book entitled, "The Curiofities of St. Paul's Cathedral."
The infide of this church will one day be diftinguifhed for
a magnificence unknown to our anceftors, and even to the
prefent age : it is now deftined to be the receptacle of the
monuments of fuch illuftrious men, as may do honour to
their country by their talents and their virtues. Two are
already placed in it; the firft, for the great philanthropist
Mr. Howard, and the fecond, for the celebrated Dr. Sa-
muel Johnfon. The Houie of Commons, moreover, have
fince voted monuments to be placed in this Temple of the
Britifli Worthies, to the memory of thofe gallant officers,
Lord Rodney, Captain R.obert Faulknor, and General
WESTMINSTER ABBEY, the collegiate church of St. Pe-
ter, is a noble fpecimen of Gothic architecture. It is faid
to have been founded by Sebert, King of the Eaft Saxons,
in the year 610. Having been deflroyed by the Danes, it
was rebuilt by Edward the Confeflbr, in 1066. " An ab-
bey," lays Mr. Pennant, "is nothing without relics. Here
were to be found the veil and fome of the milk of the Vir-
gin, the bladebone of St. Benedict, the finger of St. Alphage,
the head of St. Maxilla, and half the jaw-bone of St. Anaf-
tafia." Henry III pulled down the Saxon pile, and began
to build the prefent magnificent ftrufture in 1245. 1 ne
great work was carried on flowly by fucceeding princes ;
but it can hardly be faid to have been finifhed before the
time of Sir Chriftopher Wren, who built the two towerg
at the weft end. This church is 360 feet in length within
the walls, at the nave it is 72 broad, and at the crofs 195.
Here moft of our monarchs have been crowned, and many
of them interred.
It gives them crowns, and does their afties keep ;
There made like gods, like mortals there they fleep ;
Making the circle of their reign complete,
Thefe funs of empire, where they rife they fet.
This ftruAure contains a great nuniber of monuments
of Kings, Statefmen, Heroes, Poets, and perfons diftin-
guifned by genius, learning, and fcience. For an account
of thefe, as well as of the chapel of Henry VII adjoining,
which Leland calls " The Wonder of the World," we muft
refer to a fmall book entitled " An Historical Account of
Weft minfter Abbey." Nothing, indeed, can be more io-
lemn than a folitary walk in this manfion of the illuftrious
dend ; nor can any thing be more juft and beautiful than
Mr. Addifon's reflections on this fubject : " When I look
upon the tombs of the great, every emotion of envy dies
in me : when I read the epitaphs of the beautiful, every -
inordinate defire goes out : when I meet with the grief of
parents upon a tomb-ftone, my heart melts with compaf-
fion : when I confider the tombs of the parents themfelvecv
1 confider the vanity of grieving for thofe whom we mult
quickly follow : when I fee Kings lying by thofe who de-
pofed them ; when I confider rival wits placed fide by fide r
or the holy men that divided the world by their contefts
and difputes ; I reflect wirh forrow and aftonifhment on
the little competitions, factions, and debates of mankind.
When I read the federal dates of the tombs, of fome that
ditd yefterday, and fome fix hundred years ago, I confider
that great day when we fhall all of us be contemporaries^
and make our appearance together."
ST. STEPHEN'S WALBROOK is a fmall church, of exqui-
fite beauty, the mafter-piece of Sir Chriftopher Wren*
Perhaps Italy itfelf can produce no modern building that
can vie with this in tafte and proportion. There is not a'
beauty which the plan would admit of, that is 'not to be
found here in the greateft perfection ; and foreigners very
juftly call our tafte in qlieftion, for underftanding the- 1
graces no better, and allowing it no higher degree of fame.
Over the altar is a beautiful picture of the martyrdom of
St. Stephen, by Weft. The charader of the Saint is fully
exprefled in his angelic countenance, refigned to his fate,,
and full of certain hope.
Bow Church, in Cheapfide ; St. Bride's, in Fleet Street r
St. Dunftan's in the Eaft, near the Tower ; and St. Martin 's-
in the Fields; are among the other churches moft diftin-
guifhed for fine architefture. The pariih churches, in what
are called the Bills of Mortality, amount to 146; namely
nin^ty-feve:i within the walls, fixteen without the walls,.
