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F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 21 of 30)
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toward Putney records a refolution of the Houfe of Com-
mons, in 1774, granting /5ool. to David Hartley, Efq. for
this invention j on the fide toward London, is a refolution of
a Court^ of Common Council, granting the freedom of the
city to Mr. Hartley, in confideration of the advantages likely
to accrue to the public, from this invention ; and, on tht fide
toward Kingfton, is their refolution, ordering this obelifk to
be creeled. Near it, is a houfe three ftories high, and two
rooms on a floor, built by Mr. Hartley, with fire-plares be-
tween the ceilings and floors, in order to try his experiment?,
of which no lefs than fix were made in this houfe, in 1776;
one, in particular, when their Majefties, and fome of the
Royal Family, were in a room over the ground floor, while
the room under them was furioufly burning.

On Putney Common, in the road to Roehampton, are
the agreeable villas of Lady Annabella Polwarth, Lady
Grantham, the Right Hon. Thomas Steele, Andrew Berke-
ley Drummond, Efq. James Macpherfon, Efq. and Beilby
Thomfon, Efq. On the fide of the Thames, is Copt Hill,
the late refidence of the Countefs Dowager of Lincoln, and
a houfe the property of Simeon Warner, Efq. Between
the roads which lead to Wandfworth and Wimbledon, is
the late villa of Mrs. Wood, widow of the late Robert
Wood, Efq. fo well known to the public as a fcfentific tra-
veller and a claflical traveller. The farm and pleafure
grounds, which adjoin the houfe, are very fpacious, and
command a beautiful profpecl: of London and the adjacent
country. Mr. Wood purchafed it of the executors of Ed-
ward Gibbon, Efq. whofe fon, the celebrated hiftorian, was
born there. It is now empty, and is to be fold. In Put-
ney Lane (leading to Putney Common) are the villas of
Godfehall Johrifon, Efq. Lady Barker, Walter Boyd, Efq.
ai.d Sir John Earner.

The



114 RANELAGH.

The partfh chxrrch of Putney, which is a p?rnetual
curacy, is fituated by the water fide, and is very limlai to
fheoppofiteone at Fulham. In the road from V\ amlf-
worth to rlic.-mond, is a new cemetery, the ground tor
which was given to the parifh, in 1763, by the Rev. Roger
Pettiward, D. D.

R.

RAGMAN'S CASTLE, a pretty box on the banks of
the Thames, at Twickenham, fo named from a cot-
tage that once Itood there, built by a dealer in rap t s. It is
fo hkt by trees as hardly to be ieen. It was formerly the
refidence of Mrs. Prttchard, the celebrated a&rtfs, and is
the pro^-Tty of George Hardinge, Efq.

RAIN HAM, a village in Effex, 15 miles from London,
and one from the Thnmes, where there is a ferry to Frith.
The road hence to Purfket commands an extenfive view of
the Thames and the Marfhes, which are here uncommonly
fine, and are covered with prodigious numbers of cattle.

RANELAGH, a celebrated rotundo, fituate on the
Thames, on the fouth fide of Chelfea Hofpiral. It is in
high efteem, as well for beauty and elegance, as for being
the fafhionable place of refort, in thefpring and part of the
fummer evenings, for the moft polite company. It is
opened on Eafter Monday, and continues open every Man-
day, Wednefday, and Friday evening, till about the begin-
ning of July, when it is opened on Friday only ; and the
feafon clofes after the Prince of Wales' birthday.

Parties that choofe to go by water, will find a conve-
nient landing-place, at the bottom of the garden. There
are two ways for carriages ; namely, from Hyde Park
Coi'her, and Buckingham Gate. For thofe who choofe to
walk, the beft way is through St. James's Park to Buck-
ingham Gate, from which Ranelagh is about three quar-
ters of a mile diftant. The road is lighted all the way.

The admiffion-money is as. 6d. which is paid to a per-
fon attending at the front of RaneJagh Houfe. Then,
proceeding forward, you pafs through the dwelling-houfe,
and, defcending a flight of fteps, enter the garden ; but, in
bad weather, the company turn on the left band, go through

the



RANELAGH. 215

the houfe, and, defcending a flight of fteps, enter a matted
avenue, which leads to the roiundo.

