dimly magnificent, then will we turn
To where the lilvcr Thames firft rural
Th-'rc let the feafted eye u:uve.inJ ilray :
Luxurious, there, rove thro' the pendent woods,
That nodainjj hang o'er Ham niton's ictreat ?*
And fto ping thence to Ham's. embowering wa!ks,-J-
Here lee us trace the match i-fi v.tlc of Thames;
Far-winding up to wlieie the mules haunt
In Twit'nam how'rs ; to royal Hampto/s pile,
To Clarcmont's terrafs'd height, and Elher's groves.
Enchanting vile ! beyond wha;c'er the mule
Has of Achaii, or Hd'peiia it) ;g!
O vale or'blf, I O forcly-fweiling hilh !
, On which thr Power of Cul:iv.iti,>n !ies r
And j<.ys to (e the wonder ot his toil.
Heav'ns ! what a goodly profpeil fpread* around,
Of hills,, and dales, and woods, and law s, a id ipi
Ard glitt'rir)g towns, and gildea (rreims, till all
The fltretching landfcape into ("moke decays.
Thomfon's refidence was at Rofsdalc Houfe, now in the
pofleffion of the Hon. Mrs. Bofcawen, in Kew-foot Lane,
It was purchafed, after his kath, by George RoCs, Efq. who,
out of veneration to his memory, forbore to pull it down,
but enlarged and improved it at the expetice of 9000!.
Mrs. Bofcawen has repaired the poet s favourite feat in the
garden, and placed in it the table on which he wrote his
verfes. Over the entrance is infcribed:
HereThomfon fung the Seafons and their Change.*
The infide is adorned with fuitable quotations from au-
thors who have paid due compliments to his talents; and
in the centre appears the following inftription : " Within
this pleafing retirement, allured by the mufic of the nightin-
gale, which warbled in foft unifon to the melody of his
foul, in unaffected cheerfulnefs, aud genial though fimple
elegance, lived James Thomfon. Senfibly aiive to all the
beauties of Nature,'he painted their images as they rofe in
review, and poured the whole profufion of them into his
inimitable Seafons. Warmed with intenfe devotion to the
Sovereign of the Univerfe, its flame glowing through all
his compofitions; animated with unbounded benevolence,
* Pctcdham Lodge. -j- Hnra Hoafe,
RICHMOND PARK. 225
with the tendered focial fenfibility, he never gave one mo-
ment's pain to any of his fellow-creatures, fave onl? by his
death, which happened at this place, on the 2zd of Auguft,
1748." Thomibn was buried at the weft end of the north
aifle of Richmond church. There was nothing to point
out the fpot of his interment, till a brafs tablet, with the
following infcription, was lately put up by the Earl of
Buchan : * In the earth below this tablet are the remains
of James Thomfon, author of the^beautiful poems entitled,
The Seafons, The Caftle of Indolence, &c. who died at
Richmond on the 2;th of Auguft, and was buried there on
the zgth O. S. 1748. The Earl of Buchan, unwilling that
fo good a man and fweet a poet ihould be without a me-
morial, has denoted the place of his interment for the fatis-
fa&ion of his admirers, in the year of our Lord 1/9*.*
Underneath, is this quotation from his ; Winter :'
Father of Light and Life, Thou Good Supreme !
O, teach me what is gtwxi ! teach me Thy fell'!
Sive me from folly, vanity, and vice,
Prom cvoy low purfuit I auJ feed my fnul
\Viih knowledge, confcious peace, and virtue pure ;
Sacred, fubftantia!, never-fading blifs.
