F. H. (Frank Herbert) Hayward.

Ambulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. online

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Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 9 of 30)
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from Charles I, to. enable him to cany on that manufac-
ture; and on this river was alfo the firft mill for flitting
iron bars for making wire. Here is a church,, with two
churchyards; one round the church, and the other on the
top of a hill, which is fo high that it overlooks >he tower of
the church. Toe rebellion of Wat Tyler began in thi&


82 DEN

DATCHET, a village in Bucks, on the Thames, be-
tween Eton and fcttiiK*.- The wooden bridge here is de-
caving fo faft. that it is inte.uied to buld one of ftone.
Below this bridge, the banks of the river are enriched with
handlbme villas, which command a fine view of Wmdfor
Caftle, &c. See DitUn Park.

DFEPDEN, near Darkins;, is fituated in a valley, lur-
roumled by fteep hills. In the laft century, Mr. Charles
Howard, who here amufed himfelf with chermftry and
other philofophical refearches, planted the : level ground
about the houfe with a variety ot exotics. The hills were
covered with trees on every fide, excepting the fouth afpetf,
which was planted with vines ; and fome tolerable good
wine was made here, though the hill is fo fteep, that it is
difficult to afcend it : but the vineyard is no more. On
the fummit of the hill, is a Cummer- houfe, from which, m
a clear dav, the fea, over the fouth downs, near Arundei,
may be difcerned. This romantic fpot defcended to the
late Duke of Norfolk, who pulled down the old houfe, and
built a handfome one in its {lead. The offices being onfi-
derably lower thaw the houfe, the communication between
them is fubterraneous. The late Ducheis was very fond
of the gardens, and formed here a hermitage, with all 1
humble requifites for a holy anchorite. In the gardens, on
the fides of the hill, are feveyal natural caverns* The pre-
fent Duke fold the place, in 1791, to the late Sir- William
. Burrell, Bart.

DENBIGHS, near Darking, was remarkable for its gar-
dens, laid out in a fingular ftyle, by Jonathan Tyers, Efq.
the firft proprietor ofVauxhall, ot that name. It is now
in the poffeffioa of Jofeph Denifon, Efq. Among other
fingularities, Mr. Tyexs had contrived " The Valley of the
Shadow of Death/' The view, on a defcent into this
gloomy vale, was awful. There was a large alcove, divid-
ed into two compartments, in one of which the Unbeliever
was reprefented dying in great agony. Near him were his
books, which encouraged him in his libertine courfe, fuch as
Hobbes, Tindal, &c. In the other, was the good Chnftian,
calm and fercne, taking a folemn kave of the world, and
anticipating the joys of immortality.

DENHAM, a, village in Bucks, near Uxbridge, in which

D I T 83

is the feat and park of Benjamin Way, Efq. Here alfo is
Denham Court, the property of Sir William Bowyer,
Bart, now let to Henry Hugh Hoare, Efq.

DENMARK HILL, a fine hill, near Camberwell, in
the road from that village to Dulwich. It commands fome
pleafing prbfpects, and, on that account, fome handforne
houfes have lately been creeled on it.

DEP 1TORD, anciently called Weft Greenwich, a large
town in Kent, divided into Upper and Lower Deptford.
It is feated on the Thames, 3! miles from London, and is
remarkable for its noble dockyard, in which a great number
of hands are employed. It has a wet dock of two acres,
and another of an acre and a half, with quantities of tim-
ber, extenfive ftorehoufes. &c. Here the royal yachts are
generally kept j and here is the manor of Say's Court, the
property of Sir Frederic Evelyn, Bart. The manor-houfe
was^ the feat of his anceftor, John Evelyn. Efq. a celebrated
natural philofopher of the laft century, and the refidence
alfo of the Czar Peter the Great, during the time that he
worked as a fhjpwright in the yard. But thia houfe (which
ftill exifts in every account of Deftford hitherto publljhed) has
been demolished many years ; and on its file now ftands
the workhoufe of the parifn of St. Nicholas.