B 3 twenty
twenty-three out parifhes in Middlefex and Surry, and ten
in the city and liberties of Weftminfter.
Befide thefe churches, that belonging to the Temple, one
of our celebrated feats of law, merits particular attention.
It was founded by the Knights Templars in the reign of
Henry II, upon the model of that of the Holy Sepulchre
at Jerufalem. The reader will find a full defcription of
this church, and its curious ancient monuments, in Mr.
Pennant's Account. Among tile illulirious perfous of later
date, interred in this church, were the celebrated lawyer
yiowden, Treafurer of the Temple in 1572 (of whom
Camden fays, that in integrity he was fecond to none of
his profeffion) and Selden, the bell fkilled of any man in
the^ Englifh conftitution, and in the various branches of
antiquity; but .who, toward the clofe of his life, was fo
convinced of the vanity of all human knowledge, as to fay,
that the nth, i2th, ijth, and 14th verfes of the fecond
chapter of the Epiflle to Titus, afforded him more confola-
tion than all he had ever read.
There are likewife a great number of chapels for the ef-
tablifhed church, foreign proteftant churches, Roman ca-
tholic chapels, meetings for the diflenters of all perfuafions,
and three fynagogues for the Jews.
PALACES AND PARKS.
The magnificence of royalty is not to be found in the
palaces of the metropolis. The palace of ST. JAMES was
originally an hofpital for leprous females, dedicated to that
Saint. It vras fin-rendered, to Henry VIII, who creeled
on its lite the prefcut palace ; of which it has been obferved,
that notwithstanding its mean exterior appearance, it is the
mort commodious for the parade of royalty of any in Eu-
rope. He likewife laid out a large piece of ground adjoining
into a park , and formed a canal and walks, calling it,in confor-
mity to the former name of the contiguous building, St.
James's Park. Charles II. enlarged and improved this fpot,
adorning it with plantations of trees ; but, a few years ago,
it was rendered ftill more beautiful by the genius and
tafte of Brown, the diftinguifhed pupil of the illufti ions
Kent, who, in the moft happy manner, adopted and im*
-proved the principles of gardening which were Jaid dowa
by his predeceflbr. The beauty of this park is heightened
by its being contiguous to another of lefs extent, called
" The Green Park." In this too is a fine piece of water
on the moft elevated part. This is recruited every tide
from the Thames, by the water-works at Chelfea ; and it
forms a refervoir for the fupply of the houfes in the neigh-
bouring parts. Here the Deputy Ranger, Lord William
Gordon, has a neat lodge, furrounded by a mrubbery,
which has a pleafing rural etfecl, although fo near the
houfes in Piccadilly. A fine afcent in this park, called
" Conftitution Hill," from the falubrity of the air, leads to
Hyde Park, another royal demefne. This is adorned with
a noble piece of water, called " The Serpentine River,'*
and with diverfified plantations of various kinds of trees,
which, together with its elevated fituation, commanding ex-
tenfive views, render it a captivating fcene. Hence it is
the place of fafhionable morning refort, for the nobility and
gentry, both in carriages and on horfeback. Near the
eaftern edge of this park, is a fine biiin of water, fupplied
by the Chelfea water-works, from which the houfes in
Grofvenor fquare, and its vicinity, are provided.
The QUEEN'S PALACE (lands in the moft favourable
fituation that St. James's Park could furnifh. It was
creeled by John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, in 1703,
and called Buckingham Houfe, until it was purchafed. in
1761, for the royal refidence ; when it acquired its prefent
name. In 1775, Parliament fettled this houfe upon the
Queen, in cafe flie fhould furvive his Majefty, in Ireu of
Somerfet Houfe. Here is a fine collection of prints, and a^
great variety of pictures, by the moft eminent mafters.