Ranelagh was the feat of an Irifh Earl of that title, in
who'e tin e the gardens were ex tenfive. On his death the
ettav was fold, and the principal part of the gardens
was converted into rields ; but the houfe remained unal-
tered. Parr of the gardens was iikewife permitted to
remain. Some gentlemen and builders having become
purchafers of thefe, a refolutjon was taken to convert them
info a place of entertainment. Accordingly, Mr. Wil-
liam Jones, architect to the Eaft India Company, drew the
plan of the prefent rotundo, which is an illuftrlous monu-
ment of his genius and fancy.

It being confidered that the building of fuch a ftrufture
with ftone would amount to an imtYicnieexpence, the pro-
prietors refolved to erec~l it with wopd. This ftruclure
was accordingly erected in 1 740.

It is a noble edifice, fomewhat refembling the Pantheon
at Rome. The external diameter is 185 feet, the internal
1 50. The entrances are by four Doric porticos oppofite
eaih other, and the firft ftory is ruftic. Round the whole,
on tht outlide, is an arcade, and over it a gallery, the ftairs
to which are at the porticos ; and over head is a dated co-
vering, which projects from the body of the rotundo.
Ovtrr the gallery are the windows, fixty in number; and
over them the flated roof.

The firft object that ftrikes the fpe&ator, in the infide,
is what was formerly the orcheftra, but is now called the
fireplace, creeled in the middle of the rotundo, reaching
to the ceiling, and fupporting the roof ; but it being found
too high to give the company the full entertainment of
the mufic, the performers were removed into another or-
cheftra, creeled in the fpace of one of the porticos. The
former, however, ftill remains. It is a beautiful ftruclure,
formed by four triumphal arches of the Doric order, di-
vicied from each other by proper intervals, which, with the
arches, form an oftagon. The pillars are divided into
two ftories. The firft are painted in imitation of marble:
the fecond are painted white, and flnttd ; and the bafe of
each is lined with looking-glafs, againtt which are placed
the patent lamps. The pillars are iurmounted by tcrmiui

of



21 6 DANELAGH.

of plafter of Paris. The infide of the four arches is de-
corated with mafks, rmifiral innrumcnts, &c. painted in
pannels, on a flcy-blue ground. Above thefe arches was the
orchfftru, which is now clofed up. The eight compart-
ments which are made by the termini, and were formerly
open, are decorated with paintings of niches, with vafes.
Two of the compartments over the arches are ornamented
with figures painted in ftone colour : in a third, is a clock ;
and, in the fourth, a wind-dial. The pillars, which form
the four triumphal arches, are the principal fupport of the
roof," which, for fize and manner of conftruction, is not to
be equalled in Europe. The aftonifhing genius of the
architect is here concealed from our view by the ceiling ;
but it may be eafily conceived, that fuch a roof could not
be fuppoited by any of the ordinary methods j and if the
timber-works above were laid open, they would ftrike the
fpeclator with amazement,

The fpace on which this ftrufture {hinds, is inclofed by
a baluftrade; and, in the centre of it, is one of the moft
curious contrivances that ever the judgment of man could
form. It conlllls of a fireplace that cannot fmoke, or be-
come offenfive. In cold weather it renders the rotundo
warm and comfortable. The chimney has four faces,- and
by tins over each of them, which are taken off at plea-
lure, the heat is increafed or diminished ; but the chief
merit confifts in having furmounted the many difficulties,
and aimoft impoffibilities, in erecting and fixing this fire-
place, which every architect, on the flighteft examination,
will inftantly perceive. The faces are formed by four
ftone arches, and over each of them is a ftone pediment.
The corners of the four faces are fupported by eight pieces
of cannon, with iron fpikes driven into them, and filled up
with lead. Theft- have the appearance of black marble
pillars. In the fixing of thefe, for the fuppcrt of the
whole chimney, icveral ineffectual attempts were made be-
fore the preient durable pofition was hit on. On the pe-
diments, and in the fpace between each of them, are eight
flower-branches of fmall glafs kmps, which, when lighted,
look txtremely brilliant, and have apleafing effect. Above
the pediments are four niches in wood, in each of which
is a painting ; and over them is a dome, which terminates

this



RANELAGH. 217

this inner ftruclure. The chimney, which proceeds to the
top of therotundo, is of brick.

