the cenfure iu this fatire is not always founded on fact. For
Hi* gardens next your admiration call,
On every fide you look, Itbvld the wall!
But the author of the Journey through England, fpeak-
ing of the gardens, fays: " The divifion of the whole being
only made by baluftrades of iron, and- not by walls, you
fee the whole at 01 e, be you in what part of the garden,
or parterre, you will ! "* Again :
And now the chapel's filver bell you hear,
That 1'urrmon.s you to all the pride of prayer;
I.i^ht qu.rks of mufic, broken and uneven,
Mike the 1'^iil dance upon a jig to heaven.
Will the admirers of Handel's fublime compofitions ad-
mit thejuftice of this cenfure? But Pope himfelf confefled,
when that great mafter of harmony was in the height of
his popularity, that " he had no ear for mufic."
The houfe was built in 1712; and, notwithftanding three
fucceflive (hocks, which his fortune received, by his concerns
in the African Company, and in the Miffiffippi and South
Seafpeculationsjin 1718, 1719, and 1720, the Duke lived in
fplendour at Canons till his death in 1744!- The ellate .
* It is not unlikely, that this variation was purpofel y intended, to af-
ford a proof, if neceflary, that fome imaginary place, and not Canons, was
the object of the fatire. Accordingly, when Pope thought proper todif-
claim it, we find him taking advantage of this circumftance in his Pro-
logue to the Satires :
Who to the Dean and filver bel^can fwear,
And fees at Canons tobat was never there ;
Who reads but with a luft to mifaffly,
Makes fatire a Lampoon, and ficYion Lie.
" From the reproach which the attack upon a character fo amiable
brought upon him, Pope," fays Dr. Johnfon, " tried all means of ef-
caping. He attempted an apology by which no man was fatisfied ; and he
was at lafl reduced to flicker his remerity behind diflimulation, and to en-
deavour t<* make that dilbelicved, which he never had confidence openly
to deny. He wrote an exculpatory letter to the Duke, which was anfwer-
ed with great magnanimity, as by a man who accepted his excufc, with-
out believing his profeffions." Jobnfon'i Lives, Vol. IV. p. 89.
f- When the plan of living at Canons was concerted, the utmoil abili-
ties of human prudence were exerted, to guard againft improvident pro-
fufion. One of the ableft accomptants in England, Mr. Watts, was cm-
ployed to draw a plan, which ascertained the total of a year's, a month's,
a week's, and even a day's expenditure. The fcheme was engraved on u
large copper-plate; and thofe who have fcen it, pronounce it a very ex-
traordinary effort of economical wifdom. To this -we may. add, that the
Duke, though magnificent, was not wafteful. All the fruit in the g:*r-
was unqueftionably incumbered; on which account, the
Earl of Aylefbury, father-in- law to Henry the fecond Duke,
and one of the trustees in whom it was vefted, determined
to part with a palace, which required an eftablifliment too
expenfive for the Duke's income. As no purchafer could
be found for the houfe, that intended to refide in it, the
materials were fold by auction, in I747> in feparate lots,
and produced, after deducting the expences of fale, i i,oool.
The marble ftaircafe was purchafed by the Earl of Chef-
terfield, for his houfe in May Fair; the fine columns were
bought for the portico in Wanfted Houfe; and the equef-
trian ftatue of George I, one of the numerous fculptures
that adorned the grounds, is now the ornament of Leicef-
ter Square. One of the principal Jots was purchafed by
IVlr. Hallett, a cabinet-maker in Long Acre, who having
likewife purchafed the eftate at Canons, erected on the fite
the prefent villa, with the materials that compofed his lot*.