CARLTON HOUSE, the refidence of the Prince of Wales,
the gardens extending to St. James's Park, is a ftately build-
ing, on which vaft fums have been expended ; but it is not
The BANQUETING HOUSE, at Whitehall, was begun in
1619, from a defign by Inigo Jones.* It is only a fmall
part of the vaft plan of a palace, intended to be worthy of
the refidence of the Britifli Monarchs, but left incomplete,
* It is remarkable, that this great Architect, who was Sui veyor of
the Works, had only 8s. 44). per diem, and 46!. per ami. for houfe rent,
a clerk, and incidental expcnccs .
on acrount of tire unhappy times that followed. The ceil-
ing of this noble room was paintfd by Rubens, who had
3000!. for his work. The fubjeft is the Apotheofis of James I.
It forms nine compartments. One of the middle repre-
fents our pacific monarch on his earthly throne, turning
with horror from Mars and other difcordant deities, and
giving himfelf up, as it were, to the amiable goddefs he had
always adored, and to her attendants, Commerce and the
Fine Arts. A few years ago, this ceiling underwent a re-
pair by the maflerly hand of Cipriani. Little did James
think, that he was erecYmg a pile, from which hia fon was
to fhrp from the throne to the fcatfold ! The-Banqueting
Houfe has been long converted into a chapel ; and George
the firft granted a falnry of 30). a year to twelve Clergymen
(fix from Oxford, and fix from Cambridge) who officiate
a month each.
Befide the Royal Palaces, there are many fine houfes of
the Princes of the Blood, and of the Nobility and Gentry. Of
thefe we fhall only mention the moft diftinguifhed, name-
ly, the Earl of Aldborough's, Stratford Piace; Apfley
Houfe, Earl Bathurft's, Hyde Park Corner ; the Duke of
Bedford's, Bloomfbury Square ; the Duke of Bolton's,
Southampton Row, Bloomfbury; the Earl of Chefterfield's,
Audey Street ; the late Duke of Cumberland's, Pall-Mail ;
the Duke of Devonfhire's, and the Earl of Egremont's,.
Piccadilly; the Bifhop of Ely's, Dover Street; Foley Houfe,
near Portland Place ; the Duke of Gloucefter's, Upper
Grofvenor Street : Earl Harcourt's, and the Earl of Hope-
toun's, Cavendifh Square ; the Marquis of Lanfdown's,.
Berkeley Square ; the Duke of Leeds', St. James's Square ;
Manchefter Houfe, the duke of Manchester's, Manchefter
Square; the Duke of Marlborbugh's, Pall Mall; Lord Mel-
bourne's, Whitehall ; the Duke of Norfolk's, Si:. James's
Square ; the Duke of Northumberland's, in the Strand ;
Burlington Houfe, the Duke of Portland's, Piccadilly; Earl
Spencer's, St. James's Place ; the Earl of Uxbridge's, Bur-
lington Street ; Lndy Charlotte Wynne's, St. James's
Square ; the Duke of York's, Piccadilly; Lord Grenville's,
in the Green Park, &c.
WESTMINSTER HALL, now the feat of Parliament, and
of the Courts of Law, Hands on the fite of a Royal Palace
built by Edward the Confeflbr. The flairs to it on the
river ftill retain the name of Palace Stairs ; and the two
Palace Yards belonged alfo to this extenfive pile. Many
parts of itexift to this day, appropriated to other ufes. The
great hall was rebuilt in it's prtfent form, by Richard II,
who, in 1399, kept his Chriumas in it, with his charafter-
iftical magnificence ; the number of his guefts, each day,
being ten thoufand. This great hall exceeds, in dimenfion,
any in Europe, which is not fupported by pillars. Its length
is 270 feet ; the breadth 74 ; and the height in proportion.
Parliaments often fat in this Hall : and, in 1397, when it
was very ruinous, Richard II built a temporary room for
his Parliament, formed with wood, and covered with tiles.
It was open on all fides, that theconftituents might fee and
hear every thing that parted : and, to fecure freedom of debate^
he furrounded the Houfe by 4000 Chefhire Archers, with
bows bent, and arrows notched, ready to fhoot. This fully
anfwered the intent; for every facrifice \vasmade to the
royal pleafure. The Lords now meet in a room, hung
with tapeftry, which records our viftory over the Spanifh
Armada ; and the Commons aflemble in a place, which
was once a chapel, burlt by King Stephen, and dedicated to
his name-fake, the Protomartyr.
