and here alfo was born Sir Francis Walfingham. In this
parifh, near St. Mary's Cray, is Frognal, the feat of Vif-
count Sidney; and, oppofite Bertie Place, are the villa and
park of Mr. Twycrofs. See Bertie Place and Camden Place.
CHISWICK, a village in Middlefex, feated on the Tha-
mes, near the road to Hounflow. In the churchyard is a
monument to the memory of Hogarth; on which are the
following lines by Garrick :
Farewell, great painter of mankind,
Who reach'd the nobleft point of art ;
\Vhofe pictur'd morals charm the mind,
And through the eye correct the heait!
If genius ftre thee, reader, ft.iy ;
If nature move thee, drop a tear ;
If neither touch thee, turn away:
For Hogarth's honour'd duft lies here.
Near this is the tomb of Dr. William Rofe, who died in
1786, and was many years a diftinguifhed writer in the
Monthly Review. On this are infcribed the following
lines, by Mr. Murphy.
Whoe'er thou art, with filent footfteps tread
The hallow'd mould where Rofe reclines his head.
Ah ! let not folly one kind tear deny,
But penfive paufc where truth and honour lie.
His the gay wit that fond attention drew,
Oft heard, and oft admir'd, yet ever new ;
, The heart that melted at another's grief,
The hahd in fecret that beftow'd relief;
Science untindtur'd by the pride of fchools,
And native go odnefs free from formal rules.
With zeal, through life, he toil'd in Learning's caufe,
But more, fair Virtue ! to promote thy laws.
Hisev'ry action fought the nobleft end 5
The tender hulbind, father, brother, friend.
Perhaps, ev'n now, from yonder realms of-day,
To his lov'd relatives he fends a ray;
l'le;!i.'d to behold affections, like his own,
With filial duty raife this votive ftone.
In the church v is another epitaph by Mr. Murphy, on
John Ayton Thompfon, a youth of fifteen :
If in the morn of life each -winning grace,
The converfe fweet, the mind-illumined face,
The lively wit that charm'd with early art,'
And mild affections ftreaming from the heart;
If thefe, lov'd youth, could check the hand of fate,
Thy matchlefs worth had claim'd a longer date.
But thou artbleft, while here we heave the figh ;
Thy death is virtue wafted to the fky.
Yet ftill thy image fond affection keeps,
The fire remembers, and the mother weeps ;
Still the friend grieves, who faw thy vernal bloom,
And here, fad tafk ! infcribes it on thy tomb. A. MURPHY.
In the church, in the Earl of Burlington's vault, is inter-
red the illuftriotis Kent, a painter, architect, and the father
of modern gardening. " In the fiift character," fays Mr.
Walpole, " he was below mediocrity ; in thefecond, he was
a reftorer of the fcience; in the laft, an original, p.nd the
inventor of an art that realize? painting, and improves na-
ture. Mahomet imagined an Elyfium ; but Kent created
The pencil's power : but, fu'J by higher forms
Of btauty, than that pencil knew to paint,
Work'd with the living hue* that ,iature lent,
72 , CHIS WICK-HOUSE.
And realized his landfcapss. Generous ht,
Who gave to Painting, what the wayward nymph
Rcfus'd her votary, thofe Elyfian fcencs,
Which, would (he emulate, her niceft h.md
Mull all its force oflight and lhade employ. MASON.
In 1685, Sir Stephen Fox (grandfather of the Right Ho-
nourable Charles James Fox) built a villa here, with which
King William was fo pleafed, that he is faid to have ex-
claimed to the Earl of Portland, on his firft vifit, " This
plare is perfectly fine : I could live here five days." This
was his ufual expreffion when he was much pleafed with a
fituation ; and he is faid never to have paid the fame com-
pliment to any other place in England, except to the Earl
of Exeter's at Burleigh. It is now the property and refi-
dence of Robert Stevenfon, Efq. See Grave Houfe, Turn-
bam Green, and
CHISWICK- HOUSE, a celebrated feat of the Duke of
Devonfhire's, built by the great Earl of Burlington. The
afcent to the houfe is'by a noble double flight of fteps, on
one fide of which is a ftatue of Palladio, and, on the other,
that of Inigo Jones. The portico is fupported by fix fluted
Corinthian pillars, with a pediment ; and a dome, at the
top, enlightens a beautiful oclagonal faloon.
