F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 23 of 30)
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Henry "b reign. His unfortunate Queen, Catharine How-
ard, was confined here, from Nov. 14, 1541, to Feb. 10,
i 54z, being three days before her execution. Edward VI
granted it to his uncle the Duke of Somerfet, who, in 1547,
began to build this magnificent ftrufture, and finifhed the
fhell of it nearly as it now remains. The houfe is a ma-
jeftic edifice, of white ftone : the roof is flat, and embat-
tled. Upon each of the four outward angles, is a fquare
turret, flat- roofed and embattled. The gardens were in-
clofed by high walls before the eaft and weft fronts, and
were laid out in a very grand manner; but being made at
a time when extenfive views were deemed inconfiftent with
the ftately privacy affefted by the great, they were fo fitu-
ated as to deprive the houfe of all profpeft. To remedy
that inconvenience, the Protector built a high triangular
terrace in the angle between the walls of the two gardens ;
and this it was that his enemies afterward did not fcruple
to call a fortification, and to infinuate that it was one proof,
among others, of his having formed a defign dangerous to
the liberties of the king and people. After hiS execution,
in 1552, Sion was forfeited; and the houfe, which was
given to John Duke of Northumberland, then became the
refidence of his fon, Lord Guilford Dudley, and of his
daughter-in-law, the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey, who
was at this place, when the Dukes of Northumberland and
Suffolk, and her hulband, came to prevail upon her to ac-
cept the fatal prefent of the crown; and hence (lie was
conducted, as then ufual on the acceffion of the fovereign,
to refide for fome time in the Tower.

The Duke being beheaded in 1553, Sion Houfe reverted
to the Crown. Queen Mary reftored it to the Bridgetines,
who poflefied it till they were expelled by Elizabeth. In
1604, Sion Houfe was granted to Henry Percy ninth Earl
of Northumberland, in confideration of his eminent fer-
vices. His fon Algernon employed Inigo Jones to new-
face the inner court, and to finifli the great hall in the
manner in which it now appears.

The Dukes of York and Gloucefter, and the Princefs
Elizabeth, were fent here by an order of the Parliament,



in 1646, and were treated by the Earl and Cotintefs of
Northumberland in all refpeftsfuitable to their birth. The
King frequently vifited them at Sion in 1647. The Duke
of Gloucefter and the Princefs Elizabeth, continued at Sion
till 1649, at which time the Earl refigned them to the care
of his filter the Countefs of Leicefter.

In 1682, Charles Duke of Somerfet, having married the
only child of Jofceline Earl of Northumberland, Sion Houfe
became his property. He lent this houfe to the Princefs
Anne, who reficled here during the mifunderftanding be-
tween her and Queen Mary. Upon the Duke's death, in
1748, his fon Algernon gave Sion Houfe to Sir Hugh and
Lady Elizabeth Smithfon, his fon-in-law and daughter, af-
terward Duke and Duchefs of Northumberland, who made
the fine improvements.

The moft beautiful frenery imaginable is formed before
two of the principal fronts; for even the Thames itfelf
feems to belong to the gardens, which are feparated into
two parts by a new ferpentine river, which communicates
with the Thames. Two bridges form a communication
between the two gardens, and there is a ftately Doric co-
lumn, on the top of which is a finely-proportioned ftatue
of Flora. The greenhoufe has a Gothic front, in fo light
a ftyle. ns to be greatlv admired. The back and end walls
of it are the only remains of the old monaftery. Thefe
beautiful gardens are ftored with a great many curious
exotics, and were principally laid out by Brown.

The en:i ance to the manfion, from the great road, is
through a beautiful gateway, adorned on each fide with an
open colonnade, The vifitor afcencls the houfe, by a flight
of fteps which leads into The Great Hall, a noble oblong
room, 66 feet by 31, and 34 in height. It is paved with
white and black marble, and is ornamented with antique
marble coloflal ftatues, and particularly with a cafr of the
dying glaciiator in bronze, by Valadier.