Courts of Juftice, even in early times, fat in this Hall,
where our Sovereigns themfelves once commonly prefided ;
for which reafon it was called Curia Domini Regis ; and one
of the three courts now held here is called the Court of
King's Bench. In this Hall was held, what was called " The
High Court of Juftice," for the trial of the unfortunate
Charles I. Here alfo was carried on the impeachment
againrt his arbitrary Minifter, Thomas Earl of Strafford,
who had been once the zealous patriot, Sir Thomas Went-
worth. In mentioning this, Mr. Pennant relates an anec-
dote, to (hew the fimplicity of one part of the manners of
the times. " The Commons.," fays this entertaining writer,
" who had an inclofed place for themfelves, at a certain
hour pulled out of their pockets bread and cheefe, and
bottles of ale ; ami, after they had eat and drunk, turned
their backs from the king, and made water, much to th
annoyance of thofe who happened to be below.* His
Lordfhip was brought into the Hall by eight o'clock in th
The GUILDHALL of theCity, fmiated at the end of King's
Street, Cheapfide, was built in the year 143 i.f Its great
Hall is 153 feet long, fifty broad, and fifty-eight high; in
which are placed two trein.ndous wooden giants, the pic-
tures of feveral of the Kings and Queens of England, with
whole lengths of their prefent Majefties by Ramfay, and
the twelve Judges who diftinguifhed themfelves in determin-
ing the differences between Landlords and Tenants, on re-
building the City, after the fire. Here is likewife a fine
picture of the late Lord Chief Juftice Pratt, afterward Earl
Camden ; a marble whofc-length ftatue of Mr. BecTdbrd,
who wis twice Lord Mayor ; and a magnificent cenotaph,
to the memory of the Earl of Chatham, both executed by
Bacon. The front of this hall has been rebuilt in the Gothic
ftykbyMr. Dance. In this Guildhall the Courts of King's
Bench and Common Pleas hold fittings at Kill Prius : the
City elections are alfo held, and all the bufinefs of the cor-
poration tranfacled here.
The SESSIONS HOUSE, in the Old Bailey, in which the
criminals both of London and Middlefex are tried, is a large
The COUNTY HALL for Middlefex was built by Mr.
Rogers, on Clerkenwell Green, in 1781. The front to-
ward the Green is compofed of four columns, three quar-
ters, of the Ionic order, and two pilalters, fupported by a
rufticated bafement. The county arms are placed in the
tympanum of the pediment. Under the entablature are
two medallions, reprefenting Juftice and Mercy. In the
centre, is a medallion of his Majefty, decorated with fef-
toons of laurel and oak leaves ; and, at the extremities, are
medallions of the Roman fafces and fword, the emblems of
* Mr. Pennnt quotes, as his authority, the Letters of Provoli Bailie
of Scotland, 1641.
f Before the year 1711, the Court. hall, or Bury, as it was called,
was held at Alderman's Buiy, fo denominated from the mcetihg of the
Authority and Punifhment. The execution of thefe deflgns
was by the mafterly hand of Nolliken.
DOCTORS COMMONS, or the College of Civilians, is fitu-
ated to the fouth of,St. Paul's Cathedral. Here are held the
Ecclefiaftical Courts, and the Court of Admiralty ; but the
trial of offences on the high feas, under the jurisdiction of
the latter, is commonly transferred to the Old Bailey.
MILITARY AND NAVAL OFFICES.
The TOWER, to the eaft of London Bridge, is furrmmded
by a wall and ditch, which inclofe feveral ftreets, belicle the
building properly called the Tower. Here are ibme artil-
lery; a magazine of fmall arms for 60,000 men, ranged in
beautiful order ; a horfe armoury, in which are fifteen
figures of our Kings on horfeback ; and the civil branch of
the Office of Ordnance. Here are likewife the crown and
other regalia, the Mint, and the Menagerie. The circum-
ference is about a mile. It contains one parilh church, and
is under the command of a Conftable and Lieutenant Go-
vernor. The Tower wr.s a -palace during 500 years; but
reafed to be fo on the acceffion of Queen Elizabeth.