RICHMOND PARK, formerly called the Great or the
New Park, to diftinguifii it from that which was' near the
Green, was made by Charles I. Sir RobeVt Walpole
(afterward Earl of Orford) was fond of hunting in this
Park, and his fon, Rooert Lord Walpole, being the Ran-
ger, he built the Great Lodge for him, and thus paid no-
bly for his amufement. This is an elegant ftone edifice,
with wings on each fide of brick. It ftands on a riling
ground, and commands a very good profpeft of the park,
efpecially of the fine piece of water. When Lord Wal-
pole, afterward fecond Earl of Orford, died, the Princefs
Amelia was appointed Ranger. While it was in her
hands, the public right to a foot-way through the Park,
was eftablifhed by the iflue of a trial at law, in 1758, at
Kingfton Afiizes, in confequence of which decifion, ladder-
gates were put up at fome of the entrances. Here alfo is
another Lodge, called the Stone Lodge. See Mortlnke. This
park is eight mile's iu circumference! and contains 225$
ai-res, of which not quite 100 are in Richmond parifh:
there are 650 acres in Mortlnke, 265 in Peterfham, 230 in
Putney, and about 1000 in Kingfton. His Majefty, who,
fince the death of the laft Range;-, the Earl of Bute, has
taken the Park into- his own hands, is now making feveral
improvements, which pro mill; to make it one of the moft
beautiful parks in the kingdom.
RICHiMONDS HOUSE, ahandfome villa, on the banks
of the Thames, at Twickenham. In the la ft century, it
was the feat of the Earl of Bradford, who had here a fine
collection of pictures. He was a diftinguifhed chara&er
in the reigns of Charles and James II, and was an active
promoter of the Revolution. Since his death it has be-
longed to different proprietors, and is now the feat of Mrs.
R1CKMANSWORTH, a market-town in Herts, 18$
miles from London, fituate on the Coin. In the neigh-
bourhood is a warren- hill, where the found of the trumpet
is repeated twelve times by the echo. In this place is Bury
Park, the feat of William 'Field, Efq.
RIPLEY, 23* miles from London, in the road to
Portfmouth, has a chapel of eafe to the parifh of Send. It
is one of the pr*ettieft villages in the county, and was for-
merly famous for cricket players. A handfome houie, on
the beautiful green>, belongs to the Onflow family.
RiYhRHKAD, a village, near Sevenoakt., in Kent, fo
called from the Darent having its fource in this parifh It
is fituated in the celebrated valley of Holmefdale. which
gives the title of Baron Holmcfdale to Lord Amherft. See
RODIXG, the name of eight parifhes in the weft of
Eflex, diftinguiflied by the appellations of Abbots, Berners,
Beauchamp^ Eythorp, High, Leiden, Margaret, and White.
They take their name from the river, which flowing
thiough them, from Canfield, falls into the Thames, below
Barking. Roding Berners is fnppofed to be the birthplace
of Juliana Berners, daughter of Sir James Berners, of that
parifh, who was bch-ad^d in the reign of Richard II:
This lady, who- was Priorefs of Sopewell Nunnery, was one
of the carliett female writers in England. She was beauti-
ful, ox great fp-irit, aud fon4 ol hawking, huuting, &c. In
thefe fports fhe was fo thoroughly fki!led, that fhe wrote
treatifes of hunting, hawking, and heraldry. " From an
abbefs difpofed to turn author," fays Mr. Wanton, " we
might reafonably have expelled a manual of meditations
for the rlofet, or felecl rules for making falves, or diftilling
ftrong waters. But the diverfions of the field were not
thought inconfiftent with the character of a religious ladv
of this eminent rank, who refembled an abbot in refpeft of
exercifing an extenfive manerial jurifdicUon, and who
hawked and hunted with other ladies of diltinction.
ROEHAMPTON, a hamlet to Putney, at the weft ex-
tremity of Putney Heath. Here are many handfome
villas; among which are Mount Clare, Sir John Dick's;
and the houfes belonging to the Earl of Uefborough, Lady
"Robert Bertie, Richard G. Temple, Efq. John Thompfon,
Efq. and Colonel Fullarton, the latter in Roehampton
Lane; befide Clarence Lodge, a villa, built for his own
rcftd-nce, by the Duke of Clarence, but lately offered to
fale; and Herbert Lodge, the villa of James Daniel, Efq.
