guineas. Of him it was purchafed by General Harcourt
for io,oool. The principal elevation of the building is
regular, and the apartments are fpacious and elegant. In
the fouth front, adjoining the hall, is a Gothic room, called
the Saloon, where the plate glafs in the compartments on
one fide, and the large convex mirrors on the other, reite-
rate the objects, and produce a very pleafing effect.
This enchanting fpot is thus noticed by a truly poetical
Hence, Fancy, wing th^ rapid flight
O'er oaks in deepeft verdrfre dighr,
Whofe writhed limbs "of giant mou!d
Wave to the breeze their umbrage bold ;
Bear me, embowering /hades between,
Through many a glade and vifta green,
Whence filver ftreams are feen to glide,
And towering domes th' horizon hide,
To Leonard's foreft-fringed mound j
Where lavifo Nature fpreads around
Whatever can captivate the fight,
Elyfian lawns, and profpefts bright
As vifions of expiring fiiints,
Or fcenei that Harcourt's pencil paints.
A little to the fouth, on the declivity of the hill, is Sophia
Farm, formerly the feat of Lillie Ainfcombe, Efq. of whom
it was purchafed by the Duke of GJoucefter, to conftitute
an appendage, or farm, to Gloucester Lodge. His Royal
Highnefs named it from the Princefs Sophia, his daughter.
It is now the feat of Mrs. Birch.
LEWISHAM, a village in Kent, 5* miles from Lon-
don, in the road to Bromley. In this parifh is a hill, with
an oak upon it, called the Oak of Honour, becaufe Queen
Elizabeth is faid to have dined under it. The original
tree, which ferved for a canopy to this illuttrious Princefs,
is long ago penfhed ; but care has been taken to plant an
oak on the fpot, that this traditional anecdote may not be
forgotten. The church is an elegant modern edifice. A
branch of the river Ravenfbourn runs through the ftreet of
this village, and is a great addition to its beauty.
LIMEHOUSE, ST. ANNE'S, at the eaftern extremity
of the metropolis, is a parifli taken from that of Stepney.
The church, a mafly inelegant ftruclure, is one of the 50
new churches built in the reign of Queen Anne. A nev/
cut, from the river Lea, enters the Thames at this place,
and faves the circuitous navigation round the Jile of Dogs.
It was made about the year 1767.
LIMEHOUSE HOLE, part of the hamlet of Poplar, has
two <x>nfiderable yards for imp-building; one belonging to
Mr. Batfon, and the other to Meflrs. Hill and Melhfh.
LINGFIELD, in Surry, on the borders of Kent and
Suflex, has a fine fpring on the common, paled in, and of
the fame virtue with that of Tunbridge.
LITTLETON, a village, near Laleham. Here is the
handfome feat of Thomas Wood, Efq.
LONG DITTON, a village in Surry, two miles from
Kingfton. It has a neat and even elegant new church.
LONGFORD, a hamlet of Harmomlfworth, 15 miles
from London, in the road to Bath, is watered by the river
Coin, which crofies the road here in four branches. It
is frequented by the lovers of angling.
LOUGHTON, a village, 1 1 miles from London, in the
road to Epping. Loughton Hall is the feat of Mifs Whk-
aker, and Golden Hill, in the fame parifh, of Mrs. Cloy.
Here alfo is an ancient building, called Queen Elizibeth's
Lodge, faid to have been a hunting-feat of that Princefs. It
is the property of William Heathcote, Efq. and is occupied
bv his gamekeeper.
' LOW LAYTON, a village in Eflex (which, with that
of Laytonftone, forms but one parifh) on the fkirts of Ep-
ping Foreft, 5* miles from London. Here are fome fine
feats ; ..particul a rly, the Foreft Houfe, fronting the forelt,
the property of the late Samuel Hofanquet, Efq; the beautiful
manfion of Thomas Oliver, Efq ; and the Manor Houfe,
once the feat of that great lawyer, Sir John Strange, and
now of Nathaniel Brafley, Efq. Here was a Roman ftation;
feveral foundations, with Roman bricks and coins, having
been found near the Manor Houfe ; and fome urns, with
afhes in them, have been dug up in the churchyard and
LULLINGSTON PLACE, the fine feat and park of
Sir John Dixon Dyke, Bait. 18 miles from London, on
the right of the road to Maidftone.