Adjoining to the Hall, is a magnificent Vejlilule, in a
very uncommon ftyle; the floor of fcagliola, and the walls
in fine relief, with gilttrr phics, &c. It is adorned with 12
large Ionic columns and 16 pilafters of verJe antique, pur-
chafed at an immenfe expenfe, bein<; a greater quantity of
this fcarce marble, than is now perhaps to be found in any



one building in the World : on the columns are iz gilt fta-
tues. This leads to The Dining Room, which is ornamented
with marble ftatues, and paintings in chiaro ofcuro, after
the antique. At each end is a circular recefs feparated by
columns, and the ceiling is in ftuccogilt.

The Drawing Room has a coved ceiling, divided into
fmall compartments richly gilt, and exhibiting defigns of *
all the antique paintings that have been found in Europe,
executed by the beft Italian artifts. The fides are hung with
a rich three-coloured filk damaik, the firft of the kind ever
executed in England. The tables are two noble pieces of
antique mofaic, found in the Baths of Titus, and purchafed
from Abbate Furietti's collection at Rome. The glafles
are 108 inches by 65, being two of the largeft ever feen in
England. The chimneypiece is of the fineft ftatuary'mar-
ble, inlaid and ornamented with or moulii.

The Great Gallery, which alfo ferves for the library and
mufeum, is 13 3! feet by 14. The bookcafes are formed
in recefies in the wall, and receive the books fo as to make
them part of the general finifhing of the room. The
chimneypieces are adorned with medallions, &c. The
whole is after the moft beautiful ftyle of the antique, ^nd
gave the firft inftance of ftuccp-work finifhed in England,
after the fineft remains of antiquity. Below the ceiling,
which is richly adorned with paintings and ornaments,
runs a feries of large medallion paintings, exhibiting the
portraits of all the Earls of Northumberland in fucceffion,
and other principal perfons of the houfes of Percy and Sey-
mour ; all taken from originals. At the end of this room
is a pair of folding doors into the garden, which unifor-
mity required fhould reprefent a bookcafe, to anfwer the
other end of the library. Here, by a happy thought, are
exhibited the titles of the loft Greek and Roman authors,
fo as to form a pleafing deception, and to give, at the fame
time, a curious catalogue of the autbores Jcperttiti. At
each end, is a little pavilion, finifhed in the moft exquifite
tafte ; as is alfo a beautiful clofet in one of the fquare tur-
rets rifing above the roof, which commands an enchanting

From the eaft end of the gallery are a fuite of private
apartments, that are very convenient and elegant, and



lead us back to the great hall by which we entered. All
thefe improvements were begun in 1 762, by the late Duke,
under the direction of Robert Adam, Efq.

SLOUGH, a village, 20! miles from London, and two
from Windfor. Part of it is in theparifh of Stoke, the other
in that of Upton. Here the celebrated Dr. Herfchd pur-
fues his aftronomical refearches, afiifted by a royal pen-
fion. His forty-feet telefcope is a prodigous inftrument.
The length of the tube is 39 feet 4 inches: it meafures 4
feet 10 inches in diameter; and every part of it is of rolled
or fheet iron, which has been joined together, without
rivets, by a kind of Teaming, well known to thofe who
make iron funnels for ftoves. The concave face of the
great mirror '1548 inches of polifhed furface in diameter.
The thicknefs, which is equal in every part of it, is about
three inches and a half; and its weight when it came from
the caft, was 2118 pounds, of which it muft have loft a
fmall part in polifhing. The method of obferving by this
telefcope is by what Dr. Herfchel calls the front view ; the
obferver being placed in a feat, fufpended at the end of it,
with his back toward the objecl he views. There is no fmall
fpeculum, but the magnifiers are applied immediately to
the firft focal image. From the opening of the telefcope,
near the place of the eyeglafs, a fpeaking-pipe runs down
to' the bottom of the tube, where it goes into a turning
joint; and, after feveral other inflexions, it at length di-
vides into two branches, one going into the obfei vatory,
and the other into the workroom ; and thus the communi-
cations of the obferver are conveyed to the affiftant in the
obfervatory, and the workman is directed to perform the
required motions. The foundation of the apparatus by
which the telefcope is fufpended .and moved, confifts of two
concentric circular brick walls, the outermoft of which is
22 feet in diameter, and the infide one 21 feet. They are
two feet fix inches deep under ground, two feet three inches
broad at the bottom, and one foot two inches at the top ;
and are capped with paving fiones about three inches thick,
and twelve and three quarters broad. The bottom frame
of the whole refts upon thefe two walls by 20 concentric
rollers, and is moveable upon a pivot, which gives a hori-
zontal motion to the whale apparatus, as well as to the tele-

