,000
volumes. On the northeaft window is painted in glafs,
the portrait of St. Auguftine, with old Englifh verfes be-
neath it ; and near it is a figure of Abp. Chichele, with the
motto of Abp. Stafford, put here by the miftake of a gla-
zier. .This library is adorned with a fine picture of Can-
terbury Cathedral, and prints of all the Archbifhops from
Warham to the prefent time. Here alfo Abp. Cornwallis
placed fome fmall prints, framed, of the principal reformers
from popery, and of the moft eminent nonconformift mi-
nifters of the lait and prefent century. The (hell of a tor-
toife is fliewn, to which a label is affix-ed, importing, that
this tortoife was put in the garden, by Abp. Laud, in 1633,
and killed in 1757, by the negligence of a gardener. This
library ftands over the cloifters, and forms a narrow g?.\-
lery, which occupies the four fquares of a quadrangle.
Among the books, is an oclavo edition of the Liturgy of
the Church of England, tranflated into the Mohawk lan-
guage, by the famous Indian Chief, Colonel Brandt.

The Library of MSS. ftands over part of the lafl, and con-
tains about 1 1,000 MSS. many of which are very curious.
The prefent Abp. has given a confiderable fum for the
fitting up of a proper repofitory for this colleclion.

LAMBETH, SOUTH, between Stockwell and Vaux-'
hall, was thought fo agreeable a .fituation, by Sir Noel
Caron (who was, for 33 years, AmbalTador to this country
from the United Provinces) that he erected here a hand-
fome palace with two wings. On the front was written
Qntnefdumforti f atria. What remains of it is an academy,
called Caron Houfe; and on afpot, which was part of his
park, is Caron Park, the handfome villa of Charles Blicke,
Efq. Oppofite this is a new chapel of eafe, built by a fub-
fcjipdon of the inhabitants.

Here lived the Tradefcants, father and fon, who made
the celebrated colleclion of rarities, dtfcribed in a-book,

printed



L A T



77



printed at London, in 1656, called Mnfeum Tradefcantia-
num. By a deed of gift of the younger Tradefcant and his
wife, they became the property of Elias Afhmole, Efq. who
prefented them to the univerfity of Oxford. Here was
their celebrated phyfic garden, one of the firft eftablifhed
in the kingdom. The elder Tradefcant, had been gardener
to Villiers Duke of Buckingham, and other noblemen, and
was afterward promoted to the fervice of Charles I. He
travelled over great part of Europe and Africa, in fearch
of new plants; many of thofe introduced by him were
long called by his name ; but there are now no traces of
this garden. See Knight's Hill, Lambeth, and VauxbalL

LANGLEY, a fcattered village in Buckinghamshire, 18
miles from London, to the right of the road to Colnbrook.
The parifli confifts of three diftricls, called Weftmore
Green, Horfcmore Green, and Southern or Middle Green;
in the laft of which is the elegant feat of Mr. Irby ; and a
neat houfe, built by Mr. Webb, and the residence of Ro-
bert Spragge, Efq.

LANGLEY PARK, near Colnbrook, the feat of Sir
Robert Batefon Harvey, Bart, is a handfome ftone build-
ing, ere&ed by the late Duke of Maryborough. It is in
the centre of a fine park, abounding with a variety of Hne
timber. A piece ot water runs alone the fouth front of
the houfe, at the foot of a Hoping lawn, on which are
fcattered fame beautiful clumps of trees, and other wood-
land fcenery, A rifing ground, at the weft extremity of
the park, leads to an extenfive inclofure, called the Black
Park, entirely covered by firs, except where fome roads are
cut. In the centre is a fine lake. There is fomething of
Alpine fcenery in this fequeftered fpot, the idea of which is
the more forcibly imprefled by the furrounding fombre
woods of deep- tinted firs.

LATTON PRIORY, three miles fouth of the church
of Latton, and half a mile welt of the road from Epping
to Harlow. The priory church, now ufed as a barn, con-
fifts of a nave and a crofs aide; and the infide of the
building is of the lighter ftyle of Gothic, with the pointed
arch. The materials of which it is compofed are flint,
ftones, mortar, and the old flat bricks called Roman ; and
what appears to have been the fite of the priory is fur-
rounded



178 L E A.

rounded by a moat, without which, fouth of the prefent
buildings, human bones are frequently found ; which cir-
cumftance points out the ancient burialplace. Eaft of the
church, without the moat, appears a Imall rifing, with a
hollow without it, like the remains of .an intrenchment.
The interval between this rife and the moat, the inhabi-
tants, from its appearance, call the Monks' Bowling Greeiu
The Canons of this priory were Auguftine. At the diflb-
lutioa, it was granted to Sir Henry Parker. It was pur-
chafed, in 1562, by James Altham, Efq. whofe defcendant,
Sir William Altham, fold it to William Lulhington, Efq.
with the fine manor and manfion of Marks Hall, in this
pai i(h. Mr. Lufliington rebuilt the houfe in the modern
ftyle, and fold it to Montague Burgoyne, Efq.