In Deptford are the two parifhes of St Nicholas and St.
Paul, and two hofpitals, one of which was incorporated by
by Henry VIII, and is called Trinity Houfe of Deptford
Strond : it contains 21 houfes, and is fituated near the
rhurch. The other, called Trinity Hofpitai, has 38 houfes.
Both thefe houfes are for decayed pilots or matters of fliips,
or their widows, the men being allowed zos. and the wo.
men 1 6s. a month. N. W. of the town is the Red Houfe,
a collection of warehoufes and ftorehufes, built of red
bricks, whence it had its name. See Wotton.

DERHAM PARK, the feat of Chriftopher Bethel, Efq.
two miles N. W. of Barnet, in the parifli of Hadley, fitu-
ate on an eminence, in a fmall valley, and furrounded, at a
little diftance, by high hills. At the entrance of the exten-
five park is a magnificent gateway, which coft aoool.

D1TTON PARK, the feat of Earl Beaulieu, in the pa-
rifh of Datchet, was built by Sir Ralph Winwood, Secreta-
ry of tate to James I, on the file of a maufion, which had


84 DOW

been occupied by Cardinal Wolfey. It is fuiroumlad by a
moat. The apartments are fpacious and finely- painted ;
and, in the gallery, is a good collection of pictures. The
park is famed for its ancient majeftic oaks.

DORNEV-COURT, near Eton Wick, the feat of Sir
Charles Harcourt Palmer, Bart.

DOWN HALL, three miles from Sawbridgewortb,
Ilfi-rs, in the road to Hatfield Heath, in Eflex, the feat of
thjij^LThomas Selwyn, Efq. on an eminence that com-
mands a fin^ profpect. This plaee Prior chofe for retire-
ment, after many years of political intrigue ; and in his
works U " Down Hall," a baJlad, of which the beft line is,
" I fhcw'J you Down Hall : did you look for Verfailes r"

Prior, after having filled many public employments with
great ability, found himfelf, at the age of 53, in danger of
poverty. Hut his friends procured a fubfcription for his
Poems| which amounted to 4000 guineas ; and Lord Har-
tey, fon of the Earl of Oxford, to whom he had invariably
adhered, added an equal fum for the purchafe of this place,
which our poet was to enjoy during life, and Harley after
his deceafe.

" He had now," fays Dr. Johnfon, " what wits and phi-
lofophers have often w idled, the power of pa fling the day
in contemplative tranquillity. But it feems, that bufy men
ftldom live Jong in a ftate of quiet. It is not unlikely that
tiis health declined. He complain? of deafnefs ; for, (fays
he) I took little care of my ears, iuh:lc I <v:as mtfure whether
my head <wa* ny (nun.'" Our poet alludes here to the terrors
of an impeachment which had been impending over him.
He died at Wimpole, in Cambridgefliire, the feat of the
Earl of Oxford, in 1721. After his death, the noble pro-
prietor, much improved the grounds, cut viftas through an
adjacent wood, and fometiims made it the place of his re-
(idence. The prefent manfion, a handfome edifice, was re-
built a few years ago, and is now in the occupation of Mr.

DOWN PLACE, the elegant villa of John Huddleftone,
Efq. is fituated on the Thames, between Maidenhead and
Windfor. The noble buildings of Windfor and Eton are
here feen in a point of view which is not to be equalled in
any other place.


D U L 85

DROPMORE HILL, the new-built villa of Lord Gren-
ville, at Burnham, in Buckinghamfhire, leated on the fide
of Wooburn Common. Its elevated fituation commands
the moft extenfive and varied profpe&s.

DULWICH, a village, in the parifli of Camberweil,
five miles from London, celebrated a few years ago for its
medicinal waters, to which there was fuch a refort of com-
pany, that the mailer of the houfe, then called the Green
Man, erected a handfome room for their accommodation.
The wells have fince fallen into difrepute, and the houfe
was occupied, for fometime, by Lord Thurlow. The fine
walk oppofite this houfe, through the woods, affords from
its top a noble profpedt : but this is much exceeded by that
from a hill behind the houfe, under a tree, called The Oak
.of Honour. Dulwich. is delightful for its rural Simplicity,
thus celebrated by the /Efcuiapian bard:

Or lofe the world amid the fy',.in \ itds
Of Dulwicli, yet by barbarous ,.rts uiifpoil'd.