William Hallett, Efq. hisgrandfon, fold this eftate, in 1 786,
to Mr. O'Kelly, a fuccefsful adventurer on the turf, who
left it to his nephew. Mr. Walpole mentions the fale of
this place to a cabinet-maker, as a mockery of fublunary
grandeur. He might now extend his reflections, by ob-
ferving, that Mr. Haliett has lately purchafed the Dunch
eftate at Wittenham in Berks, which had been more than
200 years in that ancient family. He has likewife bought
the eftate at Farringdon, in Berks, of Henry James Pye,
Efq. late M. P. for that county, and now Poet Laureat,
den, not wanted for his table, was fold on his account. " It is as much:
my property," he would fay, '* as the corn and hay, and other produce
of my fields." An aged man, who had been the Duke's fervanr, artd
now appeared " the fad hiftorian of the penfivc fcene," informed the
wiiter of this note, that, in his occafional bounties to his labourers, the
Puke wouU never exceed fixpence each. " This," he would oblerve,
" may do you gcod.; more may make you idle and drunk."
* The two porters' lodges remain; and it has been obferved, in fome
accounts of Canons, that they were built upon fo Urge a fcale, as to be
each the refidence of aljarone-t, They are two (lories high, with fix rooms
on a floor, and one of them was certainly the refidence of>Sir Hugh Dal-
rymple, Bart. Mr. Haiktt, it muft be obferved} had raifed them a ftory
higher, that he might fit them up for gentlemen ; but neither their fitiu-
tion nor appearance, at prefent, befpeak. the habitations of opulent genti-
6z c As
whofe family were in pofleffion of it more than two cen-
turies. Thus ancient families become extin6l, or fall to
decay ; aud trade, and the viciflitudes of life, have thrown
into the hands of one man, a property which once fup-
ported two families, of great refpeaability and great influ-
-ence in their county. See Whitcburcb.
CANT'S HILL, the feat of Sir John Lade, Bart, at
Burnham, a little to the N. W. of Britwell Houfe. Mrs.
Hodges, the laft pofleffor, greatly improved it, which, with
the additions made by Sir John, has rendered it a very de-
CARSHALTON, a village in Surry, nine miles from
London, fituate among innumerable fprings, which form a
river in the centre of the town, and joining other ftreams
from Croydon and Beddington, form the river Wandle.
On the banks of this river are eftablifhed feveral manufac-
tories; the principal of which are the two paper mills of
Mr. Curtis and Mr. Patch ; Mr. Savignac's mills for pre-
paring leather and parchment; Mr. Filby's for grinding
logwood; Mr. Shipley's oil mills; Mr. Anfell'sfnuff mills;
and the bleaching-grounds of Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Cook-
fon. Here Dr. Ratcliffe built a houfe, which afterward
belonged to :5ir John Fellowes, who added gardens and
curious water-works. It is now the feat of John Hodfdon
Durand, Efq. who has another capital manfion in the
neighbourhood. Here alfo is the feat of the Scawen fa-
milv, which was fold to George Taylor, Efq. for lefs
money than was expended on the brick wall of the park.
It is now the property of William Andrews, Efq.
CASHIOBURY PARK, near Watford, in Herts, 15
miles from London, is faid to have been the fear of the
Kino-s of Mercia, till Offa gave it to the monaftery of St.
Alban's. Henry VIII beftowed the manor on Richard
Morifon, Efq. from whomit paffed to Arthur Lord Capel,
whofe defendant, the Earl of Eflex, has here a noble feat
in the form of an H, with a park adorned with fine woods
and walks, planted by Le Notre. 'The front faces Moot-
Park. A little below the houfe is a river, which winds
through the park, and fupplies a magnificent lake. The
front and one fide of the houfe are modern; the other fides
are very ancient, CC][L
C H A 63.
CECIL LODGE, near Abbot's Langley, one of the feats
ef the Marquis of Sal'rfbury, purchafed by his lordfhip, for
his refidence, during the lifetime of his father. It is now
in the occupation of Lady Talbot.
CHALFONT, ST. PETER's, a village in Bucks, 21
miles from London, in the road to Aylefbury. Chalfont
Houfe is the feat of Thomas Hibbert, Efq.
CHALFONT, ST. GILES'S, two miles farther, was the
refidence of Milton, during the plague in London, in 1665.
The houfe, in all probability, from its appearance, remains
nearly in its original ftate. It was taken for him by Mr.