fituate in Futirey Park Lane. Mount Clare was built, in
the Italian ftyle, by the late George Cliye, Efq. Sir Wil-
liam Chambers was the architect of the Earl of Befbo-
rough's. In this houfe are fome valuable antiques; p?r-
tirularly, the celebrated trunk of a Venus, from the collec-
tion of Baron Stofch ; and there is a buft of Demofthenes,
by Benvenuto Cellini; with fome good pictures, among
which are, the Interment of a Cardinal, by John ab Eyck,
the firft painter in oil colours; Sir Theodore May erne,
Phyfician to James I, by R-ubens; and Bp. Gardiner, by
Holbein. In this hamlet is a neat chapel, over the altar of
which is the Laft Supper, by Zucchero. Robert 1 hiftle-
waite, Efq. had a villa here, which was burnt down in
1 794, and is not rebuilt. See Roehamptcn Grw: and Rot-
ROEHMMPTON GROVE, lately the feat of Thomas
Fitzherbert, Efq. but now of William Gofling, Efq. is
fituated on part of the ancient royal park of Putney,
which no longer exifts. The fee fimple of this park was
granted, by Charles I, to Sir Richard Wefton, afterward
Earl of Portland, whofe fon alienated both the houfe and
park. They were afterward "the refkience of Chriftian
Countefsof Devonflure*, whofc family fold this efhte, in
1689; after which it c:;me into the hands of different pro-
prietors, till it was purchaffd by Sir Jofluia Vanneck, who
puilfd down the old manfion ; built the prefent elegant
villa, after a defign of Wyatt's; and expended great films
in improvements, particularly in forming a fine piece of
water, which is fupplitd b, pipes from a conduit on Put-
ney Common. Sir Joftiua, on the acquifition of his bro-
ther's eitate, fold Roehampton Grove to Mr. Fitzherbert,
.who likewife expended great fums in improvements. The
principal front commands a view of Epfom Downs in the
diftance: but Richmond Park approaches fo near, that it
feems to belong to the grounds, and gives an air of fylvan
wildnefs to the whole. The profpect to the north charms
the eye with c.heerfulnefs and variety. At the termination
of the lawn, is the beautiful piece of water before-men-
tioned. Beyond this, the Thames is feen, at high water,
winding through a well wooded valley, from which a rich
difplay of cultivated country, adorned with villages and
feats, 'rifes to Harrow and the adjacent elevated parts of
ROEHAMPTON HOUSE, the feat of William Drake,
Efq. at Roehampton, was built in the year 1710. The
ceiling of the faloon, which was painted by Thornhill, re-
preients the Feafls of the Gods.
RUMFORD, a town in Eflex, i if miles from London,
in the road to Harwich, is governed by a bailiff and war-
dens, who, by patent, were once empowered to hold a
weekly court for the trial of treafons, felonies, debts, &c.
* She was a -woman of great celebrity, and of a very fingular cha-
rafter. She was much extolk-J for her devotion; and yet (he retained
Hobbes, the freethinker, in her houfe, as tutor to her fon. She kept up
the dignity of her rank, and was celebrated for her hofpitality: yet fo
judicious was her economy, that her jointure of 5000!. a year /he nearly
doubled ; and (he extricated her fon's cfbte from a vaft debt and thirty
Ja\v-fuits; fo that King Charles once jeitingly faid to her, " Madim, you
have all my Judges at your difpofal." She wai the pationefs of the wits
of that age, who frequently ailernbied at her houfe, and there Waller
often read his verfcs. She was alive in the reftoraiion of Charles H,
who had fuch a fenfe of her fervices, that he frequently vifued her at
Roehampton, in company with the Queen Dowager, and the royal family,
with whom flie enjoyed a great intimacy till her death in 1675.
and to execute offenders. It has a market on Monday and
Tuefday for hogs and calves, and on Wednefday for corn.
It has a chapel of eafe to Hornchurch.
RUNNY MEAD, near Egham, in Surry, is celebrated
as the fpot where King John, in 1215, was compelled to lign
Magna Charta and Charta de Forefta. It is true, that here
his confent was extorted; but thefe charters were figned, it is
faid, in jan ifland between Runny Mead and Ankerwyke
Houfe. This ifland, ftill called Charter Ifland, is in the
parifh of Wrayfbury in Bucks.
The land a while,
Affrighted, droop'd beneath defpotic rage.
Inftead of Edward's equal gentle laws,
The furious vigor's partial will prevaiPd.