" This houfe," fays Mr. Walpole, " the idea 'of which
is borrowed from a well-known villa of Palladio, is a mo-
del of tafte, though not without faults, Ibme of which are
occafioned by too ftricl. adherence to r.ules and fymmetry.
Such are too many correfponding doors in fpaces fo con-
tracted ; chimnies between windows, and, which is worfe,
windows between chimnies; and veftibules, however beau-
tiful, yet little fecured from the damps of this climate.
The tfufles that fupport the ceiling of the corner drgiving-
room, are beyond meafure mafiive; and the ground apart-
ment is rather a diminutive catacomb than a library in
a northern latitude. Vet thefe blemifhes, and Lord Her-
vey's wit, who faid " the houfe was too fmall to inhabit,
jnd too large to hang to one's watch," cannot depreciate
the tafte that reigns throughout the whole. The larger
court; dignified by pidturefque cedars, and the claflic fce-
nery of the fmall court that unites the old and new honfe,
are more worth feeing than many fragments of ancient
c L A 73
grandeur, which our travellers vifit under all the dangers
attendant on long voyages. The garden is in the-Italian
tafte, but diveftcrd of conceits, and far preferable to every
ftyle that reigned till our late improvements. The build-
ings are heavy, and not equal to the purity of the houfe.
The lavifh quantity of urns and fculpture behind the gar-
den front fiiould be retrenched."
Such were the fentiments of Mr. Walpole on this cele-
brated villa, before the noble proprietor attempted the ca-
pital improvements rn which he is now proceeding. Two
wings have been added to the houfe, from the defigns of
Mr. Wyatt. Thefe will remove the cbjeftions that have
been made to the hnufeas more fanciful and beautiful than
convenient and habitable. The Italian garden is to difplay
the beauties of modern planting; and Tome of the fombre
yews, with the termini, and other pieces of fculpture, have
been removed. The molt valuable pictures in the Dukt's
magnificent collection, have been taken down, and put up
in packing rafes, till the improvements are finHlied.
CLAN DON, Eaft ahd Weft, are two contiguous vil-
lages in Surry. Weft Clandon, 26 miles from London,
is the manor of Lord Onflqw, whofe noble feat, after an
Italian model, is confidered as thebeft family houfe in the
county, 'and is now in the occupation of the Archbifhop
of Canterbury. See- HatMamh.
CLAl'HAM, a village in Surry, 3* miles from .London,
confiding chiefly of many handfome houfes, which fur-
round a common, that commands fome very pleafing views.
This common was formerly little better than a morafs, and
the roads were aimoft impaflable. The btter are now in
an excellent ftate ; and the common itfelf is fo beautifully
planted with trees, both Englifb and exotic, that it has
much the appearance of a park. Thefe improvements
were effected by a fubfcription of the inhabitants, who, on
this occafion, have been much indebted to the t.ifte and ex-
ertions of Chriftopher Ba'dwin, Efq. whofe villa is adja-
cent ; and, as a proof of the confequent increafcd value of
property on this fpot, Mr. Baldwin has fince fold 14 acres
of land, near his own houfe, for 5000!. Among other
villas on this delightful common, are thofe of Samuel, Ro-
bert, and Henry Thornton, Wi'liam Smith, and John
74 c L i
Dent, Efqrs. and Members of Parliament. Near the road
to Wandlworth is a refervoir of fine water, from which the
village is fupplied. On the N. E. corner of the common,
is a new church, ereded in i 776, at the expence of i t,oool
but neither in the church itfelf, nor in the ground incloied
around it, are any interments fuffeKed. Of the old church,
only one aifle remains ; in which the funeral fervice is per-
formed, when there are any interments in the adjoining
cemetery, The manor-houfe, now a boarding fchool for
young ladies, isfituattd near this, and is rendered very con-
Jpicuous by a curious octagonal tower.
