F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 3 of 30)
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fpacious quadrangle, on each fide of which, to the eaft anti-
weft, a ftreet is to be formed, beyond which the wings are
to be carried.

The front to the Thames is erected on a noble terrace;
53 feet wide ; and the building, when finifhed, will extend
about iioofeet. This terrace, which is unparalleled for
grandeur, and beauty of view, is fupported on a rough ruftic
bafement, adorned with a lofty arcade of 32 arches, each
12 feet wide, and 24. high. The grand femicircular arch
in the middle of the bafement, is that intended for the re-
ception of the King's barges. The length of the arcade is
happily relieved by projections, diftinguifhed by rufticated-
columns of the Ionic order.

The fouth or principal front, erected on this terrace,
confift* of a ruftic bafement, over which the Corinthian,
order prevails.

The TREASURY, ' which has a noble elevated front, is
fituated near the Parade in St. James's Park. Gloomy
and mafly paflhges lead through into Downing-Street and
Whitehall. What is called The Cockpit," forms a
part of this building, and is now the council chamber for
the Cabinet Minifters,


Of this huge, ponderous refidence of the Lord Mayors
of the City, Mr. Pennant is content to obferve, in the
words of Pope's character of Cromwell, that it is " damned-
to everlafting fame." It is built of Portland ftone, and has-
a portico ot jjx lofty fluted columns of the Corinthian order
in the front; the fame order being continued in pilafters,
both under the pediment and on each fide. The bafement
iiory is very mafly, and built in ruftic ; and on each fide
nfes a flight of fteps of confiderable height, leading'iip to-
the portico, in the middle of which is the door to the apart-
aieuts and offices. The columns fupport a Jarge angular-
C 2 pediment,


pediment, adorned with a noble piece in baflb relievo, re-
prefenting the dignity and opulence of the city of London,
executed by Sir Robert Taylor. Beneath this portico arc-
two feiies of windows extending along the whole front ;
and above this is an Attic llory, with fquare windows,
crowned by a baluftrade. The building lias an area in
the middle, and the apartments are extremely noble, parti-
curly " The Egyptian Hall." The firft ftone was laid
in 1739; the expence of building it was 42,638!. and the
iuin voted for furnifhing it, in 1752, was 4000!.


This noble column was ere&ed, in commemoration of
the great fire in 1 666, when the damage occafioned by the
devouring element \vasefrimatedat 10,716,000!. Is was
begun in 1671, and finifhed in 1677, by Sir Chriflopher
Wren. It is a fluted Doric column, 202 feet high. On
the weft ficie of the pedeftal is a bafs-relief by Gibber. It
is an emblematical reprefentation of this fad cataftrophe;
and Kin* Charles is feen furrounded by Liberty, Genius,
and Science, grving directions for the reftoring of the city.
The infcription, imputing the calamity to the Papifts, is
now univerfally confidered as unjuft: a circumftance, in
courfe to which Pope not improperly alludes :

Where London's column painting at tbc fl?!s,
Like a tall bully lifts his bead anil Iks.


LONDON BRIDGE, to the weft of the Tower, was firft
built of wood, about the beginning of the nth century.
The prefent ftone bridge was begun in 1176, and finifhed
in 1209. The length of it is 915 feet, the exaft breadth
of the river in this part. The number of arches was 19,
of unequal dimenfions, and greatly deformed by the enor-
mous flerlings, and by houfes on each fide, which overhung
and leaned in a terrible manner. Thefe were removed in
1756, when the upper part of the bridge aflumed a modern
and very noble appearance. But the flerlings were fuf-
fered to remain, although they contract the fpace between
the piers fo greatly, as to occafion, at the ebb of every



tid-e, a fall of five feet, or a number of temporary catarab,-
which, fince the foundation of the- bridge, have occafioned
the iofs of innumerable lives.