DULWICH COLLEGE, founded at Dulwich 1 , in 1614,
by Mr. Edward Alleyn, who named it the College of God's
Gift. This gentleman was an actor in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, and the- principal performer in manyofShak-
fpeare's plays. He founded this college for a Mailer and
Wardens, who were always to be of the name of Allevn or
Allen, with four Fellows, three of whom were to be divines,
and the fourth an organift ; and for fix poor men, as many
poor women, and twelve poor boys, to be educated by two
of the Fellows. When the boys arrive at a proper age, they
are fent to the Universities, or placed out apprentices. A
premium of rol. is given with each of the latter ; and, if
they behave well, they are prefented with 5!. at the expira-
tion of their fervitude. Mr. Alleyn conftituted for vifitors,
the Churchwardens of St. Botolph Bifhopfgafe, St. Giles
Cripplegate, ami St. Saviour South wark, who, upon occa-
(ion, were to appeal to the Archbifhop of Canterbury, be-
fore whom all the members were to be fworn at their ad-
miflion. To this college belongs a chapel, in which the
founder himfelf is buried. The Mafter is Lord of the Ma-
nor for a considerable extent, and enjoys the affiuence and
cafe of the Prior of a monaftery. Both he and the Warden
1 ' mutt

$6 E A L

muft continue unmarried, on pain of being excluded the
college. The Warden always fucceeds upon the death ot
the Maftef.

The original edifice was after a plan of Inigo Jones, in

the old talle, and contains the chapel, and Matter's apart-

merits, in the front, and the lodgings of the other inhabit-

ants, in the wings. That on the eaft fide was new-built,

IP 1-39. The Matter's rooms are adorned with noble old

furniture, which he is obliged to purchafe, on his entrance

, that ftation ; and there is a library to which every

M-Mler oenerally adds a number of books. An idle tradi-

tion, fufficiently refuted in the Biographia Bntanmca,

Kfligned as the motive of the founder tor this endowment,

that once perfonating the devil, he was fo terrified at feeing

a real devil, as he imagined, on the ftage, that he quitted

his profdlion, and devoted his life to religious exercifes.

An idea has alfo prevailed, that the founder excluded all

future benefactions to this college ; but this is erroneous.

In 1686, Mr. Cartwright, a celebrated comedian and book-

feller, in Holborn, bequeathed to the college his i cplleftion

of books and pictures, and 4001. in money ; and, in 1750,

a'le^acv of 3 col was left to the college, by Lady Falkland _;

the inter eft to be divided among the poor brethren and lit-

tors, according to the will of the donor.

DURD \NS, near Epfom, was originally built by George
firft Earl of Berkeley, with the materials brought from
Konfuch, when that celebrated royal refidence was demo-
lifhed. It was deftroyed by fire, many years ago, but was
rebuilt by Mr. Dalbiac, and is now the ieat ot Mrs. Ken-

EALIXG, a parifh in Middiefex, fituate near the road
to Uxbridge, about feven miles from London. One
,art of it is called Great, and the other Little Eaimg In
the former are many handfome villas ; among which the
-moft diftinguifhed are Ealing Houfe the feat of ^ward
Pavne, Elq. Hickes upon the Heath, the Ieat : ot Sir Wil-
liam frumbull (Secretary of State to king William, and
the intimate friend of Pope) and now the property qtire-
d. ric Barnard, fq. who has confiderably enlarged and im-

R D G- 87

proved the premifes - r Ealing Grove, which was fucccffiv;-
]y the feat of the Dukes of Marlborough and Argyle> and
lately of James Baillie, Efq. deceafed; Rockwork Ga e,
Houfe, the refidence of Thomas Matthias, Efq. and a houfe
built by Thomas Wood, Efq. on a hill on the right hand
of the road from Acton to Hanwell. At Little Ealing are
Place "Houfe, the feat of Cuthbert Fiftier, Efq. and the vil.
las of Sir Charles Morgan, Bart, and General Lafcelles.
At Caftle Hill, is the elegant villa of the late Henry Beau-
foy, Efq. now Mrs. Fitzherberj's;. and, on Caftle Bear
Hill, is the villa of Richard Meux, Efq.

The old church having fallen down, Marcft 27, 1729, a
neat new one was creeled At Old. Brentford, in this pa-
rifli, is George Chapel, built in 1770, as a chapel of eafe.