CLAREMONT, at Eflier, in Surry, was the feat or
John Holies Pelham, Duke of Newcaftle, by whom, when
Earl of Clare, its prefent name was given ; on which oc-
rafion Garth wrote his poem of " Claremont," in imita-
tion of " Cooper's Hill." It was parchafcd by the late
Jx>rdClive, who pulled it down, and ei-eded an elegant
villa, in a much better fituation. The park is diftinguiih-
ed bv its noble woods, Jawns, mounts, &c. The furnmer-
houfe, called the Belvedere, on a mount on that fide of the
park next Eiher, affords an extenfive view of the country.
This beautiful place is now the property of the Earl of
'CLAY HALL, in the parifli of Old Windfor, an ele-
gant cottage, the property of Mrs. Keppel. It was much
Improved by the late Mr. Aylet, and is now the refidence
of Sir Henry Dafhwood, Bart.
CLEWER, a parifh adjoining to Windfor, in which is
the well-built feat of Mr. Payne.
CLIEFDEN HOUSE, the late feat of the Countefs of
Orkney, at Taploe, near Mr.idenhead Bridge, was built by
George Yilliers, Duke of Buckingham, and came by mar-
riage 'to the Earl of Orkney. This ftately manfion, which
had a noble terrace in front, fupported by arches, was to-
tally deftroyed by fire, on the zoth of May, 1795, together
with all the furniture and paintings, and the fine taprftiy
hangings, reprefenting the victories of the great Duke of
Maryborough, in which the Eaii of Orkney hirofelf had-a
Pope has commemorated this place, in the celebrate
lines, in which he records the wretched end of its founder:
In the XT or ft inn's worft room, with mat half-hung,
The floors of plaftcr, and the walls of flung,
On once a flo"k,-b d, but repair' J with ftrawj
Vi'lth tape-ty'd curtains never meant to draw,
The George .tnd Goiter dangling ftom that bed r
Where tawdry yellow ftrove with dirty red,
Great Villiers iies. Alls! how chang'd' from him^
That life of pleafure, and that foul of whim !
Gallant and gay, in Ctiefdcn's proud alcove-,
The bow'r ot wanton Shrewibury and Love.
Or juft as giy, at council, in a ring
Of mimick'd ilatefmen, and their merry King.
No wit to flatter left of all his (lore !
Nof.)o4 to laugh at, which he valued more.
There,, victor of his health, of fortune, friends',
And fame; this lord of ufclefs thoufaad^ ends.
COBHAM, a village in Surry, 19 miles from London,.
in the road fo Guilford. Here is a feat, built by Earl Li-
gouier, after the manner of an Italian villa. The rrrer
Mole paflcs by the fide of the gardens, and, being made
here four or five times broader than it was naturally, has a
happy effect, efpecially as the banks are difpofed into a (lope,
with a broad grafs walk, planted on each fide with f\veet
fhrubs. At one end of this walk is a very elegant room,
a delightful retreat in hot weather, being flladed with large
elms on the fouth fide, and having the, water on the north
and eaft. The houfe is fituated half a mile from- the road
to Portfmouth, and is fo much hid by the trees near it, as
not to be feen till you rife on the heath beyond Cobham.
The property of this feat is ftill in the reprefentatives of the
late Earl, fince whofc^ death it has never been lt but as a
temporary refidence. See Bur - wcod and Faille's Hill.
COLE-GREEN, to the W. of Hertford, the feat of Earl
Cowper, built by the Lord Chancellor Cowper.
COLN, a river which rifes in Herts, divides Middlefex
from Bucks, and falls into the Thames ai Staines. It is
thus mentioned by Pope :
Coin, whofe dark ftreams h ; s flowery iflands lave.