All proftrate lay ; and, in the fecret fhade,
Deep-ftung, but fearful, Indignation gnafh'd
His teeth. Of freedom, property, defpoil'd,
And of their bulwark, arms; with caftles crufh'd,
With ruffians quarter'd o'er the bridled landj
The fhivering wretches, at the curfew found,
Dejected ihrunk into their fordid beds,
And, through the mournful gloom, of ancient times
Mus'd fad, or dreamt of better. Ev'n to feed
A tyrant's idle fport the peafant ftarv'd:
To the wild herd, the pafture of the tame, -
The cheerful hamlet, fpiry town, were given,
' And the brown foreft roughen'd wide around*
But this fo vile fubmiflion, long endur'd not.
Unus'd to bend, impatient of control,
Tyrants themfelves the common tyrant check'd.
The church, by kings intractable and fierce,
Deny'd her portion'of the plunrler'd (late,
Or tempted, by the timorous and weak,
To gain new ground, firft taught their rapine law.
The barons next a nobler league began,
Both thofe of Engliih and of Norman race,
I-i one fraternal nation blended now,
The nation of the free ! Prefs'd by a band
Of patriots, ardent as the fummer's nooa
That looks delighted on, the tyrant fee !
Mark ! how with feign'd alacrity he bears
His ftrorig reluctance cown, his dark revenge,
And gives the Charter, by which life indu..!
Becomes of price, a glory to be mail. THOMSON.
In King John's time, and that of his fon, Henry HI, the
-rigours of the feudal tenures and foreft laws were fo warmly
kept up, that they occasioned many infurreftions of the
barons or principal feudatories: which at laft had this ef-
fect, that firft King John, and afterward his fon, confented
to the two famous charters of Englifh liberties, magnet charta
and cbarta tlcforsfta. Of thefe the latter was well-calculated
to redrefs many grievances, and encroachments of the
crown, in the exertion of foreft Jaw : and the former con-
firmed many liberties of the church, and redrefled many
grievances incident to feudal tenures, of no fmall moment
at the time; though now, unlefs considered attentively, and
with this retrofped, they feem but of trifling concern.
But, hefide thefe feudal provifions, care was taken to pro-
tect the fubjeft againft other oppreffions, then frequently
arifing from unreafonable amercements, from illegal dif-
treffes or other procefs for debts or fervices due to the
crown, and from the tyrannical abufe of the prerogative of
purveyance and pre-emption. It fixed the forfeiture of
lands for felony in the fame manner as it ftill remains;
prohibited for the future the grants -of exclufive fiflieries;
and the erection of new bridges fo as to opprefs the neigh-
bourhood. With refpeft to private r,ights, it eftablifhtd
thetefiamentary power of the fubject over part of his per-
fonal ettate, the reft being diftributed among his wife and
children : it laid down the law of dower, as it hath conti-
nued everfince; and prohibited the appeals of women,
unlefs for the death of their hulbands. In matters of pub-
lic police and national concern, it injoined an uniformity
of weights and meafures; gave new encouragements to
commerce, by the protection of merchant ftrangers; and
forbad the alienation of lands in mortmain. With regard
to the adminiftration of juftice, befide prohibiting all
denials or delays of it, it fixed the court of common pleas
at Weftminfter, that the fuitors might no longer be ha-
rafled with following the king's perfon in all his progrefles,
and at the fame time brought the trial of iffiies home to the
very doors of the freeholders, by directing affixes to be taken
in the proper counties, and eftablifhing annual circuits; it
alfo corrected fome abufes then incident to the trials by
wager of law and of battle; directed the regular awarding
of inquefts for life or member; prohibited the king's infe-
rior minifters from holding pleas of the crown, or trying,
any criminal" charge, whereby many forfeitures might
otherwife have unjuftly accrued to the exchequer; and
regulated the time and place of holding the inferior tribu-
nals of jufiice, the county court, fheriff's tourn, and coiirt-
leet. It confirmed and eftabliflied the liberties of the city
of London, and all other cities, boroughsj towns, arid ports
of the kingdom. And, laltly, (which alone would have
merited the title it bears, of the great charter) it protected
every individual of the nation in the free enjoyment of his
life, his liberty, and his property, unlefs declared to be for-
feited by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land.