sou 239

fcope. The def:ription of the apparatus and telefcope oc-
cupies 63 pages in the fecond part of the Philofophical
Tran factions tor 179$, and the parts of it are illuftrared by
19 plates. A good idea of the whole may be formed from
a perfpeclive view of it (as it now (lands in the Doc-
tor's garden) in the Univerfal Magazine for Feb. 1796.

SO1 J EWELL,- near St. Alban's, was a nunnery, founded
in 1 142. In this houfe, Henry VIII was privately married
to Anne Boleyn, by Dr. Rowland Lee, afterward Bifliop
of Lichfield and Coventry.

SOPHIA FARM. See St. Leonard's Hill.

SOUTHFLEET, a village in Kent, contiguous to
Northfleet. The Bifhops of Rochefter were pouefled of
the manor before the Conqueft, and, as not unufual in an-
cient times, the court of Southfleet had a power of trying
and executing felons. This jurifdiftion extended not only
to afts of felony done within the villa, but alfo over crimi-
nals apprehended there, though the facl had been commit-
ted in another county.

SOUTHGATE, a hamlet to the parifli of Edmonton,
fituate on the fkirts of Enfield Chafe, eight miles from Lon-
don. Among many handfome houfes here, are Minchen-
don Houfe, the feat of the Duchefs of Chandos; Cannon
Grove, of Mr. Alderman Curtis ; and Arnold's Grove, ef
Ifaac Walker, Efq.

SOUTH LODGE, an elegant villa on Enfield Chafe,
was a feat of the firft Earl of Chatham (when a commoner)
to whom it was left by will, with io,oool. On this be-
queft, he obferved, that he fhould fpend that Aim in im-
provements, and then grow tired of the place in three or
four years : nor was he miftaken.v Yet here, for fome time,
this illuftrious ftatefman occafionally enjoyed the fweets of
rural retirement, and even indulged in fome poetic e"ffu-
fions. In Mr. Seward's Anecdotes of fome Diftinguiftied
Perfons, Vol. Ill, is A lone epiftle from him to Richard
Vifcount Cobham, from which the following is an extract.
It is an imitation of Horace, Book I, Ode 29, and is en-
titled " An Invitation to South Lodge."

From Norman princes iprung, their virtues' heir,'

Cobham, for theemy vaults inclofe
Tokai's fmooth calk unpicrc'd. Here purer air,

Breathing fweet pink and balmy rofe, Shall

240 S T A

Shall meet thy vrifh'd approach. Haftc theft away,

Nor round and round for ever rove
The magic Ranelagh, or nightly ftray

In gay Spring Gardens * glittering grove.

Forfake the town's huge mafs, ftretch'd long and wide.

I'all'd with Profufion's fick'ning joys j
Spurn the vain capital's inlipid pride,

Smoke, riches, politics, and nolle.

Change points the blunted fenfe of fumptuous pleafure ;

And ncut repafts in fylvan fhed,
Where Nature's fimple boon is all the treafure,

Care's brow with fmiles have often fpread.

When he parted with South Lodge, the fucceeding pro-
prietor greatly neglefted it; but Mr. Alderman Skinner,
who afterward purchafed it, reftored this delightful fpot to
its former beauty. The plantations, which are well wood-
ed, are laid out with great tafte, and are adorned with two
fine pieces of water ; the views acrofs which, from diffe-
rent parts of the grounds, into Epping Foreft, are rich
and extenfive. It was lately purchafed by Mr. Gundry.

SOUTHWEALD, a village near Brentwood, where
is the handfome houfe of Chriftopher Tower, Efq. in
whofe park is a lofty building, upon an elevated point, that
commands an extenfive profpecl.