The mod ancient part, called the White Tower, was found'
ed by William the Conqueror, in 1078. It is vulgarly at-
tributed to Julius C*efar ; and to this the poet thus alludes :
Ye tovcrs of Julius, London's Lifting fhame,
With many a foul and midnight muidrr fed,*
Revere liis confqrt's f.jith,t his fathci's fame,};
And fparethe meek ufurptr's holy head.&
The HORSE GUARDS, a light and elegant ftrufture, was
rebuilt in 1754, at theexpence of 30,000!. It ftands oppo-
fite the Banqueting Houfe. It contains apartments for the
Officers and Privates of the Life Guards, a troop of wtWch
conftantly do duty here. The War Office is in this place,
and here courts-martial for the Armv are occafionally
* Henry VI. George Duke of Clarence, Idward V. l.is brother, &c.
-j- Margaret of Anjou, contort of Henry VI.
* Henry V.
13 - LONDON.
The ORDNANCE OFFICE, for the Military department, i
a handfome building in St. Margaret's Street, Weftminfter.
The ADMIRALTY, rebuilt in the late reign by Riplev, ia
a large ftruclure, the clumfinefs of which is veiled, in fome
degree, by a handfome fcreen, defigned by Adam. Here
the higher departments of the bufinefsof the Navy are tranf-
afted, and the Lords of the Admiralty have houfes. On
the top of this building a telegraph is juft creeled, for the
fpeedy communication of intelligence between London and
OFFICES COMMERCIAL AND FISCAL.
The ROYAL EXCHANGE, the refort of all the nations of
the world, rifes before us with the full majefty of commerce.
Whether we confider the grandeur of the edifice, or the
vaft concerns tranfafted within its walls, we are equally
ftruck with its importance. The original ftruclure was
built, in 1567, by SirThomas Grefham, one of the greateft
merchants in the world, after the model of that of Antwerp.
In i ^ 70, Queen Elizabeth went to theBourfe, as it was then
called, vifited every part, and then, by found of trumpet,
proclaimed it the Royal Exchange. Being deltroved by the
great fire in 1666, it was rebuilt, in its prefent form, by
the City and the Company of Mercers, at the expence of
8o,oool. and was opened in 1669. In each of the principal
fronts is a piazza, and in the centre an area. The height
of the building is 56 feet, and from the centre of the fouth
fide rife a lantern and turret 178 feet high, on the top of
which is a vane, in the form of a grafshopper, the creft of
Sir Thomas Grefham. The infide of the area, which
is 144 feet long, and 1 1 7 broad, is furrounded by piazzas,
forming walks, to flielter the merchants, in bad weather.
Above the arches of thefe piazzas in an entablature extend-
ing round, and a compafs pediment in the middle of each
of the four fides. Under that on the north are the king's
arms, on the fouth thofe of the city, on the eaft thofe of
SirThomas Grefham, and on the weft thofe of the Mer-
cers' company. In thefe intercolumniations are twenty-four
niches, twenty of which are filled with the ftatues of the
Kings and Queens of England. In the centre of the area
is a ftatue of Charles II, in a Roman habit, encompafled
with iron rails. This a new ftatue, by Bacon, placed here
in 1/92, in the room of another of that King. In this
area the merchants meet every day. Thefe merchants are
difpofed / in feparate clafies, each of which have their par-
ticular ftation, railed their walk.
The BANK OF ENGLAND, a magnificent ftructure, is fitu*
ated in Threadneedle Street. The centre, and the build-
ing behind, were erected in 1733. Before that time, the
bufinefs was carried on in Grocer's Hall. The front is a
kind of veftibule; the bafe is ruftic, and the ornamental
columns above are Ionic. Within is a court leading to a
fecond building, containing the hall, and other offices.
Within a few years have been added two wings of uncom-
mon elegance, defigned by the late Sir Robert Taylor.