LUXBOROUGH, the elegant villa of the late Admiral
Sir Edward Hughes, K. B, and now of Lady Hughes, is
fituated in the parifh of Chigwell, near Woodford Bridge,
Eflex, and was built by Lord Luxborough, in the year 1 742.
It afterward became the property of Sir Edward Walpole,
who having in vain endeavoured to drain effectually the
furrounding land, which was occafionally flooded, difpofed
of it to Mr. Samuel Peach, who purchafed it on fpecula-
tion; and by him it was again fold, in 1782, to Lady
Hughes, who, during the abfence of the Admiral, in the
Eaft Indies, directed all the improvements in the houfe and
gardens. In thefe fhe has fhewn a fine tafte, with indefa-
tigable perfeverance. She contrived, moreover, the moft
effectual prefervation againft any future encroachments of
the river Roding, which now adorns the fertile grounds Lt
had been accuftomed to disfigure.
TV If ADAM'S COURT HILL, a hill m Kent, 19 miles
J_V JL from London, in the road to Sevenoaks. It com-
jnands a very rich and extenfive profpeft.
M A It 183
MALDEN, a village in Surry, about three miles from
Kingfton, has a powder-mill, on a ftream that runs from
Ewell to that town.
MARBLE HILL, the villa of the late Earl of Burking-
hamfhire, at Twickenham, fituate on a fine green lawn,
open to the Thames, and adorned on each fide by a beau-
tiful grove of horfe-chefnut trees. The houfe is a final I
white building, without wings, but of a pleafing appear-
ance. It was built by George II, for the Counrefs of Suf-
folk, Miftrefs of the Robes to Queen Caroline. Henry Earl
of Pembroke was the architect ; and the gardens were laid
out by Pope. They are very pleafant, and have a beauti-
ful grotto, to which you are conducted by a winding alley
of flowering fhrubs. This houfe was lately in the occupa-
tion of Mrs. FitzJierbert.
MARDEN, near Godftone, in Surry, the fine feat and
park of Sir Robert Clayton, Bart.
MARG A RETTING, (pronounced Marget-EneT) a vil-
lage in EfTex, 25 miles from London, in the road fo
Chelmsford, on the left hand of which is Cold Hall, the
handfome feat of M>-s. Holden.
MARYBONE, or ST. MARY-LE-BONE, once a
country village to the northweft of London. It was an-
ciently called Tiburn, from its fituation near a fmall bourn^
or rivulet (formerly called Aye Brook, or Eye Brook, and
now Tybourn Brook) which runs from the fouth fide of
Hampftead, by Belfyfe, and, after a fubterranean courfe
through different parts of Marybone, Oxford Street, St.
James's Park, &c. flows through Tothill Fields into the
Thames. Hence it is conjectured (See Lyfons y t-'d. III.
page -42) that when the fite of the church was altered to
another ipot near the fame brook, it Was called St. Mary
at fist bwn, now corrupted to St. Mzry-Je-fortf, or Mary-
bone. Here was once a royal park' well flocked with game ;
and, in Queen Elizabeth's Progreffes, it is recorded, that,
" on the third of February 1600, the Ambafladors from
the Emperor of Rufiia,and other Muscovites, rode through
the city of London to Marybone Park, and there hunted at
their pleafure, and fliortl'y after returned homeward."
What a contraft to the prefent ftate of this parifh, nowr
containing magnificent ftreets and fquares, which from a
R * part
part of the metropolis! Of 2500 acres of land, which it
contains, one third is occupied by buildings ; the remain-
der, extending northward to Prirnrofe Hill, and well to
Kilbourn turnpike, is almoft wholly grafs land, with a few
acres occupied by market gardeners.