SPENCER GROVE, the beautiful villa of Mifs Ho-
tham, delightfully fituate on the Thames, at Twickenham.
It was fitted up with great elegance by Lady Diana Beau-
clerk, who decorated feveral of the rooms herfelf, with her
own paintings of flowers. It was afterward the refidence
of the late Lady Bridget Tollemache.

SPRING GROVE, at Smallberry Green, near Houn-
flow, the neat villa of Sir Jofeph Banks, Bart.

STAINES, a market-town in Middlefex, i6| miles
from London. An elegant ftone bridge has been built
here v from.a defign by Thomas Sandby, Efq. R. A. It
confifts of three elliptic arches ; that in the centre 60 feet
wide ; the others 52 feet each. One or two of the piers hav-
ing funk, the opening of this bridge is retarded for fome
time. At fome diftance, above this bridge, at Coin Ditch,

* Formerly the name of Vauxhall Gardens.



fhnds London Mark Stone, the ancient boundary to the
jurifdiclion of the city of London on the Thames. On a
moulding round the upper part, is infcribed "God pre-
ferve the city of London. A. D. 1280."

STANMORE, GREAT, a village in Middlefex, ten
miles from London, in the road to Watford. Here is the
feat of James Forbes, Efq. built by the firft Duke of Chan-
dos, for the residence of his Duchefs, in cafe fhe had fur-
vived him. Mr. Forbes enlarged it, and has greatly im-
proved the gardens, in which he has creeled a fmall octagon,
temple, containing various groups of figures, in Oriental
fculpture, prefented to him by the Brahmins of Hindooftan,
ss a grateful acknowledgment of his benevolent attention to
their happinefs, during a long refidence among them.
They are very ancient, and the oniy fpecimens of fhe Hin-
doo fculpture in this ifland. In the gardens is alfo an ele-
gant ftructure, containing a cenotaph, infcribed to the me-
mory of a deceafed friend ; and here is a ruftic bridge, part
of which is compofed of a few fragments of a large Roman
watch-tower, which once Mood upon the hill:,

The villa of George Heming, Efq. in this place, was
originally a pavilion, confifting only of a nobie banquer-
ing-room, with proper culinary offices, and was built by
the firft Duke of Chandos, for the reception offuchofhis
friends as were fond of bowling ; a fpadous green having
been likewife formed for that amtifement. See Belmont
and B entity Priory.

The church, rebuilt on the prefent more convenient fpot,
- in 1632, is a brick ftruclure ; and the tower is covered by
a remarkably large and beautiful ftem of ivy. The fi: na-
tion of the old church is marked by "a flat tomb-ftone, which
has been lately planted round with iirs. The inhabitants
had been Joag accuitomed to ittch all their water from a
large refcrvoir on the top of the hill : but a well was dug
in the village, in 1 79 1, and water was found at the depth ot
i ;o feet. Upon this hill is' Stanmore Common, which u
fo very elevated, that the {ground-floor of one of the houlls
upon it is faid to be on. a level with the battlements of the
tower of Harrow church ; andlbme high treei on the Com-
mon are a landmark from rheCierma:) Ocean.
\\MORE. LITTLE. AVc ftlii,-!.-.


242 S T E

STAXSTED ABBOTS, a village of Hertfordshire, once
4 flourifliing borough, above two miles foutheaft of Ware,
near the river Stort. Stanfted Bury, in this parifh, is the
feat of Mr. Porter.

8TANWELL, a village in Middlefex, two miles from
Staines. In this parifli is Stanwell Place, the feat of Sir
William Gibbons, Bart. It is a flat fituation, but com-
znands plenty of wood and water.

STEPNEY, a village near London, whofe parifli was
of fuch extent, and fo increased in buildings, as to produce
the par! (lies of St. Mary Stratford at Bow, St. Mary White-
chapel, St. Anne Limehoufe, St. John Wapping, St. Paul
Shad well, St. George in the Eaft, Chrift Church Spital-
iields, and St. Matthew Bethnal Green ; and it contains the
hamlets of Mile-End Old Town, Mile-End New Town,
Ratdiff, and Poplar.

