F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 4 of 30)
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cinal virtues. The aflembly-room was then a place of
very fafliionable refort ; and the neighbouring hamlets of
Eait Aclon and Friar's Place were filled with perfons of all
ranks, who came to refide there during the fummer feafon.
Thefe wells have long ago loft their celebrity, fafhion and
novelty having given the preference to fprings of the fame
nature, at a greater diftance from the metropolis. The fite
of the wells is the property of the Duke of Devonfhire;
and the aflembly-room, being nearly in ruins, is about to
be converted into two tenements. At Aclon refided Fran-
cis Lord Rous, one of Cromwell's Peers; and, on the fite
of his houfe, now ftands a modern manfion, called the
Bank Houfe, the property of Samuel Wegg, Efq. Richard
Baxter, the celebrated nonconformift <Uvine, refiried alfo,
many years, in a houfe* near the church, where he con-
ftantly attended divine fervice, and fometimes preached;
having a licence for fo doing, provided he uttered nothing
againft the doctrines of the church of England. The great
and good Sir Matthew Hale was his contemporary at Ac-
ton, and very intimate with him. This is the more pleaf-
ing to obferve, as that age was not remarkable for religious

'* This boufc was purchased, feme years ago, by Mr. Wegg, and pulled


A L B 27

moderation. The celebrated parliamentary general Skip-
pon refided alfo in a houfe near the church, which is now
the property of James Stratton, Efq.

On the left hand of the entrance of the village from
London are the houfe and extenfive grounds of Lieutenant
General Morris, Among feveral monuments in the
church, is one to the memory of Anne Lady Southwell*
who died in 1636. On each fide of the monument hangs
a wooden tablet, infcribed with panegyrical verfes, of which
the following may ferve as a fpecimen:

The Biutb wind- blew upon a fpringing well,
Whofe waters flow'd, and the fweet ftrearo did fwell

To fuch a height of goodnels, &c. &c.

At the entrance of Aclon, on the London fide, is a con*
du it made for the benefit of- the public, and endowed by
Thomas Thorney, in 1612, with a rent-charge of 203. per
ann. to keep it in repair ; the overplus to be diftributed to
the poor.

ADDINGTON, a village, three miles to the E. of Croy*
don, at the foot of a range of hills, to which it gives the
name of Addington Common. On the brow of the hill,
toward the village, is a clufter of fmall tnmuli, about 25
in number. In this parifh is Addington Place, the hand-
fome feat of James Trecothick, Efq. who is Lord of the
Manor of Addington, and holds it by the tenure of making
his Majefty a mefs of pottage at his coronation.

ADDISCOMBE PLACE, near Croydon, a handfome
feat, the property of Captain Charles Clarke, is let to Lord
Hawkefbury for Jus life. His Lordfhip has not only beau-
tified the houfe, but greatly improved the plantations. On
the eaft front of the hoofe is this infcription in- Roman ca-
pitals: " Non faciam vitio culpave minorem I will not
reduce the eftate by any vice or folly of mine."

ALBAN's, St. an ancient borough in Herts, 21 miles .
from London. It is feated on the Ver, a N. W. branch
of the Coin ; and it has its name from St. Alban, who was
born here of Pagan parents, but, having been converted to
the Chriltian faith, was the firft martyr in England, and
D 2 was


was interred on a hill in the neighbourhood. A mtfnaftery
was erected, and dedicated to him by King Offa. This
town is governed by a Mayor, High Steward, Recorder, la
Aldermen, &c. Here are three churches, befide the ancient
abbey church, called St. Alban's, which is now a parifh
church, having been purchafed by the inhabitants of Ed-
ward VI. for 400!.

In this ancient edifice is the effigy of Offa, on his throne,
with a Latin inscription, thus tranflated:

The founder of this church, about the year 793,
Whom you behold ill-painted on his throne
Sublime, was once for MERCIAN OFKA known.

The fhrine of St. Alban flood on the eaft part of the
church; and this infcription is flill to be feen : " St. Alba-
JHIS Verolamenfis, Anglorum Protomartyr, 17 Junii 293."