At the beginning of the prefent century, Marybone was
a ftnall village, about a mrle diftant from the neareft part of
the metropolis. The commencement of building was be-
Ipre 1720, by the erection of Cavendifh Square. Maitland,
who publifhcd his Hiftory of London in 1739, fays there
were then 57*7 houfes in the parilh of Marybone, and 35
perfons who kept coaches. The buildings have fmce pro-
ceeded progreluvely (though not without occafional checks
by every war) and the prefent number of houfes is com-
puted at 6200. Indeed, fuch has been the increafe of
buildings, that the quota r>( this parifli to the land-tax
(564!. 55. id.) is raifed by a rate of only one farthing in the
MERTON, a village in Surry, feven miles from Lon-
don, in the road to Epfom. It is "feated on the river Wan-
tile, and was once celebrated for an abbey, founded in the
reign of Henry I. In 1227, Hubert de Burgh, the able
and virtuous minifter of Henry III, being difgraced, took
fhelter in the church of the abbey j whence the King or-
dered him to be dragged, but recalled his orders, and, in the
fequel, reftored him to favour. At a parliament held in
this abbey, in 1236, the famous " Provifions of Merton"
(the moft ancient body of laws after Magna Charta) were
enacted, and the Barons gave that celebrated anfwer to the
clergy, " Nolumus leges Angliae mutare We will not
change the laws of England." It is not Icfs memorable for
the conftitutions which the clergy of England made there
in 1258; which were not only calculated to promote their
own grandeur, at the expence of the crown, but were fo
inimical alfo to the authority of the Pope, that, at the
King's requeft, the Sovereign Pontiff himfclf thought pro-
per to abrogate them ; although fome of the principal arti-
cles which they enacted, were in favour of points, for which
the great champion of the papal authority, the canonized
Becker, had fufrered aflaflination. At Merton Abbey alfo, in
12 1 6, was concluded the peace between Henry III and Prince
Lewis, the eldeft fon of Philip, King of France. During
the civil wars, between Charles the Firft and the Parlia-
ment, this abbey appears to have been ufed as a garrifou.
In 1680, it was advertifed to be let, and was defcribed-as
containing feveral large rooms, and a fine chapel. This
chapel, fo late as the year 1733, was entire. At prefent,
there is no other veftige of the abbey, but the eaft window
of the chapel, which appears, from the ftyle of its architec-
ture, to have been built in the I5th century. The walls
which furround the premifes, including about 60 acres, are
nearly entire, being built of flints. On the fite of the ab-
bey (which, after thediflblution, patted into various hands)
a manufactory for printing calicoes was eftabliflied in i 724;
it is now occupied by Mefl". Newton, Hodgfon, and Leach
Another calico manufactory, eftablifhed within thefe walls,
in 1752, is now carried on by Mr. Half hide; and, at the
northweft corner of the premifes, is a copper-mill, in the
occupation of Mr. Thoytts. Upon a moderate computa-
tion, a thoufand perfons are now employed in the different
manufactories within the walls; a pleafing contraft to the
monaftic indolence which reigned here in the gloomy ages
of fuperftition. The parifh church was built of flints,
early in the tath century, by the founder of the abbey.
From the ftyle of architecture, there can be Jittle doubt
that the prefent church was the original ftructure. It has
been lately neatly piaftered on the outfide, and beautified in
other refpects. The bridge over the river, built in 1633, is .
remarkable for its arch, which is turned with tiles, inftead
of brick or ftone ; and it is the boundary of the three parifhes
of Mitcham, Wimbledon, and Merton. In thisparifli are
Cannon Hill, the feat of William Mollefon, Efq ; and the
villa of Mr. Graves, lately purchafed of Sir Richard Ho-
tham. Farther on, in the road to Kingfton, Sir Richard has
juft erected another villa, in a whimfical ftyle.
MICKLEHAM, a village, at the foot of Box Hill, be-
tween LeatherJ^ead and Darking. It is zo| miles from
London, and is watered by the Mole. Here Sir Charles
Talbot, Bart, has a feat; and, adjoining the Downs, is Ju-
niper Hill, a handfome houfe, with curious plantations, late
Sir Cecil Biftiop's, but now the property or Mr. Jenkinfon
of Charing Crofs.