COLNBROOK, a market- town, 1 7 miles from London,
eu four channels of the Coin, over each of which it has a
H 4 bridge.
bridge. One part of it is in Middlefex ; the other in
COLESHILL, a village, four miles W. of Rickmanf-
worth, in Herts, and in a part of that county which is in-
fulated in Bucks. It was the birth place of Waller, the
COMB-NEVILLE, a manor of Kingfton upon Thames,
fo called from William Nevifle, who was in poffeffion of it
in the reign of Edward II*. Sir Thomas Vincent is faid
to have built the old manor-houfe, where Queen Elizabeth
honoured him with a vifit in 1602. It was afterward in
the family of Harvey, with an ancient gentleman of which
name King William would often go a hawking in the war-
ren oppofite the houfe. The manor is now the property
of Earl Spencer. Near the fite of the old manfion (which
was pulled down in 1752) is Comb Houfe, the refidenceof
IVJajor Tollemachej and not far from this are fome refer-
voirs of water, couftrucled by Cardinal Wolfev, to fupply
Hampton Court. The water is conveyed under the
Thames by pipes of a particular couftru&ion. It is much,
tfteemed as efficacious in the gravel; isexcellent for drink-
ing and waftiing; but is unfit for culinary ufe, as it turns
the vegetables that are boiled in it black.
COOMB-BANK, the noble feat of Lord Frederic
Campbell, at SvKidridge, bet ween Sevenoaksand Wefterham,
in Kent. It is watered by the river Darent, which adds
greatly to its beauty. The pleafure-grouncls are laid out
with great elegance, which, with its extenfive pi ofptcls,
renders it an enchanting vilJa.
COOPER'S HILL, the fubjea of a celebrated poem by
Penham, is fituated in the parifh of Egham, on the right
of the road from J. ondon. An ingenious, but perhaps
f;i(lidious critic, has qbferved, that Cooper's Hill-, the pro-
fefled fubject of the piece, is not mentioned by name, nor
* This is fa'd to have belonged to the great Richard Neville, Earl 06
Warwick, who diftin^uiftied bimfclf fo much in the civil wars between
the hoofea of York ami Lancafter; but this is probably without founda-
tion, as Mr. Lyfons, who appears to have traced the properly with great
accuracy, fays, that at'ler the dcf.th of this William Neville, the manor
*ver.t to John Madtefham,. who had married one of his thiee daughters.
Eavimxi of London , f^jL I. Page 237.
COOPER'S HILL. 77
K any account given of its filiation, produce, or hiftory
but that it ferves, like the ftand of a telefcope, merely as a
convenience for viewing other objects. He adds, " There
are many performances which have great beauties and
great faults: the fun of genius illuminates their 'mountains,
though their vall-ies are dark: bat Cooper's Hill has aa
uniform mafs of dullnefs, on whichrthe fun has not beftovv-
ed its fainteft irradiation."
" Should the query occur, How then came Denham to
acquire fuch high reputation? Here it can only be faut,
that he was a man of family and fortune, known in public
life as High Sheriff of Surry, Governor of Farnham Caftle,
and K. B. In fuch a man fmall literary merit is naturally
magnified too much j an<t the cenfure or praife of the day
is too often confirmed, without examination, by the cen-
fure or praife of posterity. " Scoff's Critical E/ays.
It would be unjuft not to quote here the fentiments of a
celebrated critic, too rigid, and perhaps too furly, to be faf-
cinated by mere popular opinion: "Cooper's Hill is the
work that confers upon Denham the rank and dignity of an.
original author. He feems to have beeri^ at kaft among
us, the author of a fpecies of compofition that may be
termed local poetry, of which the fundamental fubjeclt is fome
particular landscape, to be poetically defcribed, with the
addition, of fuch embeliifhments as may be fupplied by hif-
torical retrofpeftion or incidental meditation.
" To trace a new fpecies of poetry has in itfclf S very
high claim to praife, and its praife is yet more when it is
apparently copied by Garth and Pope. ' Yet Cooper's Hill,
ir it be malicioufly infpected, will not be found without its
faults. The dig! dlions are too long) the morality too fre-
quent, and the lentiments, fometimes, fuch as will not bear
a rigorous enquiry." %bnfon's Life of Denbam.
Praife thus extorted from a critic not unreiuftant to cen-
fure, will contribute to fecure the fame of Denham. which
the charming, eulogy of the Bard of Windfor Foreft alone
would have rendered immortal:
Bear me, oKbear me to fcqucfler'd fcenr?,
To bovvery mazes, and furrounding greens ;
To Thames's lunks which fragrant breezes fill,
I Or where ye Mu.'es fg,>rt on Cooper's Hill}
" 5 On
78 C R A
On Cooper's Hill eternal wreaths (hall grow,
\V hilc laft;, the mountain, or while Thames (hall flow,
I Iccni through confccrated walks to rove,
1 hear foft mufic die along the giovc:
Led by the found, I rove from (hade to (liade,
By godlike poets venerable made:
tl.ie, his firlt hys majeftic Denham fung;
Then*, the laft numbers flow'd from Cowley's tongue.