In the fouthaiile is the monument of Humphry (brother
to Henry V) commonly diftinguifhed by the title of the
Good Duke of Gloucefter. The infcription, in Latin, al-
ludes to the pretended miraculous cure of a blind man de-
tected by the Duke, and is thus tranflated :

Interr'J w'thin this confecrated ground,
IJes he whom Henry his protector found:
Good Humphry, Glofter's Duke, who well could fpy
Fraud couch'd within the blind impoflor's eye.
His country's light, the ftate's rever'd fupporr,
Who peace and riling learning deign'd to court;
Whence his nch library, at Oxford plac'd,
Her ample fchools withfacred influence grac'd:
Yet fell beneath an envious woman's wile,
Both to herfelf, h*r King, and country vile ;
Who fcarce allow'ti his banes this fpot of land:
Yet fpite of envy fliall his glory ftand.

In 1703, in digging a grave, a vault was difcovered, with
a leaden coffin, in which his body was preferved entire, by
a kind of pickle; but the flefh was wafted from the legs,
the pickle at that end being dried up.

Coins, and other pieces of Roman antiquities, dug up on
the fite of Verulam, are depofited in the veftry.



Not the leaft veftige remains of Offa's magnificent ab-
bey, except the church, and the gateway, a large fquare
building. A murder was the true Iource of Offa's munifi-
cence : he invited Ethelbert, Prince of the Eafl Angles, to
his court, on pretence of marrying him to his daughter,
beheaded him, and feized his dominions. The pious Offa
had recourfe to the ufual expiation of murder in thofe me-
lancholy ages, the founding of a monaftery.

To the fouth of St. Stephen's church are the remains of
the church and houfe of St. Julian, founded for lazars by
Gaufridus, Abbot of St. Alban's.

In the church- of St. Michael is the monument of the il-
luftrious Vifcount St. Alban's, (more commonly, but erro-
neoufly, ftyled Lord Bacon) whofe effigy is in alabafter,
with a Latin infcription, by Sir Henry Wotton, of which,
the following is a tranflation :

Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Vifcount St. Alban's, or, by more
confpicuous titles, of fciences the light, of eloquence the law, fat thus:
who, after all natural wifdom and fecrets of civil life be bad unfolded.
Nature's law fulfilled, 'Let compounds be diflblved!' in the year of
our Lord 1626, of his age 66. Of fuch a man, that the memory might
remain, Thomas Meautys, living his attendant, dead his admirer, placed
this monument.

This panegyric, as it refpects the literary character only
of this great man, will beuniverfally allowed; and the gra-
titude of the faithful old fervant, thus extended beyond the
grave, will be ever pleafing to a virtuous mind : but we
muft here fubjoin two poetical characters of this philofo-
pher, as awful lefTons of inftruction to all who contemplate
fplendid talents, without adverting to the fuperior fplen-
dour of moral excellence.

If parts allure tbce, think bow Bacon fhin'd

The wifeft, nr ghtsft, meaneft of mankind, of X.

Thine is a Bacon, hiplefe in his choice,
Unfit to ftira ihe civil itorm of ftate,
And through i >e ruJe barbarity of courts,
With fiim but pliant virtue, forward ftill
To u: e e niscouife: him for the ftudious fhade
Kiad YUiue form'd; deep, compnbcnfiw, ckar.

jfo ST. ALBAN'S.

F.xac"r, and elegant; in one rich foul,

Plato, the Stugyrite, and Tully join'd.

The great deliverer he ! who, from the gloom

Ofdoifter'd monks, and jargon-teaching fchools^

Led forth the true Philofopliy, there long

Held in the magic chain of words and forms,

And definitions void : he led her forth,

Daughter of Heaven ! that, flow-afcending ftill,

Inveftigating fure, the chain of chings,

With radiant finger points to Heaven agaiu. THOMSON.

In the centre of St. Alban's flood one of the magnificent
crofles, erected by Edward I, in honour of his Queen Elea-
nor. A building was erected in its ftead, in 1 703, which
retains the name of " The Crofs."