R 3 MILL
1 86 MS O L
MILL GREEN HOUSE, the feat of Alexander Allen,
fq. in the parifh of Fryerning, two miles from Ingateftone,
may juftly be ftyled a palace in miniature, being fitted up
with uncommon elegance. The windows of the drawing-
room, which front the eaft, command a beautiful profpect.
The extenfive pleafure-grounds are planted with exquifite
tafte; and great judgment is vifible in the garden, which
has a capital green-houfe, hot-houfe, grapery, &c.
JL MILL-HILL, a village in Middlefex, in the parifh of Hen-
don, 9^- miles from London, has the handfome feat of Mr.
Alderman Anderfon, which commands a beautiful profpect.
MIMS, NORTH, a village in Hertfordfhire, two miles
from Hatfield. In its neighbourhood was the feat of Sir
Jofeph Jekyll, Matter of the Rolls, in right of his lady,
heirefs to her brother the great Lord Somers. The body
of that nobleman is interred in the chancel of the church,
without any infcription. Here is Mims Place, the fine
feat of the Duke of Leeds.
MIMS, SOUTH, a village of Middlefex, 15 miles from
London, in the road to St. Albans. The tower of the
church, which ftands by the road-fide, is fo entirely mantled
with ivy-, as to form a very piclurefque object. Sfe Gabions.
M1TCHAM, a village in Surry, eight miles from Lon-
don, on the road to Reigate. Mitcham Grove is the hand-
fome feat of Henry Hoare, Efq. The river Wandle, which
is an excellent trout ftream, winds through the plantations,
and adds greatly to their beauty. On this river is creeled
a fmall wheel, by which the water is conveyed in pipes to
the higheft part of the houfe. In this parifh alfo are Col-
lier's Wood Houfe, the feat of Francis Barlow, Efq; Ra-
venfbury, the feat of the late Admiral Arbuthnot; and the
villas of Mr. Bond and Mr. Cranmer. On the river are
fome fnuff-mills, and the calico manufactories of Mr.
Rucker and Mr. Penning. The latter has an engine, in
cafe of fire, the pumps of which are worked by the fame
wheel that is ufed in the bufinefs. In the chancel of the
church is a monument to the memory of Sir Ambrofe
Crowley, an Alderman of London, who died in 1713, and
is celebrated in the Tatler, No. 73, under the name of Sir
MOLE, a river, in Surry, which rifes ia the fouth part
M O N 187
of the county, runs north to Darking, and pafling beneath
Box Hill, is generally believed to difappear in its vicinity,
and to rife again near Leatherhead. Hence Pope calls it
The fullen Mole that hides his diving flood.
But the fact is, that a tract of foft ground, near two miles
in length, called the Swallows, in very dry feafons, abforbs
the wafte water in caverns in the fides of the banks ; but
not fo as to prevent a conftant ftream from taking its courfe
in an open channel above ground, winding round in the
vallies from Darking to Leatherhead; though not of that
breadth as when it crofles the road at Mickleham ; beyond
which, at Burford-bridge, its channel, in very hot feafons,
is fometimes dry. This river, proceeding from Leather-
head to Cobham, enters the Thames at Eaft Moulfey, on
the fouth fide of Hampton bridge.
MONKEY-ISLAND, in the centre of the Thames, be-
tween Maidenhead and Windfor, and in the parifh of Bray.
On this ifland, which contains three acres, is a neat houfe,
with convenient offices, built by the late Duke of Marlbo-
rough. On the ceiling of the room called Monkey Hall, is
painted a variety of fuch flowers as grow by the water-fide. '
Here are alfo reprefented feveral monkies, fome fifhing,
fome fhooting, and one fitting in a boat fmoking, while a
female is rowing him over a river. In the temple, the in-
fide of the faloon is enriched by ftucco modelling, repre-
fenting mermaids, dolphins, fea-lions, and a variety of fifh
and ftiells richly gilt. The eftablifhing of this delightful
retreat, coft the Duke 10,000 guineas. The leafeof it, for
thirty years, at 25!. a year, was fold by auction, in July
1787, for 240 guineas, to Henry Townley Ward, Efq. who
has a feat in the neighbourhood. See The Willow*.