On Runny Mead are annual horfe-races, which are at-
tended by their Majefties and the royal family.
RUSSEL FARM, the handfome feat of the Countefs
Dowager of Efiex, in a beautiful firuation neat Watford.
RYE-HOUSE, an ancient houfe, in the parifli of Stan-
fled Abbot, in the road from Hoddefdon to Ware, was
built by Andrew Ogard, in the reign of Henry VI ; that
monarch having granted him a licence to build a caftle on
his manor of Rye. It came afterward, into the family of
the late Paul Field, Efq. Part of the building (which now
ferves as a workhoufe to the parifli) has both battlements
and loopholes, and was probably the gate of the caftle,
which Andrew Ogard had liberty to ereft : and if fo, it is
among the earlieft of thofe brick buildings, raifed after the
form of bricks was changed, from the ancient flat and
broad, to the modern ihape.
But what has rendered this place particularly interefting,
is its being the fpot faid to have been intended for the
aflaflination of Charles II, in 1683. The houfe was then
tenanted by Rumbold, who had ferved in the army of
Cromwell. Hume, after mentioning, that a regular pro-
jecl of an infurre&ion was formed, and that a council of
fix confpirators was erefted, confifting of the Duke of
Monmouth, Lord Ruffe), the Earl of EfTex, Lord Howard,
Algernon Sidney, and John Hampden, grnndfon of the
great parliamentary leader, thus proceeds: " While tbefe
X a fi heme*
fchcmes were concerting among the leaders, there was an
inferior order of confpirators, who had frequent meetings,
and, together with the infurrection, carried on projects
quite unknown to Monmouth and the cabal of fix. \Vhtn
theie men were together, they indulged thcmfelvts- in the
mod delperate and criminal difcourfe: they frequently men-
tioned the afiaffination of the king and the duke, to which
they had given the familiar appellation of lopping; they
even went fo far as to have thought of a fcheme for that
purpofe. Rumbold, who was a maltfter, poiTefled a farm,
cJ the Rye Houle, which lay on the road to Newmar-
'. whither the king commonly went once a year, for the
diversion of the races. A plan of this farm had been laid
before fomt- of the confpirators by Rumbold, who fhowed
jthem how eafy it would be, by overturning a cart, to Hop
at that place the king's coach ; while they might fire upon
hhi from the hedges, and be enabled afterward, through
bye lanes, and crofs the fields, to make their cfcape. But
though the plaufibiiity of this fcheme gave great pleafure
to tne confpirators, no concerted defign was as yet laid, nor
any men, nodes, or arms provided. The whole was little
more than loofe difcourfe, the overflowings of zeal and
rancour.'' Hume, Vol. xii. chap. 5. When this affair,
ho.vever, became afterward the fubjeft of a judicial en-
quiry, it received the name of The Rye Houfe Plot; and
(Colonel Walcot, and others, were condemned and exe-
cuted as parties in it.
SALTHILL, in Bucks, 2ii miles from London, on the
Bath road, is remarkable for its fine fituation and elegant
inn. It is alfo famous as being the fpot to which the fcho-
lars of Eton make their triennial proceffion; when a public
collection is made from the company, for the benefit of the
Captain of the School, who is generally elefted a member
of King's College, Cambridge. This collection, in fome
years, amounts to near loool.
SAXDEKSTED, in Surrv, near Croydon, has a de-
ligbjiul profpeft on the N. to Crovdon, and on the N. W.
to Harrow on the Hill, fome parts of Bucks, Berks, Hamp-
Ihire, and over all Banfted Downs. See Purley.
SAUNDRIDGE, a village in Hertford fhi re, three miles
N. by E. of St. Albans. Here is the elegant feat of Charles
Bouchier, Efq. who has lately made great improvements in
the houfe and grounds.