On the river is a curious mill, erected for the purpofe of
polifhing diamonds, but now employed in the cotton ma-
nufactory of MefJrs. Gill and Maxey. On its banks alfo is
Holywell Houfe, the feat of Countefs Dowager Spencer,,
built by Sarah Duchefs of Marlborough, who here found-
ed nine almfhoufes for thirty-fix perfons. In Holywell
Houfe is prtferved the portrait of the Duchefs, in white,
cxquilitely handfome. " In this," obferves Mr. Pennant,
" are not the leaft veftiges of her diabolical paffions, the
torments of her Queen, her hufband, and herfelf." On
sfcending into the town, up Fifhpool Street, is a bottom on
the right, which was once a great pool. The Saxon Princes
are fuppofed to have taken great pleafure in navigating on
this piece of water. Anchors have been found on the fpot ;
which occafioned poets to fable that the Thames once ran
this way. Drayton, addreffing the river Ver, fays :

Thou faw'ft great burdened fliips through thefe thy vallies pafs,
Where now the fharp-edged fithe (hears up thy fprinjging grafs j
And where the feal and porpoife u'd to play,
The grafshopper and ant now lord it all the day.

Near the town is a Romaa fortification, fuppofed to have
been the camp of Oftorius, the Propraetor: the common
people call it " The Oyfter Hills." But Mr. Pennant, who
calls this lury or mount, Ofterhill, conjectures it to have
been the fite of the Saxon palace at Kinglbury.

St, Alban's

A N E 31

St. Alban's is famous for the victory obtained in 145$,
over Henry VI, by Richard Duke of York; the firft battle
fought in that famous quarrel, which lafted thirty years,
and is computed to have coft the lives of eighty princes of
the blood, and to have annihilated, almoft entirely, the an-
cient nobility of England. In 1461, a fecond battle was
fought here, in which Queen Margaret defeated the great
Earl of Warwick.

ALBINS, in the parifh of Stapleford Abbot, in Eflex,
16 miles from London, the feat of the Rev. Thomas Abdy
Abdy, isafcribed to Inigo Jones: "but," fays Mr. Wai-
pole, " if he had any hand in it, it muft have been during
his firft profeffion, and before he had feen any good build-
ings." The houfe is handfome, has large rooms and rich/
ceilings, but all entirely of the King James's Gothic."

ALBURY HOUSE, in the parifh of Chefhunt, the feat
of John RufTell, Efq. part of whofe garden is inelofed by a
fragment of the wall which furrounded Theobalds Park.

AM WELL, a village near Ware, 2 1 miles from Lon-
don, famous for giving rife to the New River, which, pro-
ceeding in a direcl courfe by the church, receives a fpring
which flows with great abundance. In this village are
Amwell Bury, the villa of F. Franco, Efq. and the houfe
and gardens of Mrs. Wood. Thefe gardens were laid out
by the late Mr. Scott, who has rendered the village intereft-
ing to the fentimental traveller, by a beautiful poem called
" Amwell." In the churchyard, is the following curious
epitaph :

That which a Being -was, what is it ? /how :
That Being which it was, it is not now.
To be what 'tis, is not to be, you fee :
That which now is not, (hull a Being b.

ANKERWYKE HOUSE, the feat of Simon Harcourt,
Efq. is fituated in the parifh of Wrayfbury, Bucks, on the
fide of the Thames oppofite Runny Mead. It was former-
ly a Benedi<?jne nunnery, built in the reign of Henry II.

ANKERWYKE FURNISH, delightfully fituate on
Cooper's Hill, in the parifh of Egham, is the feat of Lord
Shuldham, during the life of his Lady t the widow of Simon



Harcourt, Efq. Xear it was the houfe of Sir John Den-
ham, the bard of Cooper's Hill; hut not a trace of it re-

ASCOT HEATH, fix miles from Windfor, on the road
to Bagfhot, is a celebrated race-ground, on which the
King's plate of 100 guineas is annually run for, and many
other plates and fweep-ftakes, that ufually conftitute five
days fport. Thefe races commence a fortnight after Whit-
funtide, and are frequently attended by the Royal Family.
Near the courfe is the lodge for his Majefty's huntfmen,
where the royal ftag- hounds are kept. This fine heath is
thus noticed by an ingenious poet:

As my devious courfe I fteer,
Fancy, in fairy vifion clear,
Bids, to beguile my 'tranced eyes,
Paft joys in fWeet fucccfiion rife :
Refreshing airs fhe bids me breathe
Where, Afcot, thine enchanting heath,
Impregnated with mild perfume,
Bares its broad bofom's purple bloom;
Gives me to view the fplendid crowd,.
The high-born racer neighing loud,
The manag'd freed* that fide by fide
Precede the guttering chariot's pride,.
Within whofe filken coverture
Some peerlefs Beauty fits fecure,
And, fatal to the foul's repofe,
Around her thrilling glances throws.