WESTMINSTER BRIDGE, univerfally allowed to be the
fineft in the world, was built by Mr. Labelye, a native of
Switzerland. The firft ftone was laid in 1739 ; the kit in
1747 ; but, on account of the finking of one of the piers,
the opening of the bridge was retarded till 1750. The
whole of the fuperftrufture is of Portland ftone, except the:
fpandrels of the arches, which are built of Purbeck. It is.
1223 feet in length. It has thirteen large, and two fmall
femicircular arches : the centre arch is 76 feet wide ; the
other arches, on each fide, decreafing in width four feet.
The architect aflerted, that the quantity of ftone ufed in
this bridge was nearly double to that employed in St.
Paul's Cathedral, and that the whole expence did not ex-
ceed 218,800!.

The utility of fuch a bridge muft have been unqueftiona-
ble, at the time when the defign of erecYmg it was formed;
yet fuch was the contracted policy which then actuated the
city of London, that they presented a petition to Parlia-
ment againft this noble undertaking. Great oppofition too
was made to the building of a ftone bridge. The plan and
eftimate of one compofed of wood was laid before the Com-
miffioners, and favourably received ; but, on urging the
architect to fix a fum for keeping it in repair, for axer-
tain number of years, he declined making any propofals ;
notwithftanding which, the wooden project had many
friends ; and it was only by a fmall majority in the Houfe
of Lords that the plan for a ftone bridge was carried. The
minority, on this occafion, obtained the appellation of
" wooden Peers."

BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE, that elegant addition to the
magnificence of the metropolis, was built by Mr. Mylne.
The firft ftone was laid in 1 760, and the whole was com-
pleted in 1768, at the expence of 152,840!. 35. lod. The
length of this bridge is 995 feet ; the breadth of the carriage,
way 28, and of the foot-paths feven feet each. It confifts
of nine elliptical arches, the centre one of which is 100
feet wide; and both this and the arch on each fide, are
wider than the celebrated Rialto at Venice. The Ionic
C 3 pillars


pillars projecting from the piers give a happy relief to the
whole, and appear fingularJy light and beautiful from the
River. Thefe columns lupport recedes, for foot paflengers,
in the baluftrades of the bridge. This noble ftruclure is
built of Portland ftone ; but its decay is already too vifible,
while Weftminfter Bridge has flood half a century with-
out receiving the fmalleft injury from time. London and
Weftminfter, the river Thames,' and the adjacent country,
are viewed from no other fpot with more advantage than
from this bridge.


The BRITISH MUSEUM, which is open to the public
gratis, according to a prefcribed form of rules,* was founded
by Parliament, in 1753, in purfuance of the will of Sir
Hans Sloane, Baronet, who -directed his executors to offer
to the public, his calleftion of natural and artificial ciirio-
fities and books, for the furn of 20,000!. This offer being
Accepted, the-noble building called Montague Houfe, which
had been built by the firft Duke of Montague, was pur-
chafed for their reception. At the fame time were pur-
chafed for io,oool. the MSS. collected by Edward Har-
Jey fii-ftEarl of Oxford. Here are likewife the collections

* ?uch literary gentlemen as defirc to Itudy in it, are to give in their
names and places of abode, figned by one of the officers, to the corr.mittee ;
and it" no objeii>n is made, they are admitted to perufc any books o|V
manufcriptSj which are brought to them by the mcffenger, as foon as they '
come to the reading-room, in the morning at nine o'clock ; and this
order lafts fix moths, after which they may have it renewed. There,
arc fome curious iranufcripts, however, which they are not permitted to
perufe, nnlefs they make a particular application to the committee, and
then they obtain them ; but they are taken back to their places in the
tvcninj, and brought again in the morning. Thofe who come to fee the
curiosities, are to give in their names to theporrer, who enters them in-
a book, which is given to the principal librarian, who ftrikes them off,
and orders the tickets to be given in the following manner: In May,
June, July, and Auguft, forty-five are ad*nitted on Tuefday, Wednefday,
and Thurfday, viz. fifteen at nine in the forenoon, fifteen at eleven, and
fifteen at one in the afternoon. On Monday and Friday fifteen are ad-
mitted at four in the afternoon, and fifteen at fix. The othej. eight
raontht in the year forty-five are admitted, in three different companies,
on Monday, Tcefday, Wedncfday, TJhiufds /, and r>nay, at nine, eleven,
MM) one o'clock.