SEVENOAKS, a market-town in Kent, near the river
Darent, 23} miles from London, in the road to Tu abridge,
obtained its name from feven large oaks which grew near
it, when it was firft built. Here is an hofpital and fchool,
for the maintenance of aged people, and the inftru&ion of
youth, firft erefted by Sir William Sevenoaks, Lord Mayor
of London, in 1418, who is faid to have been a foundling,
educated at the expence of a perfon of this town, whence
he took his name. Queen Elizabeth having greatly aug-
mented the revenue of this fchool, it was.called Queen Eli-
zabeth's Free-School. It was rebuilt in 1727. Near this
town, in 1450, the roval army, commanded by Sir Hum-
phrey Stafford, was defeated by the rebels headed by John
Cade. See Kippingtcn and Knole.
SHEEN, EAST, a hamlet to Mortlake, on the Thames.
Here are feveral villas; particularly, that of Lord Palmer-
fton, a defendant from Sir John Temple, brother of the
celebrated Sir William Temple; the feat of Mrs. Bowles,
built by the late Charles Bowles, Efq. after a deiign by
Mefifrs. Carr and Morris; and the houfesof Philip Francis,
Efq. and Mr. Alderman Watfon.
SHEEN, WEST, the name of a hamlet to Richmond,
which once flood a quarter of a mile to the N. W. of the
old Palace of Richmond. Here Henry V, in 1414, founded
a convent of Carthufians, in the walls of which Perkin
Warbeck fought an afylum. An ancient gateway, the laft
remains of this priory, was taken down in 1770. The
whole hamlet, confiding of iShoufes, was, at the fame
time, annihilated, and the fite, which was made into a
Jawn, added to the King's inclofures. Sir William Tem-
ple had a ieafe of the fite and premifes of the priory; and
Weft Sheen was his favourite refidence till his remov.il to
Moor Park, near Farnham. King WiU'urn frequently
vifited him at this place. When his patron was 1 ime with,
the gout, Swift ufually attended his JVlajefty in his walk
X 3 round
234 s i o
round the- gardens; and- here he became acquainted with
the beautiful and accompliflied Stella, who was born at this
place, and whofe father was Sir William's fteward.
SHENLEY, a village of Hertford (hire, two miles N. by
W. of Chipping Barnet. Here is High Canons, a hand-
fome feat, lately purchafed by Thomas Fit'/herbert, Efq.
who has made many elegant improvements; particularly
two fine pieces of water in the park, which, floping from
the houfe, terminate, at fome diftance, in a delightful wood.
SHEPPERTON,a village in Middlefex,on the Thames,
IQ| miles from London. It is much reforted to by the
lovers of angling. Hence is a bridge to Walton.
SHOOTER'S HILL, eight miles from London, in the
road to Dover, from the fummit of which is a fine view of
London, and into Eflex, Surry, and even jpart of Suflex.
The Thames alfo exhibits a magnificent appearance.
There is a handfome inn and gardens, for the entertain-
ment of thofe who vifit this delightful fpot. See Eltbam.
SHORNE, a village, three miles and a half S. E. of
Grnvefend, containing a romantic variety of landfcape.
The hills are wide, fteep, and almoft covered with wood ;
rifing into bold variations, between the breaks of which
vaft profpefts of the valley beneath, and the Thames wind-
ing through it, are feen, and from the tops of fome of them
very extenfive profpecls of the country at large.
SION HILL, in the parifh of Ifleworth, the elegant
villa of the Duke of Marlborough. The grounds, which
were planted by Bro\vn, fall with a gentle defcent from the
houfe to the great road to Hounflow.
SION HILL, near the laft mentioned, the feat of John,
Robinfon, Efq. a neat villa, with extenfive offices, plea-
fantly fituate in a fmall paddock. This eftate is a manor,
called Wyke : it aociently belonged to the convent of Sion;
and, among its various proprietors fince the diffolution, we
find the name of Sir Thomas Grefham.
blON. HOUSE, in the parifh of Ifleworth, a feat of the
Duke of Northumberland's, on the Thames, oppofite
Richmond Gardens, is called Sion, from a nunnery of
Bridgetines, of the fame 'name, originally founded at
Twickenham, by Henry V, in 1414, and removed to this
fpot in 1432.
SION HOUSE. 235
After the diflblution of this convent in 1532, it contir
nued in the crown, during the remainder of our eighth