F. M. (Frederick Mercer) Hunter.

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eight go to the pound. The price of one pound of Surat dyed silk

Table showing Quantities of Shells Exported and Imported
to and from the various countries in 1875-76.



Place.


MOTHER-O'-

Pearl.


Tortoise.


Cowries,
Small.


Imports.


Cwt.


Lbs.


Cwt.


Massowa, . ....


6J


13'


41


Dankali Coast, . ...


lOf




4


Zaila,


37J






Berbera,


I7J


100




Ports between Berbera and Ras Hafoon,


2209


7




Zanzibar


I




34l


Jiddah, . ....


74


356




Hodaida,


118


168




Mokha, ....


2


ID


6


Lohaia, ...


717


1800




Gaizan, . . . .


15






Konfidah and Kamran,


411






Farsan,


59






Shehr and Makalla,


i84i


7


I'e


Perim Island,




3




Persia,

Total,
Exports.


140J






4003


2582


lOlJ








United Kingdom,


>37o4






Trieste,


755


422




France,


596






Italy, . ...


85


25




Massowa, . . ,- . .






16


Somali Ports,






\


Egypt, . . .


444


112




Hodaida, ... . „






IS


Singapore,


3


259


Bombay, ...


204


140


"8


Cutch, . . . .
Total,






3


3058


958


42i



varies from Rs.3 J to Rs.3f, and of Bombay dyed from Rs,2i to Rs.3 ;
the retail price of the former per ounce is about 4 annas, and of
the latter 3 J annas.

In 1875-76 the following quantities were imported and exported
from and to various countries : —



PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF COMMERCE. 121



Imports.


EXPOKTS.


Place.


Lbs.


Place.


Lbs.


China,

Bombay,

Calcutta,

Total,


2,581

63.72"
1,800


ZaUa, .

Berbera,

Massowa,

Jiddah,

Hodaida,

Mokha,

Interior,




45

14

2

140

29,025

10,071

6,326


68,102


Total,




36.623



The quantity imported in 1875-76 was nearly double that deceived
in former years.

(10.) Silk Pica Goods. — These goods are imported from Bombay,
Calcutta, and China. The kinds used by the Arabs for wearing
apparel are those made at Surat by hand-looms, and which are im-
ported by Borah merchants, who have branch firms at Mokha and
Hodaida. The quantity of silk piece goods received from Calcutta
and China is small.

The value depends on the quality of the raw silk used in the manu-
facture, and the quantity of cotton that is introduced into the fabric.

The following descriptions of silk goods are imported, and the
names by which they are known to the Arabs are given : —



Name.



Description and Length.



Width.



O'mart, .

Luki,

Harkin, .

Baharaluk,

Hamr Akhdhar,

Manabati,

Khanajaii,

Ma' Ammal,

A'lajah Suratt, .

Dana Manj,

A'Ujah Aswad,

Atlas Chinawi (China), .

Atlas Suratl (Surat),

Garam Sut (cotton and silk),

ShSdir Subihi, .

Footah KikwSa'i,

Shadir a'raijl, .

Mumaial (gold brocade), .

Kbam Kham, .



Piece



of S to 8 ya


rds, 21 inches


6 yards,


21 „


6 „


21 „


6 „


21 „


6 „


21 >,


6 „


21 „


6 „


21 ,,


6 „


21 „


5 to 8 ya


rds, 21 ,,


5 to 8 ,


21 „


5 to 8 ,


21 „


10 to 15 ,


. • 21 ,,


10 to 15 ,


1 • 21 ,,


SJto? ,


. • 2S „


4


■ • 54 „


4


> • 54 „


34


, • 72 „


5 to 7


. • 21 ,,


S to8


1 • 21 ,,



122 THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF ADEN.



A few other kinds, such as ' Shadir Nakashi,' ' Boti,' etc., are also
imported.

The value of the silk piece goods which arrived from the various
countries in 1875-76 was as under : —



Countries.


Yards.


Rupees.


Pairs.


Rupees.


Dozen.


Rupees.


United Kingdom,
Massowah,


285


1,280
"5






2


so


Jiddah, '.
Hodaida,
Makalla and Shehr,


1,790

200

974
100


4,478
120

394
150


245
60


775
360




...


China,
Bombay,
Calcutta,
Kutch,

Total,


1,097

106,258

5,971

9'5


1,215

1,63,856

5,234

895


6,953
'" 6


45,134
110


61
850
26J


100

6,476
461


117,705


177,737


7,264


46,379


883


7,087



(11.) spices. — The different kinds of spices that are imported are

given below : —

(a.) Betel-nut. — Areca Catechu (Arabic, Fofil).

{b^ Cinnamon. — ") ^. -y ^ ■ /a i.- xr r^, \

; / _ . . J- CmnamomumZelanicum (Arabic, Kurfah).