ASCOT PLACE, on the fide of Afcot Heath, near
Winkfield, is a modern well-built edifice, erected by the
late Andrew Lindegreen, Efq.

ASHFORD, a village near Staines, in Middlefex, in
which is the feat of Mr. Shaw. On Afliford Common are
frequent reviews, chiefly of cavalry.

ASHTED, a village 2| miles beyond Epfom, in which
is the handfome feat and park of Richard Bagot Howard,
Efq. brother to Lord Bagot, who took the name of How*
ard, after his marriage with the Hon. Mifs HJward, fifter
of Henry the twelfth Earl of Suffolk.




BAGNTGGE WELLS, a noted place of public enter-
tainment, (much reforted to. by the lower fort of
tradefmen) is fituated in the parim of Pancras, in the val-
ley between the New-River-Head, and the Foundling Hoi-
pital. It was opened about the year 1767, in confequence
of the difcovery of two fprings of mineral water ; the one
chalybeate, the other cathartic.

BAILEYS, between Slough and Salt Hil!, is a neat mo-
dern edifice, the refidence of the Earl of Cheflerfield. The
approach to it is by an avenue of (lately firs.

BANCROFT'S. beautiful Almfhoufes, School, and Cha-
pel, on the N. fide of the Mile-end road, in the parifh of
Stepney, were erected in 1735, purfuant to the will of
Francis Bancroft, who bequeathed 28000!. for purchasing <
a file, and creeling and endowing the building; a not un-
common expedient this, to compound with Heaven for a
life of rapine and extortion. This man was one of the
Lord Mayor's officers, and, as he rofe to be fenior officer,
often fold out, and became "Young Man," receiving a
gratuity from each for the fake of feniority; and living to
be old, he got a confiderable fum of money by this practice,
by informations, and fummoning the citizens before the
Lord Mayor, upon the moft trifling occafions.

The almflioules are for 24 poor old men, who were al-
Jowed by the founder's will 81. per ann. and coals; but
the improvements in the eftate have allowed the penfions
to be augmented to i81. per ann. The fchool-room is for
100 boys, with dwelling-houfes for two mailers. The boys,
who are appointed by the Draper's company, are clothed,
and taught reading, writing, and accounts. They are ad-
mitted between the age of 7 and 10, and fuffered to remain
till 1 3, when they are allowed by the will .4!. for an ap-
prentice fee, or 2!. ios. to fit them for fervice*.

* In the founder's will (which, as well as the rules and orders forthe pen-
fioners and boys, is in print) is the following fingularclaufe:"My body Ide -
fire may be embalmed within fix days after my death, and my entrails to be
puc into a leaden box } and included in my coffin, or placed in my vault


34 B A R

This ftfuc*rure occupies three fides of a fpacious qua-
drangle. In the N. fide are the chapel, the fchool, and the
dwelling-hoiiies for the mafters; the former having a hand-
fome (lone portico of the Ionic order. On the E. and W.
fides are the habitations of the penfioners.

BANSTED, a village between Darking and Croydon.
Lady Tryon's Park here was famous for walnuts, and there
are abundance ofthem ftill; but her Ladyfliip has ordered
many of the trees to be cut down. Banited is much more
celebrated for its downs, one of the moft delightful fpots in
England, on account of the pleafant feats, the profpeft on
both fides of the Thames; and the finenefs of the turf, co-
vered with a fhort grafs, intermixed with thyme, and other
fragrant herbs, that render the mutton of this tract,
though fmall, remarkable for its fweetnefs: but the plough
has made fuch encroachments upon it, that the pafturesand-
flocks are greatly diminiflied. Dyer, defcribing the.fvtua-
tion moft proper for fheep, fays :

Such are the downs of Banftcd, edg'd with woods
And towery villas.