LAYER, the name of three pariflu-s well of On gar, in
Eflex, diftinguifhed by the appellations of High, Mavdalen,
and Little. In the parifli of High Laver is Otes, the feat
of Sir Francis Ma (ham, M. P. for Eflex, from 1690 to
1708. That illuilrious phlloibphqr, John Locke, fpcnt
much of hii time, in the laft ten years of his life, at Otes,
where he vvastreated with the utmoft friendfhip by Sir
Francis aud his excellent Lady, Damaris, who confoled his
laft moments by her kind offices, and by reading to him
the Pfalms, and other portions of Scripture. Here he
died, in 1704., and was buried in the fouth fide of the
churchyard, under a black marble graveftone, inclofed by
iron rails; and, on the wall of the church above, is his epi-
taph, printed in his works. This tomb and monument
were repaired about twelve years ago. Otes continued in
this family till the death of the laft Lord Ivlafhain, in. 1 776.
It \-> now the feat of fohn Baker, Efq.

LA.YTONSTONE. See Low Layton.

LEA, a river of Herts, which rifes out of Leagrnve
Marfh in the foirth of Bedford (hi re, and fimving obliquely
to the eaftern fide of the county, wafhts the towns of
Hertford and Ware, from the laft of which it is navigable
to the Thames, It collects, in its courfe, all the ftreams
of the northern and eaftern parts of the county, divides part
of it from Eflex, and is the boundary between that county
and Middlefex. Pope thus mentions this river :
1 he culfv L?A his fcdey trcffcs rears.

LEATHER-



LEI 1-9

LEATHERHEAD, a village in Surry,four miles S.W.
of Epfom, had formerly a market. Here is a neat bridge
of feveral arches over the river Mole. In its vicinity are
fome handfome villas; particularly, Thorncroft, the feat
of Henry Boulton, Efq. Lord of the Manor; Randall
Houfe, the feat of Dalhoufie Weatherfton, Efq. and Givon's
Grove, the refidence of Mr. Fuller.

LEE, a village in Kent, fix miles from London, on the
fouth fide- of Blackheath, and on the road to Maidftone,
contains Lee Place, the handfome feat of Lord Dacre.
Here is likewife the ancient family feat of Charles Boone,
Efq. occupied by Benjamin Harrifon, Efq. On the fum-
mit of the hill, next the heath, ftandg the ancient church of
Lee, in a fituation particularly rural and picturefque. In
the churchyard are two fine monuments; the one of the
Boone, and the other of the Fluyder family. T\he great
r.ftronomer-royal, Dr. Edmund Halley, is interred here,
under a plain tomb, with a Latin infcription, which is
printed with his life.

Immortal Halley ! thy unwearied foul
On wifdom's pinion flew from pole to pole,
Th* uncertain compafs to its taflc reftor'd,
Each ocean fathom'd, and each wind explor'd,
Commanded trade with every breeze to flv,
And gave to "Britain half the Zemblian fky.

And fee, he comes, diftinguifh'd, lov'd, careft,
Mark'd by each eye, and hugg'd to ev'ry breaft;
His godlike labours, wit and fcience fire,
All factions court him, and all fefts admire :
While Britain, with a gratitude unknown
To ev'ry age but Nero'^nd our own,
A gratitude that will for ever fhame
The Spartan glory and th' Athenian name ;
Tell it, ye winds ! that all the world may hear
Bleft his old age with ninety pounds a year !



But the illuftrious Halley had not the fcientific and mu-
nificent Patron of a Herfchel.

LEITH-HILL, five miles W. by S. of Darkirtg, in Sur-
ry, is admired for one of the nobleft profpefts in Europe,
of which Mr. Dennis has given a fine defcription in his
Familiar Letters. At the top of one part of the hill a fquare

tower



iSo ST. LEONARD'S HILL.

tower has been ere&ed, over the door of which is the fol-
lowing infcription:




Another infer! prion was afterward placed on this tower,
importing, that Mr. Hull, after having ferved in feveral
parliaments, retired from public bufinefs to the exercife of
the private virtues, and having chofen this delightful fpot
for the depofitory for his bones, is here interred.

St. LEONARD'S HILL, a fine eminence in Windfor
Foreft, beautifully clothed with venerable oaks and majef-
tic beeches. On the fummit, is a noble feat, built by
Maria Countefs Dowager Waldegrave, and having been
greatly improved by the Duke of Gloucefter, on his mar-
riage with that lady, it received the name of Gloucefter
Lodge. This elegant villa, with the pleafure-grounds,
lawns, and meadows, confifting of about 75 acres, were
fold by auction, in 1781, to Mr. Macnamara, for 7100



Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 17 of 30)