made by Sir Robert and Sir John Cotton ; and large fums
have fince been voted to augment this noble repository.
His late Majefty prefented to it the libraries of the Kings
of England, from the reign of Henry VII ; and his prefent
Majefty, an interefting collection of the tracts publifhed
in the reigns of Charles I and II. Antiquities brought from
Italy were purchafedby Parliament, for 8,410!. in 1762 :
and many benefactions have augmented the library, parti-
iarly thofe of the late eccentric Edward Wortley Montague,
and of our philofophical Envoy at Naples, Sir William
Hamilton, K. B. The late Rev. Dr. Gifford, one of the
librarians, alfo made this public foundation a prefent of a
fine fet of paintings by Vandyck, preferved in the greateft
perfection ; and one copy of every book entered in the

hall of the Company of Stationers is always fent here.

This Mufeum is under the direction of forty-two Truftees,
twenty-one of whom are appointed to aft in confequence
of their being great officers offtate. Two are chofen as
defcendants of the Cottons, two for Sloane's collection,
and two for theHarleian manufcripts, befide fifteen elected
by the others. A committee of three at leaft is held
every other Friday, and a general meeting once a quarter.

The LEVERIAN MUSEUM is fituated in Great Surry
Street, on the fouth fide of Blackfriars Bridge. This mag-
nificent and Inftructive Mufeum was collected bv the late
Sir Aftiton Lever, and contains the moft aftoni filing col-
lection of fpecimens in every branch of natural hiftory
that had ever been formed by an individual. Sir Afhton
having obtained an act of parliament, empowering him to
difpofe of this Mufeum by a lottery, to confift 0^36,000
tickets, at a guinea each, found fo little avidity in the public
to adventure, that he had fold no more than. 8,000 tickets ,
when the appointed time of drawing arrived ; the event
of \vhich proved very unfortunate to. him, for this invalua-
ble treafure was transferred .to the pofleflbr of two tickets
only, James Parkinfon Efq. who, by his elegant difpofition
of the Mufeum in the prefent building, erected, on pur-
pofe for its reception, appears to have well merited his good

Another MUSEUM, confifting of anatomical preparations,
and natural curiofities, collected by the late Dr. William



Hunter, who built a fpacious edifice for their receptron r
in Windmill Street, Haymarket, is now open to the pub-
lic, and is to continue fo for thirty years from the time of
his death in 1783.

In a large volume, devoted folely to the Metropolis,
we might have given a minute defcription of the Inns of-
Court, the Colleges, the Societies of Artilts and Learned
Men, the Public Schools, the Places of Diverfion, the
Public Halls, Hofpitals, and Prifons; but as the prin-
cipal defign of this Work is to ferve as a companion to-
the reader, in his excurfions into the country round Lon-
don, our limits will not permit us to be more copious :
and we (hall, therefore, mention the principal remaining,
objecls in the Metropolis in a very curfory way.

Of the Inns of Court, or Societies for the Study of the
Law, the principal are. the Middle and Inner TempJes,
Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Tnn. Thefe are very fpacious,
and have large gardens, which, at certain times of the day,
are open to the public. The others are Clifford's Inn,
Clement's Inn, Serjeants' Inn, New Inn, Lyon's Inn, Bar-
nard's Inn, Furnival's Inn, and Staples' Inn.