On thefe downs is a four- mile courfe^. horfe-races,which
is much frequented. See The Oaks.

BARKING, a market town in Eflex, 7 miles from Lon-
don, on the river Roding, and a creek on the Thames, had
once a magnificent nunnery, founded in 675. It flood on
the N. fide of the churchyard; and a gateway, and a con-
fiderable part of the wall, are ftill vifible. In this parifli is
Bifrons, the feat of Bamber Gafcoyne, Efq. and, in the road
to Dagenham, is Eaftbury Houfe, an ancient ftrufture,
fuppofed to have been built by Sir William Denham, to
whom Edward VI. granted the eftate. An unfounded tra-
dition prevails in this neighbourhood, that the difcovery of
the gunpowder plot was owing to a miftake, in delivering
a letter which was designed for Lord Monteagle, to an in-
next the fame, as fhallhe moft convenient; and tlut my coffin be made
of oak, lined with lead; and that the top or lid thereof be hung with
ftrong hinges, i either to be nailed, fcrewcd, locked down, or faftened any
Other way, but to open freely, and witlrout any trouble, like to the top
of. a trunk."


B A ft 35

habitant of this houfe named Montagu. In this parifh alfo
is the celebrated Fairlop oak ; and its boundaries include
Claybury Hill, the feat of James Hatch, Efq. near Wood-
ford Bridge, and Aubury Hall, the villa of William Raikes,
Efq. near Barking Side. See Fairlop.

BARNES, a village in Surry, on the Thames, fix miles
from London. On Barnes Terrace, Lady Archer had a
villa, noted for its fine greenhoufes: it is now the refidence
of the Marquis de Chabe, a French emigrant. The church
is an ancient ftru&ure. On the outfide of the S. wall is a
flone tablet, inclofed bv pales ; and fome rofe trees are
planted on each fide of die tablet. This is to the memory
of Edward Ro/'e, citizen of London, who died in 1653, and
left 20!. to the poor of Barnes, for the purchafe of an acre
of land, on condition that the pales fhould be kept up, and
the rofe trees preferved. A quarter of a mile from the
church, is

BARN ELMS, fo called from its majeflic trees, the
theme of many a paftoral poet. It conlifts of two houfes
only. The firft is an ancient manfion, called Queen Eli-
zabeth's Dairy- In this houfe lived and died Jacob Ton-
fon, the Bookfeller, who built a gallery near it, for the oc-
eafional accommodation of a meeting of the nobility, gentry,
and celebrated wits of the time, known by the appellation
oftheKitKat Club; fo denominated from Chriftopher
Kat, the landlord, at whofe houfe the meetings were gene-
rally held. Garth wrote the verfes for the toafting-glafies
of the club, which, as tjiey are preferved in his works, have
immortalized four of the principal beauties at the com-
mencement of this century; Lady Carlifle, Lady Efiex,
Lady Hyde, a^nd Lady \Vharton. In this gallery, Tonfon
placed the portraits of all the members of the club. Thefe
have been removed to Hartingfordbury, the feat of Samuel
Baker, Efq. near Hertford ; but the gallery remains, and the
houfe is the relidence of Mr. Ackland. The other houfe,
is the Manor houfe. -pueen Elizabeth, who had a leafeof it,
granted her intereft in it to Sir Francis Walfingham and
his heirs. Here, in 1589, that great man entertained the
Queen and her whole court. The unfortunate -Earl of
Effex, -who married his daughter (the widow of Sir Philip


36 BAR

Sydney) refided frequently at Barn Elms*. This houfe is-
feated in a fmall paddock, at fome diftance from the Tha-
mes. It was purchafrd by the late Sir Richard Hoare,
Bart, who -enlarged and modernized it, adding the two
wings; and it is now the jointure and refidence of Lady
Hoare, In the dining parlour and drawing-room are fome
good pictures, particularly two admirable landfcapes by G.
Pouffin. The pleafure grounds are laid out with great
tafte. At Barn Elms, Cowley, the poet refided, before he
went to Chertfey.