The Sunday fchools in this parifli, inftituted in 1786, by
the Rev. Charles Sturges, the prefent vicar, have been par-
ticularly efficacious, in confequence of the perfevering at-
tention of Mrs. Trimmer, fo well known by her ufeful
treatifes, tending to increafe the comforts and reform the
manners of the poor. About 60 boys, and more than 100
girls are now educating in thefe fchools, which are con-
ducted upon a plan that affords great encouragement to the
meritorious, and is admirably calculated to excite a fp in:
of emulation and improvement*. A fchool of induftry for
girls has been fome time eftablifhed: at prefent, they are
40 in number, and are employed in making coarfe fhirts.
A (chool of induftry for boys has alfo been lately opened :
hitherto they have been employed onjy in combing wool ;.
but it is in contemplation to find them fome other occupa-
tion, which may prove of more fcrvice to them in future
life. See Gunntrjlury Houfe.

EDGWARE, a market-town, eight miles from London,
on the road (the ancient Watling vStreet) to St. Alban's.
The weft fide of the ftreet is in the parifh of Whitchurch.
See Brockiey HilL

* One of the regulations is, {hat every child who is a conftmt ntf?n-
dant, and comes to fchool before nine in the morning, neat in pcrttm -and
apparel, on paying a halfpenny, (hall receive a penny ticker. The ad-
vjnt.igcs of this rtgulation proved to be inch, that gown, WTC purrhal'ej
f >r all the girls wlv> had been three months in ttie fchool., and clothing
for ibe boys According to their refpective rueriis.


83 L T

EDMONTON, a village in Middlefex, fcven miles from
London, in the road to Ware. Near Tanners End, in this
parifh, is The Firs, the feat of Sir James Winter Lake,
Bart. See Brtjb Hill and Swtbgate.

EFFINGHAM, a village in Surry, three miles from
Leatherhend, was once, according -to tradition, a populous
place, in which were- 16 churches. There are ftill proofs
of it$ having been much larger than it is at prefent; for
wells, and cavities like cellars, have" been frequently found
in the fields and woods here ; and in the church are feveral
old flails and. monuments.

EGHAM, a village in Surry, on theThames, 18 miles
from London. Here is a neat almflioufe, founded in 1 706,
by Mr. Henry Strode, merchant of London, for fix men
and fix women. THe centre of this building is a good
houfe for a fchoolmafter, who has the education of 20 poor
boys of Egham. Sir John Denham, father of the poet
of the fame name, and Baron of the Exchequer in the
rt-igns of James and Charles I, refided in this parifh, and
founded an almflioufe here, for fix men and fix women.
Ste Cccfer's Hill cunt Runny Mead.

ELSTREE, a village in Herts, 1 1 miles from London,
ir* the road from Edgware to St. Alban's, is thought by
Norden to have been the Roman city called Sulloniaca, men-
tioned byAr.toninus; but Caindcn and Horfley are of opi-
nion that it was on Brockley Hill, in this neighbourhood ;
many iirrre, coins, Roman bricks, c. having been due up
there; and at Penny- well, near Brockley Hill, are ftiil vi-
fible the foundations of feveral walls.

ELTHAM, a maiket-town r eight miles from London, on
the road to Maidllone. Anthony Beck, Bifliop of Durham,
having fraudulently fecured the pofleffion of this manor,
beautified the capital manfion, and left it to Eleanor, the
Queen of Edward I. Edward II frequently refided here.
His Queen was here delivered of a fon, who had the name
of John of Eltham. Poffibly, from this circumftance, it is
improperly called King John's Palace; unlefs it obtained
this appellation from the fumptuous entertainment given
here by Edward III to the captive King John of France.
Succeeding Princes, and particularly Henry VII, enlarged
and improved this palace; but it was neglected, after Green-