Elwood, the Quaker, who had been recommended to our
blind Bard as one that would read Latin to him for the be-
nefit of his converfation. Here Elwood firft faw a com-
plete copy of Paradife Loft, and, having perilled it, faid,
" Thou haft faid a great deal on Paradife Loft, but what
haft thou to fay to Paradife Found?" This queftiou fug-
gefted to Milton the idea of his Paradife Regained. Near
this place Sir Henry Thomas Gott has a feat calledj New 7
land Park, and the late Admiral Sir Hugh Pallifer, Bart, a
feat called the Vatch.
CHARLTON, a village in Kent, on the edge of Black-
heath, famous for a fair on St. Luke's day, when the mob
wear horns on their heads. It is called Horn Fair, and
horn wares of all forts are fold at it. Tradition fays, that
King John, hunting near Charlton, was feparated from his
attendants, when, entering a cottage, he found the miftrefs
alone. Her hufband difcovered them, and threatening to
kill them, the King was forced to difcover himfelf, and,to.-
purchafe his fafety with gold ; befide which, he gave him
all the land thence as far as Cuckold's-Point, and eftablifh-
ed the fair as the tenure. A fermon is preached on the
fair-day, in the church. James I granted the manor to Sir-
Adam Newton, Bart, (preceptor to his fon Henry) who
built her? a Gothic Houfe. On the outfrde of the wall is .
a long row of fome of the oldeft cyprefs trees in England.
Behind the houfe are large gardens, and beyond thefe a
fmall park, which joins Woolwich Common. It is the
feat ot General Sir Thomas Spencer , Wilfon, Bart. See
CHART-PARK, near Barking, the beautiful feat and
pleafure-grounds of Captain Cornwall.
CHE AM, a village in Surry, between Sutton and Ewe!.
The mnnor-houfeof Eaft Cheam, the feat of Philip Antro-
bus, I.fq. is an ancient ftrufture. In the church, in Lum-
Jry's Chancel, is the monument of Jane Lndy Lumley, who
died in 1577. She tranflated the Iphigenia of Euripides,
and fome of the orations of Ifocrates, into Englifh, and
one of the latter into Latin. It is remarkable, that of fix
fuccefiive Rectors of Cheam, between 1 1581, and 1662, five
became Bifhops; nameJy, Anthony Watfon, Biihop of
Chichefter, Lancelot Andrews, B'ifhop of Winchefter,
George Mountain, ArchbifliopofYork, Richard Senhoufe,
Bifhop of Carlifle, and John Hacket, Bifhop of Lichfield
and Coventry. See Nonfucb.
CHELSEA, a village in Middlefex, feated on the Tha-
mes, two miles from London. It extends almoft to Hyde
Park Corner, and includes a contiderable part of Knights-
bridge. At the upper end of Cheyne Walk, is the epifco-
pal palace of Winchefter, purchafed by acl of Parliament,
in 1664, on the alienation of the demefnes belonging to
that fee in Southwark and Bifhop's Waltham In the
place called the Stable Yard, is a houfe, which was the re-
fidence of Sir Robert Walpole. It is now the property of
George Aufrere, Efq. who has here a fine collection of pic-
tures, among which may be particularly noticed the Seven,
Works of Mercy, Sebaftian Bourdon; two landfcapes, G.
Pouffin ; portrait of a pirate, Georgioni ; St. Catharine,
Corregio; and a Holy Family, Titian. The gardens are
very beautiful; and, in an oftagon fummer houfe, is Ber-
nini's famous ftatue of Neptune. Lord Cremorne has an
elegant villa on the Thames, with a good collection of pic-
tures, among which are feveral pieces by Ferg; a portrait
of Gefler, Vandyck; and the Earl of Arlington and family,
Netfcher. Here is alfo a beautiful window of ftaiiied glals
by Jarvis. It confifts of about 20 pieces; the,, fubjecls,
landfcapes, fea-pieces, Gothic buildings, &c. In the latter,
the effect of the funfhine through the windows is admira-
bly well managed. Near Lord Cremorne's, is the villa of
Lady Mary Coke, formerly the property of Dr. Hoadly,
author of The Sufpicious Huflband.
CHELSEA; 6 S $
The great Sir Thomas More refided in this pzrifh, and
hrs manfion-houfe, which (according to Mr. Lyfons, Vol.