Nor fhould we here omit the homage of the excellent
Poet of the Chafe:
Tread with refpe&ful awe
W/ndC.>r's green glades ; where Denham, tuneful bard,
Charm'd once the itft'hing Dryads with hi* fong
On this celebrated Hill are the feats of Lord Shuldham
and Mr. Smith. Ste Ankctwykt Purniib and Kingi<wocil
COPPED, or COPT HALL, the feat of John Conyers,
Tifq. in the parifli of Epping, was built by his father, and
is a perfecl mode! of convenient as well as elegant architec-
ture. The original houfe flood at the bottom of the hill,
in the parifli of Waltham Holy Crofs; and here was a pri-
v-te chapel for the ufe of the family, which anciently be-
longed to the Abbots of Waltham . Abbey. This chapel
was decorated by the, beautiful painted window now in the
church of St. Margaret, Weftminfter.
CRANBURN LODGE, a feat of the Duke of Glou-
ctfter's, in \Vmdfor Foreft, has an extenfive profpe6l over
a fine plain that exhibits a beautiful landfcape. In a fpa-
eious room are painted, and regularly ranged, hi rarge pan-
nels, the military drefles of the different corps in?the Euro-
CR AN FORD PARK, on the N. of Hounflow Heath,
the feat of the Earl of Berkeley, is an ancient ftrufture, fitu-
ate at an angle of the park, near Cranford Church. The
park is well watered by a branch of the river fcoln ; and,
though it commands no variety of profpeAs, yet, from tire
Tiftribution of the woods and other accompaniments, it
auay be deemed a pleafant retirement. JXotwithftanding
* See Chcttfcv^
C R O 7^
its vicinity to the metropolis, 'it is celebrated for game, par-
ticularly pheafants, which are to be feen in great numbers j.
confiderable pains having been taken for their prefervation.
CRANHAM HALL, near Upminfter, in Eflex, the feat
of Sir Thomas Hufley Apreecej Bart. 16 miles from Lon-
don, was many years the refidence of General Oglethorpe,
who died here, at a very advanced age, in 1785, after hav-
ing lived to fee his colony of Georgia, which he fettled in
1732, become independent of the mother-country.
CRAYFORD, a market-town in Kent, 13 miles from.
London, had its name from having anc'ently a ford over
the Cray, a little above its influx into the Darent. In the
adjacent heath and fields are feveral caves ,fuppofed to have
been formed by the Saxons, as places of fecurity for their
wives, children, and effects, during their wars with the
Britons. In the church is a fine altai"piece.
CROYDON, a market-town in Surry, on the edge of
Banfted Downs, 9! miles from London. Abp. Whitgift
founded an hofpital here, for a warden, and 28 men and
women, decayed houiekeepers of Croydon and Lambeth^
with a fchool for ten boys, and as many girls, with 20!. a
year, and a houfe for the matter, who muft be a clergyman.
" This good Archbifhop," obferves Stowe, " through God's
favourable affiftance, in his own lifetime, performed and
perfitted thefe premifes, foi* that (as I myfelf have heard
him fay) be - would- ?ut be to his executors a cavje of damnation."
Such was the folieitude of this munificent prelate for the
fuccefs of his foundation. The manor has belonged, ever
fince the Conqueft, to the Abps. of Canterbury; and here
is a venerable palace, in which the firft prelate that can be
traced as refident was Abp. Peckham in 1278, and the laft,
Abp. Hutton in 1757. In 1 780, an aft of Parliament was
obtained, empowering certain truflees to fell the old pa-
bee, and to build a new one at Park Hall Farm, half a
mile from the town. The old palace was fold, purfuant to
the act, to the late Sir Abraham Pitches,, for 2500!. and the
premifes are now occupied by a calico-printer, a tanner*
and a pelt-monger. What reflections muft this fuggeft on
the viciflitudes of our fublunary fcene ! In this, palace, now
devoted to fuch ignoble ufes, Abp. Parker, in 1573, enter-
tained Queen Elizabeth, and. all her retinue^ confining of
the principal nobility of the kingdom. This magnificent
entertainment Icfted feven days. The panfh church, which
is a handforoe Gothic ftrufture. contains lome fine monu-
ments; among which are thofc of the Archbifhops Gnn-
dall, Whitgift, and Sheldon : the figure of the laft, in a re-
cumbent p5lture, is a very fine piece of fculpture, m white
marble. Here are likewife the tombs of Archbiihops
Wake, Potter, and Herring.