On the eafl fide of the portico of the church, leading
up to the gallery, is a ftoae, with this infcription ;

O/ Carthage grcst I was a (tone,
O mortals, read with pity !
Time c .nfumcs all, it fp.ireth none,
Men, mountains, towns, nrir city :
Therefore, O mortals J all be'.hu;k
You wheieunto you muft,
Since now fuch (lately buildings
Lie turied in the duft.

Tlie hamlet of RsLtcliff, which lies in the weftern divi-
lion of this parifh, contained 1 150 houfes, of which 455,
with 36 warehoufes, were 'deftroyed by a dreadful fire, on
tl-e 2 ^d of July 1794. Tents were fixed in a walled field
belonging to the Quakers, for the immediate accommoda-
tion of die poor inhabitants ; and aftive fubfcriptions were
let on foot for their more effectual relief. At the gate of
the camp, and at the different avenues to the ruins, dona-
tions were received to the amount of 470!. nearly in half-
pence only : including thefe, the whole amount of the
lubfcriptioiis was nearly 17,000!.; and fuch was the libe-
rality '-or the public, that the hand of charity was flopped
Jong before it -would have ceafed to contribute, by 'an inti-
mation from the managers, that this fum was fully ade-
quate to the relief of the poor fufferers.


s T a 243

STOCKWELL, a village in Surry, in the par; Hi of
Lambeth. Here is a neat chapel of eafe, to which Abp,
Seeker contributed 500!. Qn the fite of the ancient manor-
hoiife, a hindfome villa has been erected by Bryant Barrett,
Efq. one of the proprietors of Vauxhall Gardens Part oi :
the sncitnt offices are ftill (landing; Ivat Mr. Lyfonsfays,
that t'-e Mau'ition of its having been the property of Tho-
mas Cromwell, Earl of Eflex, is without foundation, as, ire
his tM'-e, it belonged to Sir John Leigh, the younger.

S. . ( ki, a village in Bucks, 21 miles from London,
calleu 3\"o Stoke Poges, from its ancient lords, named Poges.
Edvvaid Lord Longhborough founded here an hofpita),
with a :hapel in whirh he himfelt : was interred. Henry
third Ear! of Huntingdon isfuppofsd to have erected the
ir-r r on in Stoke Park, air.<Mw;.rd the feat ot Lord Chan-
eel'-' .iaiLon. Sir Edward C*:ke next reiuitd here, and
was v'v-'d, in 1601, by r .iecn Elizabeth, whom he fump-
tvonfi) entertained; prefenting her witlj jewels, &c. to the
rains ofloooL; and hej.*e, in 1634, he died. It became
afterward the ieat of Anne \ -'ifcountefs Cobham, on \vhoie
death it was pure Ikifed by Penn, oi e of the Jate pro-
prietors of Penfylvania. John Penn, Efq. his reprefenta-
tive, took down the ancient manfion, and has erected a
noble fear, in a more etevated firuation. Ke has likewife
rebuilt Lord'Loughborough's hoipital, on a more conve-
nient fpot. In Lady Cobham's time, Mr. Grsy, whofe
aui)t refided in the viJlage, often vifited Stoke Fai k, and,
in 1 747, it was the fcene of his poem called A Long ->torv ;
in which the fty'e of building in. Elizabeth's rugn is admi-
rably defcribcd, and the fantaftic manners of her time da~
iiueated with equal truth and humour:

In Britn'n's ifle, no matter where,
An ancient pile of building ftands :
The Huntingdon* and Hmons there
Employ'd the pow'r of fairy hands,

To raife the ceiling's fretted height,
Each panncl in achievements clothing,.
Rich windows that exclude the light,
And pa&gcs that lead to nothing.

Y * Full

-44 s T R

Full oft within the fpacious walls,
When he had fifty winters o'er him,
My gi.-ne lord keeper* led the brawls j-f-
The feaJ and maces danc'd before him.

His I'Uihy beard and ihoe-frrings green,
His l.igh-crowr.'a hat, and fatin doublet,
Mcv'd rhe llout heart of England's queef,
Though Pope and Sjraniaid could not tiouble it.

The churchyard mufl ever be interesting, as the fcene
of our poet's celebrated elegy ; and, at the eaft end of it,
he is interred ; bat without even a fione to record his exit,

" And teach the ruftic moralift to die."