BARNET, a market town in Herts, 1 1 miles from Lon-
don, on the top of a hill, whence it is called High Barnet,
and alfo Chipping Barnet, from the privilege granted to
the monks of St. Alban's of holding a market here: the
word Cheap being an ancient word for a market. The church
is a chapel of eafe to Eaft Barnet. Barnet is remarkable for
the decifive battle fought between the houfes of York and
Lancafter, in 1471, in which the great Earl of Warwick
was flain. The field of battle is a green fpot, a little before
the meeting of the St. Alban's and Hatfield roads ; and
here, in 1 740, a {tone column was creeled by Sir Jeremy
Sambrooke, Bart, to commemorate this great event ; which
Dugdale, and others, however, think was at Friarn Barnet
in Middlefex.

BARN'ET, EAST, a village in Herts, near Whetftone,
formerly much frequented on acount of its medicinal

* Mr. Heydcgger, Mafter of the Revels to George II, was, for fome
time, the tenant of thishoufe. His Majefty gave him notice, that he would
fup with him one evening, and that he fhould come from Richmond by
water. It was Heydegger's profefiion to invent novel amufements, and
he was refolved to furprife his Majefty with a fpecirnen of his art. The
Kings attendants, who were in the ftcrcr, contrived that he fhould not
arrive at Barn Elms before night, and it w^s with difficulty that he found
his way up the avenue to the houfe. When he came to the door, all was
dark ; and he began to he angiy that Heydeggcr fhould be fo ill-prepared
for his reception. Heydegger fuffcred his Majefty to vent his anger, and
affecled to make fome awkward apologies, when, in an inftant, the houfe
and thq avenues were in a bl jze of light, a great number of lamps having-
been fo difpofed, as to communicate with e ich other, and to be lit at th,e
ijmc inftan*. The King laughed heartily at the device, and went away
lauch plcafed with his tnteitainmcnc. ,

BAT 37

fpring, on a neighbouring common. Here is Mount Plen-
fant, the feat of William Wroughton, Efq. and the villas
of Jofeph Kingfton, Efq. and Mr. Tempeft; the latter the
property of Mrs. Willis.

BA.RNF.T FRTARN, a village of MiddJefex, between
Finchley and Whetftone. This parifli includes the hamlet
of Colney Hatch, and half that of Whetftone. The ma-
nor- home, a very ancient ftructure, near the church, is held
of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, by John Bacon, Efq.
who has fome portraits here of the Bacon family, among
which are the Chancellor, the Lord Keeper, and one faid
to be Roger Baron. He has alfo the original caft of Rou-
hiliac's buft of Handel, over which is placed a portrait of
Charles Jennings, Efq. who compiled the words ~of many
of his oratorios. Haliwick Houfe, in this parifli, is the
property of Richard Down, Efq.

BATTERSEA, a village in Surry, on the Thames, four
miles from London, remarkable as the birthplace of Henry
St. John, Vifcount Bolingbroke, who died here in 1751.
The family feat was a venerable ftrufture, which contained
forty rooms on a floor. The manor .was purchafed for the
prefent Earl Spencer, when a minor, in i 763, and, about
: 5 years after, the greateft part of the houfe was pulled
down. On the fite of the demoliflied part, are creeled the
Horizontal air-mill, and malt diftillery, of Meflrs. Hodgfon,
Weller, and Allaway. The part left {landing forms .a
d\velling-houfe for Mr. Hodgfon, one of whofe parlours,
fronting the Thames, is lined with cedar, beautifully inlaid,
;,:id was the favourite ftudy of Pope, the fcene of many a
literary con verfation between him and his friend St. John.
The air-mill, now ufed for grinding malt for the diftil-
lery, was built above fix years ago, for the grinding of lin-
leed. The defign was taken from that of another, on a
final ler fcale, conftrufted at Margate, by Capt. Hooper. Its
height, from the foundation, is 140 feet; the diameter of
the conical part 54 feet at the bafe, and 45 at the top. The
outer part confifts of 96 {butters, 80 feet high, and nine
inches broad, which, by the pulling of a rope, open and
(hut in the manner of Venetian blinds. In the infule, the
main {haft of the mill is the centre of a laree circle formed

Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 4 of 30)