E N F 89

wich became the favourite country refidence. Our princes
often celebrated their feftivals at Eltham with great pomp.
One of the laft of thefe feafts was held here at Whitfuntide,
in 1515, when Henry VIII created Sir Edward Stanley
Baron Monteagle, for his Cervices, at Flodden Fit-Id. Part
of the ftately hall which was the fcene of thofe feafts, is ftill
in good preservation, and is ufed as a barn. The roof, in
particular, is fomewhat like that of Weftminfter Hall.
The large moat round the palace, although the greateil
part of it is dry, and covered with verdure, has ftill two
ftone bridges over it, one of which confifts of four arches.
The farm-houfe in the inclofure, though fomewhat moder-
nized, or rather difguifed, by plafter and white-vvafhing,
was part of this ancient palace. Queen Elizabeth, who
was born at Greenwich, was frequently carried thence to
Eltham, when an infant, for the benefit of the air; and
this palace flic vifited in a dimmer excurfion round the
country in 1^59. It was granted, with the manor, tor a
term of years, perpetually renewable, to one of the anoef-
tors of Sir John Shaw, who has here a feat and plantations,
called Eltham Lodge; but the trees in the park are the
property of the crown, and many of them were marked for
lale in die laft furvey. In the handfome garden of Mr.
Dorrington is a greenhoufe, in which were formerly kept
the exotics of that eminent botanift, Dr. Sherrard. The
H'jftus Eltbamlenfis is well known to the curious in botany.
On a part of Shooter's Hill, in this parifli, is a lofty tower,
erected by Lady James, to commemorate the reduction, in
i 756, of Severn droog, a ftrong fort, which belonged to An-
gria, the pirate, on an ifland near Bombay. This ftruc-
ture, which is called Severndroog Caftle, is erected from a
defign of Mr. Jupp's, and is of a triangular form, with tur-
rets at each angle. It is feen at a great diftance. Sec Fa.iy
Hill and Park Farm Place.

EMBER COURT, at Thames Ditton, between King,
fton and Eflier, was the feat of Arthur Onilow, the cele-
brated Speaker of the Houfe of Commons. It is now the
feat of Sir Francis Ford, Barr.

EXFlhLD, a town in Middlefex, 10 miles from Lon-
don, was famous for its chafe, a large tract of woodland,
filled with deer. This was granted, by the Conqueror, to
15 an


an anceftor of the Mandcvillcs, Earls of Eflex, from whom
it came to the Bohuns. It was afterward annexed to the
Duchy of Lancafter. When King James refided at Theo-
balds, this chafe was well ftorked with deer; but, in the
civil wars, it was ftripped of the game and timber, and let
out in farms. At the Reiteration, it was again laid open,
woods were planted, and the whole chafe was (locked with
deer ; but, by an aft of Parliament, in 1779, it was disfo-
refted. Part of it was allotted to different parifhes, and in-
clofed, when it was found to contain 834Q acres ; and ano-
ther part, referved to the crown, was fold in eight lots, at
the office of the Duchy of Lancafter. In the town, is
part of an ancient royal palace, refpeding the building of
which antiquaries are not agreed. It was the manor-houfe
ofEnfield; and either in this, or another ancient houfe,
called Elfynge-hall, (now demolifhed) Edward VI, on his
acceffion to the throne, kept his court, for five months, be-
fore he removed to London. Mr. Lyfons is of opinion,
\_Vcl II. p. 283.] that the palace " underwent confiderable
repairs, or perhaps was wholly rebuilt, in the reign of this
Prince, and mod probably upon occafion of the manor be-
ing granted to the Princefs Elizabeth."

One of the rooms! remains in its original ftate, with
oak pannels, and a richly-ornamented ceiling. The chim-
neypiece is fupported by columns of the Ionic and Corin-
thian order, and decorated with the cognizances of the rofe
and portcullis, and the arms of France and England quar-
tered, with the garter and royal fupporters, a lion and a
gryphon. Underneath is this motto : " Solafalusftyinre Deo,
funt cetera fraudes Our only fecurity is to ferve God :
aught elfe is vanity." In the fame room is preferred part
of another chimueypiece, with nearly the fame ornaments,
and this motto: " Ut rosfupcrkerbam, ejl benevolcnt'ia regis
Like the dew on the grais is the bounty of the King ;" al-
luding, it is probable, to the royal grant. Among the col-
lection of royal letters in the Kritifh Mufeum, is a Latin
*>ne from the Princefs Elizabeth, dated Enfield ; and in the
Bodleian Library is a M. S. copy of a fermon, tranflated
by the Princefs, from the Italian of Occhini. It is written
on vellum, in her own hand, and was {ent, ns i new-year's
gift, to her brother, King Edward. The dedication is dat-