In this parifn is the handfome feat of Field-Mnrflial Sir
George Howard, K. B. and, at the weft end of the village,
the neat refidence of the Rev. Dr. Browning.

STOKE D'ABERNON, a village feated on the river
Mole, near Cobham. Here is a fpacious manfion, the
property of Sir Francis Vincent, a minor, and refidence of
Admiral Sir Richard Hughes, Bart. lathis parifh is a mi-
neral fpring. Sre Jefip's WtlL

STRATFORD,' 3* miles from London, the firft village
in Efiex, on croiling the Lea, at Bow Bridge, is in the pa-
rifh of Weft Ham. At Maryland Point, in this hamlet, is
Stratford Houfe, where Sir John Henniker, Bart, has ex-
tenfiye gardens, though the houfe itfelf makes no figure.


STRAWBERRY HILL, near Twickenham, the villa

* Sir Chriftopher Hatton, whole graceful perfon and fine dancing were
his beft qualifications, and the means of promoting him to be Lord Chan-
cellor. Being in that high Ration, he became arrogint. The Queen
thereupon told him, " that he was too much exalted by the indulgence of
" his fortune, which had placed him in a ilation for vhich he wjs unfit,.
" he being ignorant of the chancery law, and needing the aiiiftance of
"others to enable him to do h'.s duty." This reproich ftruck him to
the heart, a-nd he refolved to admit no confutation. When he was almofl
half dead, the Qticen repented of her feverity, and went herfclf to com-
fort the dying Chancellor \ but it was all to no purpoff, for he was ob-
iSnately refolved to die. Jjoku'i's Cbaratf. <f Q^Eliz..

Brawls were a fortof figure-Jance,thenin vogue.



of the Earl of Orford (better known in the literary world,
and often quoted in this work, as Mr. Horace Walpole)
is fituated on an eminence near the Thames. Jt was ori-

f'nally a fmaU tenement, built, in 1698, by the Earl of
radford's coachman, and let as a lodging-horffe. Colley
Gibber was one of its firft tenants, and there wrote his co-
medy, called The Refufal. It was afterward taken by the
Marquis of Carnarvon, and other perfons of confequence,
as an occasional fummer refidence. In 1 74.7, it was pur-
chafed by Mr. Walpole, by whom this beautiful ftrufture,
formed from felecl parts of Gothic architecture in cathe-
drals, &c. was wholly built, at different times. Great tafte
is difplayed in the elegant embellifhments of the edifice,
and in the choice collection of pictures, fculptures, antiqui-
ties, and curiofities that adorn it ; many of which have been
purchafeu from fome of the firft cabinets in Europe. The
approach to the houfe, through a grove of lofty trees ; the
embattled wall, overgrown with ivy ; the fpiry pinnacles,,
and gloomy caft of the buildings; give it the air of an an-
cient abbey, and fill the beholder with awe, efpecially on.;
entering the gate, where a fmall oratory, inclofed with iron
rails, and a cloifter behind it, appear in the fore court.

On entering the houfe, we are led through a- hall and-
pafTage, with painted glafs windows^ into the Great Parlour,
in which are the portraits of Sir Robert Walpole, his two
wives and children, and other family pictures,- one of
which, by Reynolds, contains the portraits of the three La-
dies Waldegrave, daughters of the Duchefs of Gloucefter.
Here is likewife a converfation in fmall life, by Reynolds,
one of his early productions : it reprefents Richard fecond
Lord Edgcumbe, G. A. Selwyn, and G. J. Williams, Efq.
The window has many pieces of ftained-giafs, as have all
th windows in every room. Thefe add a richnefs to the
rooms, which, particularly on a bright day, have a very
good effeft. The Gothic fcreens, niches, or chimneypieces,
with which each room is likewife adorned, were deugned, .
for the molt part, by Mr. Walpole himfelf, or Mr. Bentley,
and adapted with great tafte to their refpeclive fituations.

To enter into a minute description of the valuable col-

lec~tioja in this villa, would much exceed our limits. Some

V 3 of


of the moft valuable articles we (hall endeavour to" point
out, in the order in which they are (hewn.

'The Little Parlour, The chimneypiece is taken from the

Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 23 of 30)