The band of mufic confifts of a felecl number of per-
formers, vocal and inftrumental, accompanied by an organ.
The concert begins about feven o'clock, and after finding
feveral fongs, and playing feveral pieces of mufic, at proper
intervals, the entertainment clofes about ten.

Round the rotundo are 47 boxes for the accommoda-
tion of the company, with a table and cloth fpread in each.
In thefe they are regaled, without any further expence,
with tea or coffee. In each of thefe boxes is a painting of
fome droll figure ; and between each box hangs a large bell-
lamp with one candle in it. The boxes are divided frorrj
each other by wainfcoting and fquare pillars. The latter
are in front, and being each of them main timbers, are
part of the fupport of the roof. Each pillar is cafed ; and
the front of every other pillar is ornamented, from top to
bottom, with an oblong fquare looking-gjafs in a gilt
frame, high above which is an oval lookin^-glafs in a gilt
frame; the intervening pillars beins; each ornamented
with a painting of a vafe with flowers, furmounted by an
oval looking-glafs in a gilt frame : and over each box' is a
painted imitation of a red curtain fringed with gold.

Before the droll paintings above-mentioned were put up,
the backs of the boxes were all blinds that could be taken
down at pleafure. But it being apprehended, that many
perfons might catch cold by others indifcreetly moving
them at improper times, it was refolved to put up paint-
ings, and to fix them. Thefe paintings were made for
blinds to the windows at the time of the famous mafque-
rades : the figures, at that d'ulance, looked very well, and
feemed to be the fize of real life : but now, being brought
too near to view, they look prepofterous. At the bade of
each box was formerly a pair of folding-doors, which opened
into the gardens, and were defigned for the ronveniency of
going in and coming out of them, without being obliged to
go to the grand en-trances. Each of thefe boxes will coin-
mod ioufly hold eight perfons. *

Over the boxes is a gallery, fronted with a baluftradc,

nnd pillars painted in the refemblance of marble encircled

with feftooas of flowers in a Ipiral form, and furmounted

U Uv



21 8 RANELAGH.

1i v termini of phfter of Paris. This gnllery contains the
like number of boxes, with a lamp in the front of each.

At the diftance of 12 boxes from the oiohehVi, on the
right hand, is the Prince's box, for the reception of any of
the Royal Family. It is hung with p per nd ornamented,
in the front, with the Prince of WaJes's creft.

Round the fireplace are a number of tables, and benches
covered with red baize, their backs painted with feftoons of
flowers on a fky-blue ground.

The pediments of the porticos within are ornamented
with paintings adapted to the defign of the place.

The ftirface of the floor is plafter of Paris, over which
is a mat, to prevent the company from catching cold by
walking; upon it. The mat anfwers another ufefnl pnr-
pofe ; for, if the company were to walk on boards, the
noife made by their heels would b^ fo great, that it would
be irnpofiible to hear any thing elfe.

The ceiling is a ftone-colour ground, on which, at pro-
per intervals, are oval pannels, each of which has a paint-
ing of a beautiful celeftial figure on a fky-blue ground.
Feftoons of flowers, and other ornaments, connect thefe
oval pannels with each other, and with fome fmallcr fquare
pannels, on which are A.rabefque ornaments in ftone co-
lour, on a dark-browr ground. From the ceiling deicend
28 chandeliers, in two circles: each chandelier is orna-
mented with a gilt coronet, and the candles are contained
in i 7 bell lamps. Twenty chandeliers are in the external
circle, and eight in the internal. When all thefe lamps
are lighted, it may be imagined that the h'ght muft be very
glorious; no words can exprefs its grandeur; and then do
the mafterly difpofition of the architect, the proportion of
the parts, and tii^ harmonious diftinftion of the feveral
pieces, appear to the greateft advantage; the moft minute
part, by this effulgence, lying open to infpeolion. The
propriety and artful arrangement of the feveral objech are
fxpreftive of the intention of this edifice; and {his, indeed,
rnav be faid of Ranelagh, that it is one of thofe public
places of entertainment, that for beauty, elegance, and
grandeur, are not to be equalled in Europe.