The College of Phyficians, unfortunately hidden in War-
wick Lane, was built by Sir Chriftopher Wren. On- the
top of the dome is a gilt ball, and on the fummit of the'
centre is the cock, the bird of yEfculapius. Grefham
College, erefted in 1551, by Sir Thomas Grefham, for-
feven Profeflbrs in divinity, civil law, aftronomy, geometry,
rhetoric, phyfic, and mufic, flood on the fite of the prefent
Excife Office: but, in 1768, the reading of the lectures
was removed to a room over the Royal Exchange, and the
Profefibrs were allowed an additional 50!. a year, in lieu of
their apartments in the College. Thefe profeflbrfhips are
now mere finecures. Sion College, near London Wall,
was founded, in 1603, by the Rev. Thomas White. It is
governed by a Prefident, two Deans, and four Afliftants;
and all the Clergy within the bills of mortality are its Fel-
lows. Here is a large library for their ufe, .and almfhoufes
for ten men and ten women.

The Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and the Royal.
Academy of Artifls, have noble apartments in Somerfet
Place. The Society for the Encouragement of Arts,.



Manufactures, and Commerce, have a handfome houfe in
the Adelphi; in the great room of which is a fine feries
of paintings by Mr. Barry.

Of the Public Seminaries, the mod diftinguifhed are
Weftmi niter School, adjoining the Abbey, and, though not
originally founded, yet nobly endowed by Queen Eliza-
beth ; St. Paul's School, founded, in the beginning of the
1 6th century, by Dean Colet ; the Charter Houfe, founded,
about the fame time, both for a fchool and hofpital, by
Thomas Sutton, fq. and a School, in Suffolk Lane, Up-
per Thames Street, founded, in 1561, by the company of
Merchant Taylors.

With refpecl to the Places of Diverfion, the Opera
Houfes have besn remarkably unfortunate : that in the Hay-
market, called the King's Theatre, having been deftroyed
by fire, on the ijth of June 1789 ; and the Pantheon, in
Oxford Street, the moft magnificent ftruchire of the kind in
Europe, which had been fitted up for the performance of
Operas, having met u-ith a fimilar fate, on the i4th of Ja-
nuary 1793. Both, however, have been fince rebuilt ; as
have the two Theatres Royal in Covent Garden and Drury
Lane. For the dramatic entertainments in Summer, is a
fmafl Theatre Royal in the Hay-market, Sadler's Wells,
near Iflington, for pantomimes and rope-dancing ; Aftley's
Amphitheatre, near Weftminfter Bridge (burnt down,
Aug. 24, 1794, but rebuilt) and the Royal Circus, in St.
George's Fields, both for equeftrian exercifes, and other
amufements, meet with confiderable fuccefs. For the
higher ranks of life, are many noble rooms for conceits ;
as in Hanover Square ; the Freemafon's Tavern in Great
Queen Street, Lincoln's-Inn Fields ; and the Crown and
Anchor Tavern in the Strand. Ranelagh and Vauxhall
are defcribed in the following Tour.

Of the Public Halls, the moft diftinguifhed, in point of
architecture, are Surgeon.,' Hall in the Old Bailey; Gold-
fmiths' Hal], Fofter-Lane ; Ironmongers Hall, Fenchurch
Street; and Fifhimngers' Hall, near London Bridge. We
mention Stationers' Hall, in Ludgate Street, and Apotheca-
ries' Hall, near Bridge Street, BJackfriars, becaufe, in the
former, a great trade is carried on ip almanacks and fchool-


books ; and, in the latter, great quantities of chemical
and galenical preparations are vended, although no pre-
fcriptions are made up.

The principal hofpitals are Chrift's Hofpital, near New-
gate Street, a royal foundation, for orphans and poor
children ; St. Bartholomexv's Hofpital, Weft Smithfield,
another royal foundation for the fick and lame ; Bride-
well, in New Bridge Street, Blackfrbrs, once a royal palace,
but now a royal hofpital, for the apprenticing of the induf-
trious youth, and a prifon for the diflblute ; Bethlem, in
Moorfie!ds, another royal hofpital, for lunatics; St. Luke's
in Old Street Road, alfo for lunatics ; St. Thomas's, in the
Borough, the fourth royal hofpital, for the fick and lame;
and for the fame purpofe are Guy's Hofpital, adjoining j
the London Hofpital, in Whitechapcl Road ; the Middle-
fex Hofpital, near Berners Street ; the Weftminfter Infir-
mary, neai^_Petty France"]) and St. George's Hofpital,
HyJe Park Corner. TnTToundling Hofpital, in Lamb's
Conduit Fields ; the Afylum, at Lambeth, for orphan
girls; the Magdalen Hofpital, in St George's Fields, for
penitent proftitutes ; the Marine Society, in Bifliopfgate
Street; the Small Pox Hofpital, at Pancras; the Weft-
minfter Lying-in Hofpital, and many others for the fame
purpofe, are alfo excellent inftitutions. A great number of
Difpenfaries, for the relief of the poor, have been lately ef-
tablifhed, by voluntary contributions, for difpenfing medi-
cines to the fick, who keep to their houfes, under the direc-
tion of a Phyfician to each difpenfary, and proper ailiftants.