The CUSTOM HOUSE, to the weft of the Tower, is a
large irregular ftru&ure of brick and ftone, before which,
fhips of 350 tons can lie, and difcharge their cargoes. It
was'built in 1718, on the fite of a former Cuftom Houfe,
deftroyed by fire. In Mr. Pennant's Account of London,
are fome curious particulars of the produce of the cuftoms
at different times, from the year 1268 (when the half- year's
cuftoms, for foreign merchandise in London, came only to
751.65. rod.) to the quarter ending April 5, 1 789, when the
produce for the year amounted to 3,71 1,126!.
The EXCISE OFFICE, in Broad Street, is a building of
magnificent fimplicity, erected, in 1768, on the. fite of
THH EAST INDIA HOUSE, inLeadenhall Street, was built
in 1726. The front is very confined ; but it has great ex-
tent in depth, and contains all the offices neceflary fortranf-
ncting the bufinefs of a commercial company. What
would be the reflections of an old Roman, could he rife
from the (lumber of ages, and rev&t this Hland, which his
compatriots then confidered as beyond the boundaries of
the world,* and a voyage of difficulty and dangerf, fhould
* Et penitus toto divifos orbe Britannos. Virg.
A race of men from all the worid disjoin'd. Dryden.
f Serves iturum Csefarem in ultimoj.
Orbis Britannos. Hor.
Propitious guard our Caef.ir, \vhoexplorei
Hi! Tcnfrom way to farthest Britain's thorw. Francit.
he behold this ftru&ure, and be informed that it was the
capital, as it were, of a republic of commercial Sovereigns,
ivho poflefled extenfive territories in diftant regions of the
globe, maintained vaft armies, engaged in bloody and ex-
penfive wars, and now created, now dethroned, and now
reftored the mighty chiefs of nations ! The fail: would
appear incredible : the appearance of this ftruclure, at
leaft, would nor vouch for the ti*uth of it ; for, as Mr.
Pennant juftly obferves, " It is not worthy of the Lords
The SOUTH SEA HOUSE is a noble building, with two
fpacious rooms for tranfa&ing the bufmefs of the South Sea
annuities; the upper room, more particularly, being a
lofty, fpacious, and particularly grand, although unadorn-
ed, piece of architecture, furpaffing any room of the kind
in the Bank of England.
The GENERAL POST OFFICE is fit-uated in Lombard
Street. As a building, it merits no diftinclion.
SOMERSET PLACE, a ftupendous and magnificent ftruc-
ture, on the fiteof one of the moft beautiful remains of the
architecture of the fixteenth century, was begun to be built,
according to the plan of the late Sir William Chambers, when
the nation was engaged in a war with America, France,
and Spain. Thedefign,'in ereding this fabrick, was to
bring together the moft contiderable public offices. Ac-
cordingly, here are now the following offices : the Audi-
tors of Imprefts, Clerk of the Eftreats, Duchy Courts of
Lancafter and Cornwall, Hackney Coach, Hawkers and
Pedlars, Horfe Duty, Lord Treafurer's Remembrancer's,
Lottery, Navy, Navy Pay, Pipe and Comptroller of the
Pipe, Salt, Sick and Hurt, Signet, Stage Coach Duty,
Stamp, Surveyor of Crown Lands, Tax, Victualling, and
"Wine Licence offices.
The King's barge houfes are likewife comprehended in
the plan, with a dwelling for the Barge-mafter ; befide
houfes for the Treafurer, the Pay- Mailer, and fix Com-
miffiouers of the Navy; for three Commiluoners of the
Victualling and their Secretary; for one Commiflioner of
the Stamps, and one of the Sick and Hurt ; with com-
modious apartments in every office for a Secretary, or
ibme other afting officer, for a Porter, and their families.
LONDON. . 15
The front of this ftrudture, toward the Strand, confifts of
a rich and ornamental bafement, fupporting an excellent
example of the Corinthian order, containing a principal and*
Attic ftory. In this front, are apartments for the Royal
Academy, and for the Royal and Antiquarian Societies.
The grand entrance, by three lofty arches, leads into a