MONTREAL, the handfome feat of Lord Amherft,
fituate in the valley of Holmfdale, at Riverhead, near Se-
venoaks. In the park is a column erected to perpetuate
the happy meeting of this noble lord and his brother, who,
after having having been engaged on different fervices, in
diftant parts of the globe, during the laft war but one, and
gained honour both to themfelves and their country, were
permitted, by the favour of Heaven, to embrace each other
on their native foot.
MOOR PARK, nearRickmanfworth, in Herts, the feat
of the late Lord Anfon, and now of Thomas Bates Rous,
Efq. The park is extenfive and beautiful. The houfe was
originally built by Cardinal Wolfey, and was afterward in
the pofleffion of the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth. Then
it came into the hands of Mr. Styles, who enlarged and
beautified it, under the direction of Sir James Thornhill.
From the fouth, or principal front, he made a vifta through
the hill, that once obftrueled its view toward Uxbridge.
He erected alfo a north front, and cut through the hill to-
ward Watford, for a vifta. This circumftance did not
efcape the cenfure of Pope :
Or cut wide view* through mountains to the plain,
You'll wifli y; ur hill or (belter' d feat again.
This he thus explains in a note: " This was done in Hert-
fordfhire, by a wealthy citizen, at the expence of above
5000!. by which means (merely to overlook a dead plain)
he let in the north wind upon his houfe and parterre, which
were before adorned and defended by beautiful woods."
The houfe is built of ftone, of the Corinthian order. Tha
principal front has a portico and pediment of four columns
The offices are joined to the houfe by a beautiful circular
colonnade of the Ionic order. Great improvements were
made in the houfe and gardens by George Adams, Efq. to
whom the united fortunes of his uncles devolving, he af-
fumed the name of Anfon. The carriage of the ftone from
London alone coft io,oool. Mr. Anfon foon after fold it,
for 20,000!. to the late Sic Lawrence Dundas, Bart, whofe
fon, Sir Thomas, compleated the improvements. This
noble feat was fold by auftion to Mr. Rous, in 1787.
MORDEN COLLEGE, on the eaft fide of Blackheath,.
in the parifh of Charlton, for the fupport of decayed mer-
chants, was creeled by Sir John Morden, Bart, a Turkey
merchant, feveral years before his death, which happened
in the year 1 708. It confifts of a large brick building, with
two wings. The principal entrance is decorated with Doric
columns, feftoons, and a pediment on the top, over which
rifes a turret, with a dial; and from the dome rife a ball
and vane. To this entrance there is an afcent by a flight
f circular fteps j and having paffed through this part of
M O R 189
the building, we enter an inner fquare, furrounded by
piazzas. The chapel has a coftly altar-piece.
This ftrufture Sir John Morden erefted at a finall dif-
tanre from his own habitation, and endowed it, after his
Lady's deceafe, with his whole eftate, to the value of about
1300!. per annum. He placed in this hofpital twelve de-
cayed Turkey merchants in his lifetime ; but Lady Moi*-
den, finding thaf the fhare, allotted her by Sir John's will,
was infurticient for her decent fupport, \vas obliged to re-
duce the number to four. Upon her death, the number
was increafed; there are now thirty-five; and the number
being unlimited, is to be increafed as the efhte willafford ;
for the building will conveniently hold forty.
The treafurer has 40!. a year;- and the chaplain, who
reads prayers twice a day, and preaches twice every Sunday,
had at firft a falary of 30!. per annum, which Lady Mor-
den doubled at her death. She was, in other refpecls, a
benefaclrefs of the college, and, as (he had put up her huf-
band's ftatue in a niche over the gate, the truftees put up
her's in a niche adjoining. The penfioners have each 201.
a year, and, at firft, wore a gown with the founder's
badge ; but this has been long difufed. They have a com-
mon table in the hall to eat and drink together at meals ;
and each has two convenient rooms, with a cellar.
The treafurer, chaplain, and penfioners, are obliged to
refide in the college; and, except in cafe of ficknefs, no
other perfons are to refide or lodge there. No perfon can
be admitted as a penfioner under fixty years of age.