II. p. 88.) flood at the N. end of Beaufort Row, was inha-
bited afterward by many illuflrious characters. It is faid,
that Sir Thomas was buried in the church; but this is a
difputed faft. However, there is a monument to his me-
mory, and that of his two wives, with a long Latin infcrip-
tion written by himfelf. la the churchyard, is the mo-
nument of Sir Hans Sloane, Bart, founder of the Britifh
Mufeum; and on the S. W. corner of the church is affix-
ed a mural monument to the memory of Dr. Edward-
Chamberlayne, with a punning Latin epitaph, which, for
its quaintnefs, may detain the reader's attention. In the
church is a ftill more curious Latin epitaph on his daugh-
ter ; from which we learn, that on the 3oth of June, 1690,
fhe fought, injmen's clothing, fix hours, againft the French,
an board a fire-fliip, under the command of her brother. .
In 1673, the company of Apothecaries took a piece of
ground at Chelfea, by the fide of the Thames, and prepared
it as a ootanical garden. Sir Hans Sloane, (who had ftu-
died his favourite fcience there, about the time of its firft
eflablifhment) when he purchafed the manor, in 1721,.
granted the freehold of the premifes to the company, on
condition that they mould prefent annually to the Royal
Society 50 new plants till the number fliould amount to
2C3OO. In 1733, the company creeled a marble ilatue of
their benefactor, by Ryfbrack, in the centre of the garden.
On the N. fide of the garden is a fpacious greenhoule, no
feet long, over which is a library, containing a large col-
lection of botanical works, and numerous fpecimens of dried :
plants. On the S. fide are two cedars of Libanus, of large
growth, and very fingular form. They were planted in
1685, being then three feet high; and, in 1793, the girth
of the larger, at three feet from the ground, was 12 feet
Hi inches; that of the fmaller, 12 feet and J of an inch,..
The Chealfea water-works were conftrucled in 1724, ,
in which year the proprietors were incorporated. A canal
was then dug from the Thames, near Ranelagh, ta Ptmli-.
co, where there is a fleam engine to raife the water into
pipes, which convey it to Chelfea, the refervoirs in Hyde
rark and the Green Park, to Weftminfter, and various
G 3 parts
parts of the W. end of the town. The office of the pro-
prietors is in Abingdon Street, Weftminfter.
In Cheyne Walk is a famous coffee-houfe, firft opened
in 1695, by one Salter, a barber, who drew the attention of
the public by the eccentricity of his conduct, and by fur-
nifhing his houfe with a large collection of natural and
other cunolities, which ftill remain in the coffee-room,
where printed catalogues are fold, with the names of the
principal benefactors to the collection. Sir Hans Sloane
contributed largely out of the fuperfluities of his own mu-
feum. Admiral Munden, and other officers, who had
been much on the coafts of- Spain, enriched it with many
curiofities, and gave the owner the name of Don Saltero,
by which he is mentioned more than once in the Tatler,
particularly in No. 34.
In the hamlet of Little Chelfea, the Earl of Shaftfbury,
auihor of the Characteriftics, had a houfe in which he ge-
nerally refided during the fitting of Parliament. It was
purchafed, in 1787, by the parifh of St. George, Hanover
Square, as an additional workhoufe; that parifh extending
over great part of Chelfea.
On the fite of a once celebrated manufactory of porce-
lain, (in an old manfion by the water fide) is now a manu-
factory of ftained paper, ftamped after a peculiar manner,
the invention of Meflrs. Eckhardts, who likewife eftablifh-
ed at Whitelands Houfe, in 1791, a new and beautiful ma-
nufacture of painted filk, varnifhed linen, cloths, paper,
&c. Near the King's Road, is Triquet's manufactory of
artificial ftone, and that of fire-proof errthenr ftoves, kitch-
en ware, c. carried on by Johanna Hempel, widow, who
is alfo patentee of the artificial filtering ftones. See Ranelagb.
CHELSEA-HOSPITAL, for invalids in the land fervice,
was begun by Charles II, and completed by William III.