Of Prifons there are a melancholy number : the princi-
pal are Newgate, a ftupendous ftruaure ; the New Coinp-
ter, in Giltfpur-Street ; the Fleet Prifon, for Debtors ; the
King's Bench, in St. George's Fields, for the fame purpofe,
and for the prifoners of the court ; the Penitentiary Houfc,
in Cold Bath Fields; and a new County Gaol and Seffions
Houfe for Surry, ** Newington Butts.

Some of the Squares and Streets in the Metropolis are
magnificent ; and many of thofe which cannot, boaft of
grandeur .are long, fpacious, and airy.

The principal Squares are Bedford Square, Berkeley
Square, Bloomfbury Square, Cavendilh Square, Finlbur'y



Square, Fitzroy Square, Golden Square, Grofvenor Square,
Hanover Square, Leicefter Square, Lincoln's Inn Fields,
Manchefter Square, Portman Square, Queen's Square
Bloomlbury, Red Lion Square, St. James's Square, Soho
Square, &c. Portland\Place forms, perhaps, the moft mag-
nificent ftreet in the world ; Stratford Place is truly ele-
gant ; and the Adelphi Terrace, .to whatever criticifm it
may be liable in point of architecture, is the admiration of
foreigners for the noble view which it affords of the River,
the bridges and other public buildings, and of the fine hills
beyond Southwark and Lambeth.

Such, on a very curfory view of it, is the Metropolis
of Great Britain ; to the extent, opulence, and fplendour
of which many caufes have contributed. Thefe we can-
not better enumerate than in the words of Dr. Aikin.
" The broad ftream of the Thames," fays that ingenious
writer, " flowing between London and Southwark, continu-
ally agitated by a brifk current, or a rapid tide, brings con-
ftant fupplies of frefh air, which no buildings can inter-
cept. The country round, efpecially on the London fide,
is nearly open re fome diftance, whence, by the aftion of
the fun and wind -en a gravelly foil, it is kept tolerably dry
in all feafons, and affords no lodgment for ftagnant air or
water. The cleanlinefs of London, as well as its fupply of
water, are greatly aided by its fituation on the banks of the
Thames ; and the New River, together with many good
fprings within, the city itfelf, further contributes to the
. abundance of that necefiary element. All thefeare advan-
tages with refpeft to health, in which this metropolis is
exceeded by few.

" Its fituation with regard to the circumftance of navi-
gation is equally well chofen : had it been placed lower on
the Thames, hefide being annoyed by the marflies, it would
have been more liable to infults from foreign foes ; had it
been higher, it would not have been accefiible, as at prefent,
to fhips of large burden. It now poflefTes every advantage
that can be derived from a feaport, without its dangers ;
and, at the fame time, by means of its noble river, enjoys
a very extenfive communication with the internal parts of
the country, which fupply it with all forts of neceflaries,



and in return receive from it fuch commodities as they re-
uire. With the great articleof fuel, London is plenti-

Uy lupplied by fea from the/northern collieries^ and (a

is circumftance the nation 'is indebted for a great nurfery
of feamen, not depending upon foreign commerce ; which
Ts a principal fource of its naval fuperiority. Corn and va-
rious other articles are with equal eafe conveyed to it from
all the maritime parts of the kingdom, and great numbers
of coafting veflcls are continually employed for this pur-