Seven merchants have the direclion of this hofpital, and
the nomination of the perfons to be admitted into it. To
them the treafurer is accountable; and when any of thefe
die, the furviving truftees choofe others in their room.
MORDEN PARK, the elegant villa of Edward Polhill,
Efq. is fituated at Morden, 10 miles from London, in the
road to Epfom, on an eminence, happily formed by nature,
and embelliflied by art. The extenfive pleafure-grounds
are agreeably diversified by plantations, two fine meets of
water, an elegant temple, tea-room, &c.
MORTLAKE, a village of Suny, on the Thames, about
feven miles from London. Great part of this parifh is in-
clofed in Richmond Park. The ftone lodge, upon the
190 M U S
hill, was built after a defign of Henry Earl of Pembroke's,
and was intended by George I, as a place of refreshment
after the fatigues of hunting ; but it was not finifhed tilt
the late Princefs Amelia became Ranger of the Park.
Great quantities of afparagus are raifed in this parifli ;
and, at the extremity of the parifh, toward Richmond, his
Mnjefty has a farm of about eighty acres, in his own occu-
pation. The manor, which is included in that of Wim-
bledon, belonged once to the fee of Canterbury ; and the
manor-houfe at Mortlake was occafionally the refidence
of the archbifhops, from Anfelm, who celebrated the fealfc
of Whitfuntide here in 1099, to Warham, who was the laft,
andwhofe fucceflbr, Cranmer, alienated the manor to Henry
VIII, in exchange for other lands. This monarch, at the
diftblutioo, gave the manor to his new-erected Dean and
Chapter of Worcefter, with the great tithes of the church
at Wimbledon, on conditioa of their appointing three per-
petual curates, to ferve the church there, and the two cha-
pels of Mortlake and Putney. At Mortlake are the hand-
fome houfe and gardens of Mr. Franks; and there is an
ancient houfe, let to Mifs Aynfcomb, which is faid to have
been the refidence of Oliver Cromwell ; but which was
certainly the refidence, in the prefent century, of that ex-
cellent man, Edward Colfton, Efq. the great benefactor of
the city of JBriftol, who, in his lifetime, expended more
than 70,000!. in charitable inftitutions.
MOULSEY, two towns, fo denominated from the river
Mole, which flows between them to the Thames. Eaft
Moulfey is fituated oppofite Hampton Court, and was
granted by Charles II, to Sir James Clarke, grandfather to
the late Lord of the Manor, who had the ferry thence to
Hampton Court, in the room of which he erected a hand-
fome bridge, where a high toll is taken of all paffengers,
carriages, &c. It is now the property of Lord Browniow.
"Weft Moulfey has a ferry to Hampton Town, which be-
longs to the fame nobleman.
MUSWELLH1LL, a village in Middlefex, 5! miles
from London, in the parifh of Hornley. It derives its
name from a famous well on the hill, where formerly the
fraternity of St John of Jerufalem in Clerkenwell had
their dairy, with a large farm adjacent. Here they built a
chapel for the benefit of fome nuns, in which they fixed the
image of our Lady of Mufwell. Thefe nuns had the fole
management of the dairy ; and it is fingular, that the faid
well and farm do, at this time, belong to the parifh of St.
James, Clerkenwell. The water of this fpring was then
deemed a miraculous cure for fcrophulous and cutaneous
diforders. For that reafon, it was much reforted to; and,
as tradition fays, a King of Scotland made a pilgrimage
hither, and was perfectly cured.
There is not within one hundred miles of London' a vil-
lage, more rural and pleafant, or that can boaft more vari-
ous and extenfive profpe<fls. Baron Kutzleben has a plea-
fant villa at the bottom of the hill ; and an enchanting re-
treat, near the top, with fixteen acres of garden and plea-
fure-grounds, laid out in the iineft tafte by the late Mr.
Topham Beuclerk, belongs to John Porker, Efq.
ASING, a village in EfTex, between Waltham Abbey
and Roydon, thus noticed by the poet of Amwell :
Delightful habitations! o'er the land
Difpers'd around, from Waltham's ofier'd ifles
To where bleak Naiing's lonely tow'r o'crlooks