Formerly this rotundo was a place for public break-
fafiing: bat that cuflom being regarded as detrimental to

iocie iy



R E I 219

fociety, by introducing a new fpecies of luxury, was
fupprelTed by act of parliament in all places of 'entertain-
ment. Ranelagh was not a place of note, till it was ho-
noured, in the late reign, with the famous mafqueracles,
which brought it into vogue; and it has ever fince re-
tained the favour of the public. But thefe mafquerades
being thought to have a pernicious tendency, have been
Jong difcontinucd ; although that entertainment has beea
fometimes revived on very extraordinary occafions. Fire-
works, of late years, have b;en often exhibited in the gar-
dens, in a magnificent ityle, accompanied by a reprefenta-
tion of an eruption of Mount /Ktna, &c. During the fea-
fon, the rotundo and gardens are open in the day time, when
the price of admittance is one (hilling each perfon. The
gardens are ornamented with avenues of trees, a grove,
canal, &c. No liquors are fold in the gardens, either in
the day time, or in the evnning.

To prevent the admittance of fervants, the proprietors
have creeled a convenient amphitheatre, with good feats,
for their reception only : it is fituatcd in the coachway
leading to Ranelagh Houfe, and at fuch a fmall diftance,
that the fervants can anfwer, the inllant they are called.

RANMER COMMON, a very elevated and extenfive
common, one mile from Darking, commanding fome fine
vi-j vs, in which St. Paul's Cathedral, Weftminfter Abbey,
and Windfor Caftle, are diftinftly fcen.

RKIGATE, aboiough in Surry, in the valley of Hol-
mefdaie, 21 miles. from London. It had a caltle, built by
the Saxons, on the eaft (ide of the town, fome ruins of which.-
are ftill to be feen ; particularly a long vault, with a room
at the end, large enough to hold 500 perfons ; where the
Barons, who took up arms againft John, are faid to have
had their private meetings. Its market-houfe was once a
chapel. The neighbourhood abounds with fuller's earth
and medicinal plants. On the fouth fide of the town is a
large houfe, formerly a priory. It belongs to Mrs. Jones,
is beautified with plantations and a large piece of water,
and is furrounded by hills, which raider the profpect very
romantic.

In this town the Earl of Shaftefbury, author of The Cha-

ra&eriftics. had a lioufe. to which,, he retired to fec.lude

U z himfclf



^20 R I C

himfclf from company. It came afterward into the- poiid-
fionofa gentleman, who planted a fmall fpot of grovind in
fb many .parts, a-> to comprife whatever can be fuppofed in
ihe mofi noble feats. It may properly be deemed a model,
and is called, b~y the inhabitants of Reigate, " The world
in one acre." It is now the feat of Richard Barnes, Efq.

RICHIXG PARK, near Colnbrook, in Bucks, a new
fe;:t, erected by John Sullivan, Efq. It (lands. on tlte
lite of Percy Lodge, the refidence of Frances Countefs of
Hertford, afterward Duchefs of Somerfet, the Cleora of
j\Its. Ro\ve, and the Patronefs, whom Thomfou invokes
in his " Spring." " It was her practice," fays Dr. John-
fon, " to invite, every fummer, fome poet into the country,
to hear her verfes, and aflift her ftudies. This honour was
one fummer conferred on Thomfon, who took more de-
light in caroufing with Lord Hertford and his friends,
th.ui af.itting her Ladyfhip's poetiral operations, and there-
tote never received another fummons." But whatever
were the merits of this excellent lady's poetry, fome of her
letters, which have been publiflied, evince, in the opinion
of Shenftone, u a perfect rectitude of heart, delicacy of fen-
timent, and a truly claffic eafe and elegance of fryle."