" London, therefore, unites in Jtfelf all the benefits,
arifing from navigation and commerce, with thofe of a me-
tropolis at which all the public bufinefs of a great nation
is tranfacted ; and is at the fame time the mercantile and
political head of thefe kingdoms. It is alfo the feat of
many confiderable manufactures ; fome almoft peculiar to
itfelf, as miniftering to demands of ftudied fplendour
and refined luxury ; others in which it participates with
the manufacturing towns in general, with this difference,
that only the finer and more coflly of their works are per-
formed here. The moft important of its peculiar manu-
factures is the filk weaving, eflablifhed in Spitalfields by
refugees from France. A variety of works in gold,
filver, and jewellery; the engraving of prints ; the mak-
ing of optical and mathematical inftruments, are likewife
principally or folely executed here, and fome of them in
greater perfection than in any other country. The porter-
brewery, a bufinefs of very great extent, is alib chiefly
carried on in London. To its port are likewife confined
fome branches of foreign commerce, as the vaft Eaft India
trade, and thofe to Turkey and Hudfon's Bay.

' Thus London has ri(en to its prefent rank of the firft
city -in Europe with refpect to opulence; and nearly, if
not entirely fo, as to the number of inhabitants. Paris and
Conftantinople may difpute the latter with it. Its popu-
lation, like that of all other towns, has been greatly over-
rated, and is not yet exactly determined ; but it is probable
that the refidents in London, Weftmtnfter, Southwark, and
all the out parifhes, fall fliort of 600,000."




{j^ The Diftinces on the Kent Roads are computed from London Bridge}
the Croydon, Reigate, and Epfom Roads from Weftminfter Bridge; the
Kingfton Road from the Stone's End in the Borough; the Brentford
Road from Hyde Park Corner ; the Ujtbridge and Edgware Roads from
Tyburn Turnpike ; the Barnet Road from where Hickes Hall flood in
St. John Street; the Ware Road from Shoreditch Church; aYid the
flex Road from Whitechapel Church.

ABBOT'S LANGLEY, a village in Herts, fourittiles
from St. Alban's, famous for being the birthplace of
Nicholas Breakfpeare, the only Englifhman that obtained
the papal dignity. Such was the unbounded pride of this
pontiff, who aflumed the name of Adrian IV, that, when
the Emperor, Frederic I, went to Rome, in 1155, to re-
ceive the imperial diadem, the Pope infilled that he fhould
proftrate himfelf, kifs his feet, hold his ftirrup, and lead the
white palfrey on which he rode. Frederic did not fubmit
to this without reluctance; and, as he took hold of the
wrong ftirrup, he obferved, that " he had not yet been
taught the profeffion of a groom." On a fubfequent dif-
pute, this Pope wrote a letter to the degraded Monarch,
which difplays the deteftable pretenfions of the court of
Rome, in thofe gloomy ages : " Whatever you have as
Emperor, you have from us; for, as Pope Zachariastranf-
Jerred the Empire from the Greeks to the Germans, fo can
D we


we transfer it from the Germans to the Greeks. It is ih
our power to beftow it upon whom we will. Befides, we are
appointed by God to rule over kingdoms and nations, that
we may deftroy, pluck up, build, plant, &c." Yet did this
haughty Pope leave his mother to be maintained by the
alms of the church of Canterbury. Langley Bury, near this
village, was built by Lord Chief Juftice Raymond, who be-
queathed it to Sir John Filmer, Bart. It is the refidence
of Mr. Baron Hotham. See Cecil Lodge.

ACTON, a village, five miles from London, on the road
to Uxbrklge. The parilh is fuppofed to derive its name
from the quantity of oak timber it produced ; ac, in
the Saxon language, fignifying an oak; and the hedge-rows
Hill abound with that tree. Half a mile from Eaft Adon,
are three wells of mineral water, which, about the middle
of the prefent century, were in great repute for their medi-

Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 3 of 30)