The firft projector of this magnificent ftructure was Sir Ste-
phen Fox, grandfather to the Right Hon. Charles James
Fox. " He could not bear," he faid, " to fee the common
foldiers, who had fpent their ftrength in our fervice, reduced
to beg;" and to this ftructure he contributed 13,000!. It
was built by Sir Chriftopher Wnm, on the fite of an old
college, which had efcheated to the crown.
This royal hofpital ftands at a fmall diftance from the
CHELSEA HOSPITAL. . 67
Thames. It is built of brick, except the quoins, cornices,
pediments, and columns, which are of free ftone. The
principal building confifts of a large quadrangle open on
the S. fide; in the centre ftands a bronze ftatue of Charles
II, in a Roman habit, which coft 500!. and was given by
Mr. Tobias Ruftat. The eaft and weft fides, each 365
feet in length, are principally occupied by wards for the
penfioners; and, at the extremity of the former, is the Go-
vernor's houfe. In the centre of each of thefe wings, and
in that of the N. front, are pediments of freeftone, fupport-
ed by columns of the Doric order. In the centre of the S.
fro -it is a portico fupported by fimilar columns; and, on.
each fide, is a piazza on the frize of which k this infcrip-
tion* " In fubfidium & levamen emeritorum fenio bello-
que fraftorum, condidit Carolus Secundus, aux.it Jacobus
Secundus, perfecere Gulielmus & Maria Rex & Regina,
1690."- The internal centre of this building is occupied
by a large veftibule, terminating in a dome. On one fide
is the chapel, the altar-piece of which, reprefenting the af-
cenfion of our Saviour, was painted by Sebaftian Ricci.
The hall, where the penfioners dine, is lituated on the op-
pofite fide of the veftibule. It is of the fame dirnenfions as
the chapel, 1 10 feet in length; and, at the upper end, is a
picture of Charles II, on horfeback, the gifi. of the Earl of
Ranelagh. The whole length of the principal building,
from eaft to weft, is 790 feet; a wing having been added
to each end of the N. fide of the great quadrangle, which
forms part of a fmaller court. Thefe courts are occupied
by various offices, and 'the infirmaries. The latter are
kept remarkably neat, and'aipplied with hot, cold, and va-
pour baths. To the N. of the college is an inclofure of 13
'acres, planted with avenues of limes and horfe-chefnutsj
and, toward the S. are extenfive gardens.
The ordinary number of in-penfioners is 336, who are
provided with an uniform of red lined with blue, lodging,
diet, and eight-pence a week. The various fei vants of the
hofpital, am6ng whom are 26 nurfes, make" the whole
number of it's inhabitants 550. The number of out-pen-
lioncrs is unlimited; their allowance is 7!. 125. 6d. a year:
there nre now upward of 21,000, who are difperfed all
over the three kingdoms, exerciling their various occupa-
tions, but'liable to perform garrifon duty, as invalid compa-
nies, in time of war. The annual expence of the houfe
eftablifliment, including the falaries of the oflicers, and all
incidental charges, varies from 25,000 to 28,000!. This,
with the allowances to the out-penfioners, is defrayed by a
fum annually voted by Parliament, and which, in 1794,
was 151,742!. 55. lod.
CHERTSEY, a market-town 10 Surry, 20 miles from
London. Here, fays Camden, Julius Caefar crofled the
Thames, when he firft attempted the conqueft of Britain;
but Mr. Gough, in his additions to the Britannia, has ad-
vanced fome arguments againft this opinion.
Here was once an abbey, in which was depofited the
corpfe of Henry VI, afterward removed to Windfor. Out
of the ruins of this abbey, (all that remains of which is the
outer wall of the circuit) Sir Henry Carew, m after of the
buck-hounds to Charles II, built a fine houfe, which now
belongs to Mr. Wefton. On the fide of St. Anne's Hill,
is the feat of the Right Hon. Charles James Fox. On this
hill, which commands a beautiful profpeft, is ftili part of
the Hone wall of a chapel dedicated to St. Anne. Not far
from this hill is Monk's Grove, near which was difcovered
a once celebrated medicinal fpring. It was loft for a confi-
derable time, but has been found again. The bridge at
Chertfey was built in 1785, by Mr. Paine. It confifts of
feven arches, each formed of the fegment of a circle, and is
built of Purbeck ftone, at the expence of 13,000!. The
original contraft was for 7,500!.