RICHMOND, in Surry, 8| miles from London, the
finelt village in the Britifh dominions, was anciently called
Ske/Jt which, in the Saxon tongue, fignifies refplfnJmt. Fror.i-
the lingubr beauty of its fituation, it has been termed the
Frefcali of England. Here ftood a royal palace, in which
Edward I and II refided, and in which Edward III died of
grief, for the lofs of his heroic fon the Black Prince. Here
alfo died Anne, Queen of Richard II, who firft taught the
Englifh ladies the ufe of the fide-faddle : for, before her
time, they rode aftride. Richard was fo afflicted at her
death, that he deferted and defaced the fine palace ; but it
was repaired by Henry V, who founded three religious
houfcs near it. In 1497, it was deftroyed by fire ; but^
Henry VII rebuilt it, and commanded that the village'
fhould be called Richmond ; he having borne the title
of Earl of Richmond before he obtained the crown ; and
here he died. Queen Elizabeth was a prifoner in this pa-
lace, for a fhort time, during the reign of her fifter. When
flie became Queen, it was one of her favourite places of

refidencc ;



RICHMOND. 221

refidence ; and here fhe clofed her illuftrious carder. It
was afterward the reUdence of Henry Prince of Wales ; and
Bp. Duppa is faid to have educated Charles II heVe. It is
not now eafy to afcertain when this royal palace absolutely
ceafed to be fuch. Some parts of it appear to have been
repaired by James II, whofe fort, the Pretender, it is laid,
was nurfed here. [&* Bp. Bur net, yd. f. p. 753.} It is
not totally demolifhed. " The houfcs now let on. leafe to
"William Robertfon and Matthew Skinner, Efquires, as
well as that in the occupation of Mr. Dundas, which ad-
joins the gateway, are parts of the old paJace, and are de-
fcribed in the furvey taken by the Order of Parliament in
1649; and, in Mr. Skinner's garden, ft ill exifts the old
yew-tree, mentio;ied in that funrey. [Set Lyfms, fel. l.p,
441.} On the fite of this palace alfo is Cholinondeley
Houfe, built by George third Earl of Cholmondetey, who
adorned the nobl-e gaJlery with his ftne coileclion'of pic-
tures. It is now the property of the Duke of Queeniberry,
who transferred hither the pictures and furniture from his
feat at Ambrelbury. The tapeftry, which hung behind
the Earl of Clarendon, in the Court of Chancery, now de-
corates the hall of this houfe. A large houfe, the property
of Mrs. Sarah Way, and the refidence of herfelf and her
fefter, the Countds Dowager of Northampton, is alfo on
the fite of this palace, as is the elegant villa of Whitflied
Keene, Efy built by the late sir Charles Afgill, Bart, trom
a defign of Sir Robert Taylor's.

There was formerly a park adjoining Richmond Green,
called the Old, or Little Park, to diftinguifh it from the
extenflve one, made by Charles I, and called the New
Park. In this Old Park was a lodge, the Jcafe of which
was grantsd, in 1 707, for 99 year.s, to James Duke of Or-
mond, who rebuilt the houfe, and refi'led there till his im-
peachment in i 7 1 5, when he retired to> Pans. Soon after,
George II, then Prince of Wa^V purchafed the remainder
of th<; Jeafe, (which, after the Duke's impeachment, was
verted in the Earl of Arran,) and made the Lodge his refi-
dence. It was~ pulled dow in 1772, at which time his
Majefty, who had fometimes relided in it, had an inten-
tion of building a new- palace on the lite. The founda-
tions wete actually laid : and, in the public Dining Room
U 3 &