\'') v^3.SS13. XjlQ^n€3.. — j

(d.) Cloves. — Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Arabic, Koorumphul).

(«.) Cardamom. — Elettaria Cardamomum (Arabic, Hail).

(/.) Ginger.— Zingiber officinale (Arabic, Zangibil).

(g.) Pepper. — Piper nigrum (Arabic, Filfil).

(A.) Turmeric. — Curcuma longa (Arabic, Koorkum or Hoorud).

(i.) Agla or Aloe wood. — Aloexylou Agallochum (Arabic, Ag-
gar).

(/) Chillies, dry. — Capsicum frutescens (Arabic, Disbas).

(a.) Betel-nut. — Imported from Bombay and Malabar. Used
for chewing purposes by the Hindus residing in Aden. Local
wholesale approximate value, Rs.7 per maund of 28 lbs., and Rs.4
per 1000, with shells.

{6. and c) Cinnamon and Cassia Lignea. — Imported from Bom-
bay and China, and used by the Arabs in cooking. Exported to
Hodaida, Jiddah, and the interior. Local approximate value,
Rs.8J to Rs.9 per maund of 28 lbs.

(d.) Cloves. — Imported from Zanzibar. After the hurricane in
1873 in that island, which destroyed the clove plantations, the
quantity that arrived fell off, but the import of cloves has now



PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF COMMERCE. 123

almost reached its former level. Local approximate value, Rs. 16
to Rs.18 per maund of 28 lbs.

(«.) Cardamoms. — Imported in limited quantities from Bombay
and Malabar. The Arabs are beginning to appreciate this spice.
Local approximate value, Rs.65 per maund of 28 lbs. for the first
sort, Rs.S2 for the second sort, and Rs.44 for the third.

(/) Ginger. — Imported from Bombay and Malabar, and used
by the Arabs to flavour their coffee. Local approximate value,
Rs.4f to Rs.5 per maund of 28 lbs.

{g.) Pepper. — Imported from Bombay, Malabar, and Singapore.
Used for cooking purposes. Local approximate value, Rs.5^
to Rs.sf.

(A.) Turmeric. — Imported from Bombay and Malabar. Exported
to Jiddah, Hodaida, and the interior. Used by the Arab women
for dyeing the skin. It is believed to act as a preventive against
fever when applied externally. It is also used for cooking pur-
poses. Local approximate value, Rs.2i to Rs.2f per maund of
28 lbs.

(/.) Agla or Aloe wood. — Imported from Singapore and China.
Used as incense by the Arabs, especially to perfume garments ; to
effect this a lighted brazier is placed inside a sort of open wicker-
work frame, on which the garments to be fumigated are hung.
Local approximate value, Rs.5 to Rs.6 per lb. Superior Rs.io to
Rs. 1 2 per lb.

(j.) Chillies, dry. — Imported from Bombay and Malabar, and
used to flavour food. Local approximate value, Rs.4 to Rs.4^ per
maund.

The spices that arrive from Malabar are generally packed in
mats, made up into round bundles, weighing about 7 maunds each,
called by the natives ' Mura.' Spices imported from Bombay are
packed in gunny-bags.

The quantity imported and exported in 1875-76 is given in table
on next page.

(12.) Sugar. — Imported from Mauritius, Bengal, Bombay, China,
Malabar, and Zanzibar. The three kinds used by Arabs are known
respectively as ' Maurice,' ^ ' Bengali,' ' Massari.' The latter arrives
in small quantities. The white sort of Mauritius sugar is termed
'Abiadh;' the brown 'Ahmar;' the molasses 'Gur;' and sugar-
candy ' Nabad.' Mauritius sugar is always crystallised, and is used
in the preparation of sweetmeats. Bengal sugar, which is not

' Includes Malabar sugar.



134 THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF ADEN.



crystallised, is imported of two sorts, white and brown, and is used
with coffee and inxooking. The ' Massari,' or Egyptian sugar, is
called by the Arabs ' Barmil ' or ' Ghobali,' according to the manner
in which it is packed or shaped. It used to arrive formerly in con-
siderable quantities from Suez. Malabar sugar is of two kinds, the
' Koompti ' and ' Sholapori.' It is very inferior, but cheap, and is
much used by the Arabs in consequence. Since the establishment
of a regular line of steamers with Zanzibar, molasses and brown
sugar have been imported from that island. The latter is preferred
by the natives of India in Aden to the Malabar kind.

Table showing Quantity of Spices Imported and Exported
IN 1875-76.





3


g




E









-d






Place.


2




S


1


t


i.


g




.2




«


c





n


B


a.


d





15




a


U


u








(1.


H


<


u


Imports.


Cwt.


Cwt.


Cwt.


Cwt.


Cwt.


Cwt.


Cwt.


Lbs.


Cwt.