In this parish, at North End, is Oakfield Place, the feat
of Robert Smith, Efq. and near the town are the handlome
villas of the Hon. Richard Walpole, Samuel Beachcroft,
Efq. and Thomas Walker, Efq. About a mile from the
town, in the road to Addington, is a large chalk-pit, which
produces a great variety of extraneous foflils. SW -
ctmbe Place and Haling Houfe.
AGENHAM, a village in EfTex, nine miles from
if London, remarkable for the great breach made here
bv the Thames, in 1703, which laid near 5000 acres of land
under water. After many expenfive projects to flop this
breach, the land owners relinquished the undertaking as im-
praaicable. In 1714, Parliament interfered, and truftees
were appointed, who, the next year, contracted wuh Cap-
tain John Perry, who had been employed, by the Czar Pe-
ter the Great, in his works on the river Don. He accorn-
plifhed the arduous undertaking in lefs than two years, tor
25,000!. the fum agreed upon.
DAGNAM PARK, in the parifti of Southweald, near
Brentwood, the feat of Sir Richard Neave, Bart.
DANSON-H1LL, at Bexley, in Kent, the elegant feat
of Sir John Boyd, Bart. The grounds are beautifully dil-
pofed, and adorned with a grand flieet of water; which,
with woods, plantations, and agreeable inequalities ot iur-
face, compofe a delightful fcene.
DAREN T, a river in Kent, which rifes near Rivernead r
and falls into the Thames below Dartford. Pope thus ce-
lebrates this river :
And filent Parent, ftainedwith Daniib Mood. ,>,,
D A R 8l
DARKJXG, a market-town in Surry, 23 miles from
London, is feated on the river Mok, and upon a rock of
foft fandy ftone, in which deep cellars are dug, that are ex-
tremely cold even in the midft of fummer. An incredible
quantky of poultry is fold in Darking, which are large and
fine, and remarkable for having five claws. Here are fre-
quently, about Chriftrnas, capons fo large, as to weigh be-
tween feven and eight pounds, out of their feathers. This
town was deftroyed by the Danes, but rebuilt either by Ca-
nute or the Normans. It is remarkable, that, according,
to the cuftom of the manor, the youngeft fon or brother
of a cuftomary tenant is heir to the cuftomary eftate of the
tenant dying inteftate. See Chart Park, Deepden^ and Den-
DARTFORD, a market-town in Kent, 15 miles from,
London, on the Darent. Here are the remains of a nun-
nery, founded by Edward III. Bridget, daughter of Ed- -
ward IV, was prrorefs he.re ; and many ladies of noble fa-
miles were nuns in this houfe. At the diflblution, Henry
VIII converted it into a royal manfion, and granted the of-
fice of keeper of it to Sir Richard Long. On his death^
Edward IV granted the fame office to Lord Seymour, the
unfortunate brother of the unfortunate Duke of Somerfefi.
It was granted, the next year, to Anne of Cleve, the di-
vorced wife of Henry VIII; and, on her death, Queen
Mary granted it ta the Friars Preachers of Langley in
Herts. Elizabeth kept it in her own hands; but James I
granted it to the Earl of Salisbury. He conveyed it to Sir
Robert Darcy, who gave it the name of Dartford Place-.
What rensains of this nunnery is only a fine gateway, ufed
as a (table, and a contiguous farm-houfe. Henry VI found-
ed an almflioufe at Dartford for five decrepit men. On
the river, the frrft papermiil in England was ere&ed by Sir
John Spilman, who obtained a patent, and 200!. a year,