E P P pi

ed Enfield, Dec. 30 ; the year not mentioned. When Eli-
zabeth became Queen, (he frequently vifited Enfield, and
kept her court there in the early part of her reign. The
palace was alienated from the crown by Charles I, and has
been ever (ince in private hand?. In 1670, it was taken by
Mr. Uvedale, matter of the grammar ichool, who being
much attached to the ftudy of botany, planted a cedar of
Libanus, now one of the fineft in the kingdom, and mea-
furing, at three feet from the ground (in 1793) twelve feet
in girth. The whole building, in front, was taken down
in 1 792 ; and on the fite of it are erected fome fmall houfes.
The fmall part left ftanding behind, (and which contains
the old rooms) has been new-fronted, and is in the occupa-
tion of Mrs. Perry. The whole of this old palace was pur-
chafed, in 1786, by Mr. Thomas Callaway, Iteward of
Guy's Hofpital, of the reprefentatives of fc-liab Breton, Efq.

Enfield Park, part of this ancient royal demefne, is the
feat of Samuel Clayton, Efq. In this parifh alfo are feve-
ral villas ; particularly, Forty Hall, the feat of Edmund
Armtlrong, Efq. faid to have been built by In igo Jones;
Eaft Lodge, which had been occafionally ufed by Charles I,
as a hunting feat ; Weft Lodge ; and North Lodge, (all
three held by leafe under the crown by the guardians of the
Duchefs of Chandos, a lunafic) the latter in the occupation
of Thomas James, Efq ; a large new-built houfe on Beech
Hill, the feat of William Franks, Efq. and the handfome
villa of Rawfon Hart Boddam, Efq. late Governor of Bom-
bay. See Soi4tbgate, South Lodge, and Trent Place.

ENGLEFIELD GREEN, in the parifh of Egham, but
in the county of Berks, is delightfully lituated on the fum-
mit of Cooper's Hill, in theroad that leadsthrough VVindfor
Great Park to Reading. Among fome good houfes here,
is the handfome feat of Mrs. Hervey.

EPPING, a town in EfTex, 16 miles from London. The
markets, which are on Thurfday for cattle, and on Friday
for provifions, are kept in Epping Street, a hamlet r.l>out a
mile and a half from the church. The butter made in this
part of the county, and known in London by the nnme of
JKpping butter, is in particular efteem, and fells at a higher
price than any other. See Copped Hall.

EPPING FOREST, a royal chafe, extending from Ep-

92 E S H

ping almort to London, was anciently a very extenfive dif-
trict, and, under the name of the Foreft of Eflex, included
a great part of the county. It had afterward the name of
Waltham Foreft, which has long yielded to its prefent ap-
pellation. To this foreft that of Hainault, which lies to
the foutheaft, was once, it is fuppofed, an appendage.
Both thefe forefts are adorned with many feats and villas.
A (lag is annually turned out on this foreft, on Eafter Mon-
day, for the amufement of the London iportfmen. See
Hainault Foreft.

EPSOM, a town in Surry, 14! miles from London. Its
mineral waters, which ifluefrom a rifing ground near Afh-
ted, were difcovered in 1618, and foon became famous;
but, for many years paft, they have been negledled, and the
public rooms are gone to decay. Horie-races are annually
held on the neighbouring downs. The town extends about
a mile and a half, in a femicircle, from the church, to Dur-
dans, the feat of Mrs. Kenworthy. There are many fine
feats in the neighbourhood, belide Durclans; as a feat oa
Woodcote Green, belonging to William Northey, Efq.
Lord of the Manor : Woodcote Park, the late Lord Balti-
more's, now the feat of Lewis Teflier, Efq. and Pit Place,,
fd called from its (ituation, being in a chalk-pit. It was
built by the late Mr. Belcher, and is a very whimfical but
elegant retirement. The laft proprietor, Mr. Fitzherbert,

Online LibraryF. H. (Frank Herbert) HaywardAmbulator; or, A pocket companion in a tour round London, within the circuit of twenty-five miles: describing whatever is most remarkable for antiquity, grandeur, elegance, or rural beauty .. → online text (page 9 of 30)