222 RICHMOND*

at Hampton Court, is the model of the intended palacev
Not far from the lite of the lodge, {lands the obfervatory,
built by Sir William Chambers, in 1769. Among a very
fine let of inftruments, are particularly to be noticed a mu-
ral arch of 140 degrees, and eight feet radius j a zenith
ftctor of 12 feet ; a tranfit inftrument of 8 feet ; and a ten-
feet reflector by Herfchel. On the top of the building is a
moveable dome, which contains an equatorial inftrument.
The obfervatory contains alfo a collection of fubjects in
natural hiftory, well preferved ; an excellent apparatus for
philofophical experiments, fome models, and a collection
of -ores from his Majefty's mines in the foreft of Hartz in
Germany. A part of Old Park is now a dairy and grazing-
farm in his Majefty's own hands. The remainder confti- '
tuteb the royal gardens, which were altered to their pre-
fent form by Brown, to whofe exquifite tafte in the embel-
lifhment of rural fcenery, the didactic poet paid this me-
.rited eulogy, while tie was living to enjoy it :

H'm too, the living leader of thy powers,

Oieat Nature ! him the Mufe flial] hail in notes,

Which antedate the praife true genius claims

From juft pbrterity. Bards yet unborn

Shnll pay to Brown that tribute, fitlieft paid

l:i drains, the beauty of his fcenes infpire. ' MASON.

Inftead of the trim formality of the ancient ftyle, we now
fee irregular groups of trees adorning beautiful fwel ling
lawns, interfperfed with flirubberies, broken clumps,
and folemn woods ; through the recefles of which ate
walks, that lead to various parts of thefe delightful gar-
dens. The banks, along the margin of the Thames,
are judicioufly varied, forming a noble terrace, which ex-
tends the whole length of the gardens ; in the S. E.
quarter of which, a road leads to a fequeftered fpot, in
which ,is a cottage, that exhibits the moft elegant (impli-
cit v. Here is a collection of curious foreign and domeftic
beafts, as well as of many rare and exotic birds. Being a
favourite retreat of her Majefty's, this cottage is kept .ki
great neatnefs. The gardens are open to the Public,
every Sunday, from Midfu miner till toward the end of
Autumn.

At



RICHMOND. 223

At the foot of Richmond Hill, on the Thames, is the
villa of the Duke of Buccleugh. From the lawn there is
a fubterraneous communication with the pleafu re grounds
on the opponte fid,e of the road, which extends almoft to
the fummit of the hill. Near this is the charming refidence
of Lady Diana Beauclerk, who has herfelt decorated one of
the rooms with lilachs and other flowers, in the fame man-
ner as at her former relidence at Twickenham. Here like-
wife are the villas of the Duke of Clarence, the Earl of
Leicefter, Sir Lionel Darell, bart. &c.

On Richmond Green is a houfe belonging to Vifcount
Fitzwilliam, whofe maternal grandfather, Sir Matthew
Decker, Bart, an eminent Dutch mei chant, built a room
here for the reception of George L. In this houfe is an an-
cient painting of Richmond Palace by Vinkeboom : and
there is another, faid to be the work of one of Rubens'
fcholars, and fuppofed to reprefent the Lodge in the Old
Park, before it was pulled down by the Duke of Ormond.
The Green is furrounded by lofty elms, and, at one cornqr
of it, is a, theatre, in which, during the fummer-feafon,
dramatic entertainments are performed.

The town runs up the hill, above a mile, from Eaft
Sheen to the New Park, with the Royal Gardens doping
all the way to the Thames. Here are four alms-houfes ;
one of them built by bifhop Duppa, in the reign of Charles
II, for ten poor widows, pui fuant to a vow he made during
that Prince's exile.. An elegant ftone bridge, of five femi-
circular arches, from a defign by Paine, was erected here

. in '777- . ;

The fummit of Richmond Hill commands a luxuriant

pi ofpecr, which Thomfon, who refided in this beautiful
place, has thus celebrated in his Seafons :

Say, (hall we afcend

Thy hill, delightful Sheen ? Here let us fwcep
The boundlefs landscape : now the raptur'd eye,
Exulting fwift, to huge Augufta fend ;
Now to the fifter-hilU* thit fli'n t her plain,
To lofty Harrow now, and now to where
Majeftic Windfor lifts his princely brow.
In lovely contraft to this glorious view,

* Higbgate and Hampfteud.

Calmly



224 RICHMOND.



Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 21 of 30)