In 1773, in digging a vault, in the chancel of the
church, a leaden coffin was difynvered, containing the body
of a woman in very high prefervation. The face appear-
ed perfectly frefh, and the lace of the linen found. As the
church was built with the abbey, in the time of the Saxons,
it is fuppofed that the body muft have been depofited there
before the conqueft.
To this place Cowley, the poet, retired; and here he
ended his days, in a houfe, called the Porch Houfe, now
belonging to Mr. Alderman Clark. His ftudy is a clofet
in the back part of the houfe, toward the garden.
CHESHUNT, a village, once a market-town, 13 miles
from London, is fituated in an extenfive parifli and manor,
which were once in the poffeffion of John of Gaunt, fourth
fon of Edward III; afterward of Henry Fitzrov, Duke of
Richmond^ natural fon of Henry VIII; and the prefent
proprietor of the greateft part of the manor is Sir George
William Prefcott, Bart.
The manor of St. Andrew ie Mot was granted by Henry
VIII to Cardinal Wolfey, who is fuppofed to have refided
in Chefhunt Houfe, a plain brick ftru&ure, almoft entirely
rebuilt fince his time, but ftill furrounded by a moat. The
people here mention fqme circumftanres very unfavourable
to the character of his Eminence, but which we do not
think it right to relate, without better evidence than that
of village tradition. His boundlefs ambition, rapacity, and
oftentation, have fixed an odium on his memory, which it
is unneceffary to heighten by the imputation of infatiuble
luft and inhuman aflaffination. This manor is the proper-
ty of Sir John Shaw, Bart. See EJbcr.
Chefhunt Nunnery, the feat of Mrs. Blackwood, was a
nunnery, a fmall part of which remains. The infide of it
has been modernized, and is now ufed for a kitchen : the
other parts of'the houfe have been built at different times,
but the apartments are modern and elegant. They con-
tain an excellent collection of paintings; among which
is a remarkable one by three different mafters; the build-
ings, by Viviani; the figures, by Miel; and the back-
ground, by Lorrain. The river Lea forms a canal in the
front of the houfe ; and a beautiful vifta is terminated by a
view of Waltham Abbey, and the woodland hills of EfTex.
At Chefhunt, Richard Cromwell, the Protector, fpent
many years of a venerable old age ; a ftriking leflbn, now
much oblcurity and peace are to be preferred to the fplen-
did infelicities of guilty ambition. He aflumed the name
of Clark, and firft refided, in 1680, in a houfe near the
church: and here he died, in 1712, in his 8oth year; en-
joying a good ftate of health to the laft, and fo hale and
hearty, that, at fourfcore, he would gallop his horfe for many
miles together. See Theobalds.
CHEVENING, * village of Kent, 21 miles from Lon-
don, in the road to Sevenoaks. Here is the feat of Earl
Stanhope, a handfome modern, ftruclure, fronted with
; C II I-
CIIEYNEYS, between Flaunden and Rickmanfworth,
has been the feat of the Ruffels, Dukes of Bedford, above
200 years, and is ftill their buryingplace, adorned with
CH1GWELL, a village in Eflex, io| miles from Lon-
don, on the road to Ongar. Here is a freefchool endowed
by Abp. Harfnett, who had been Vicar of this place. He
was buried in the church; and, over his grave, was his
figure in brnfs, as large as the life, drefled in his robes, with
his mitre and crofier. This, for the better prefervation of
it, Jiasfince been eredled upon a pedeftal in the chancel.
Here is Rolls, the feat of Eliab Harvey, Efq.
CHINKFORD, a village near Woodford, in EfTex, fo
agreeably fituate for retirement, that the moft remote dif-
tance from the metropolis can hardly exceed it.
CHIPS FEAD-PLACE, two miles from Sevenoaks, the
ancient feat of Charles Polhil, Efq.
CHISLEHURST, a village near Bromley, in Kent, ii
miles from London, was the birthplace of Sir Nicholas Ba-
con, Lord Keeper, father of the great Vifcount St. Alban's;