Bombay,


152^


ii8i




106


2268


908


2046


125


IQb


Malabar,


2






7


2181


808


750




100


Singapore,




120


4






37S




879s




Zanzibar,






8093






91








Shehr and Makalla,


5


9i




4


23i


48








Calcutta,




12






258










Cutch,


5








12










Jiddah,


3


















Batavia, .

Total, .

Exports.
















234




■■'67i


259I


8097


•17


4742}


2230


2796


9154


300




















Interior of Arabia, .




M


2


13


1274


1049


ir02


271


50


f.gypj.




s


676


2


73


42




140




Jiddah,


4


13


121


3


75


41




.




Hodaida,
Mokha,


13


'\


46
i


43


''\


583

2


433
19
42


1883


10


Lohaia,
Gaizan, .


3


2

loj






179
233


23
34






Shehr and Makalla,
Muscat, .


2


18J


2


4


235


20s


'"'j


160




Persia, .
















S6




Perim Island,










■ J


i


3




Cutch, .






"e








United Kingdom, ,






3018










90


Trieste,






437














Massowa,


2




225






r'i
46J
92
92






3


Dankali Ports,
















Zaila,
Berbera, .
Zanzibar,
Bombay,
Mauritius,

Total, .






1
3362




3*
10


75


611


2j

4j


35i


124I


78974


61S


428si


2247i


21705


4120


160



PRTNCrPAL ARTICLES OF COMMERCE.



125



Sugar-candy is imported from China, Singapore, and Bombay,
being called respectively ' Chinchin,' ' Singapori,' and ' Kompti.'

The average market price of the various sorts of sugar is given
below : —

Mauritius Sugar from Rs.4 to Rs.5^ per maund of 28 lbs.

avoirdupois.
Bengal Sugar from Rs.32 to Rs.35 for a bag of white, and

Rs.29 to Rs.30 per bag, brown, each weighing yf maunds

(gross).
Sugar (loaf) from Rs-sJ to Rs.6 per maund (3 or 4 loaves to a

maund).
Malabar Sugar from Rs.i^ to Rs. if per maund of 28 lbs.
Zanzibar Sugar from Rs. 2 to Rs. 2^ ,, ,,

Do. Molasses from Rs.2^ to Rs.3 ,, ,,

Sugar-Candy (China) Rs.7| • „ „

Do. (Singapore) Rs.6J „ „

Do. (Bombay) RS.5J to Rs.6 ,, ,,

The quantity imported and exported to different places was as
follows in 1875-76 : —



Imports.


Exports.


Place.


Sugar

and

Candy.


Jagree or
Molasses.


Place.


Sugar

and

Candy.


Jagree or
Molasses.


France,
Holland,
Italy,
Zanzibar,

Egypt,

Mauritius,

Makalla and Shehr,

Muscat,

Singapore,

Bombay,

Malabar,

Calcutta, .

Total, .


Cwts.
72
20
172
50
36

6,825
48
19

5.777

404

1,740


Cwts.

I.71S
'" 6

2,030

"3


Interior of Arabia,

Massowa,

Dankali Ports, .

Zaila,

Berbera,

Jiddah,

Hodaida, .

Mokha, .

Lohaia,

Gaizan,

Farsan,

Makalla and Shehr,

Persia,

Perim,

Bombay, .

Total, .


Cwts.
918
191
8

77

45

45

5. 663

296

195

'5?
28

355
27

''2
58


Cwts.
228
12

.7
10

•3

3

•.047

166

278

28

14
i,oi8

4


15.750


3.864


8,098


2,828



126 THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF ADEN.

(13.) Tobacco. — Tobacco is imported from Suez, United Kingdom,
United States of America, Persia, Makalla, Siiehr, Bombay, Madras,
and Singapore.

Suez. — Turkish tobacco is imported from Egypt, and is used by
Europeans, Egyptians, and Turks. It is sold at from Rs.2 to Rs.3
per lb.

United Kingdom and United States of America. — Cavendish, or
stick tobacco, as it is called, is imported from these places. It is
used by the soldiers of the garrison and by sailors. It is sold at
about Rs.f per lb.

Persia (Nicotina Persica). — Known by the name of ' Shiraz,' or
Persian tobacco in English, and ' Kazroon' in Arabic, is imported
in large quantities, in an unmanufactured state, for transhipment to
Jiddah, Hodaida, Mokha, and the interior of Arabia. It is sold at
from Rs.3 to RS.3J per maund of 28 lbs.

Makalla and Shehr. — The tobacco imported from these ports is
unmanufactured, and is called by the Arabs ' Hamumi.' It is
grown at Al'Harai, Ghail, Bowish, Fuah, Al'Kiha, Al'Hutah, and
Broom, in Hadhramaut. In the months of October and November
beds are prepared of rich soil, into which seed is cast. These beds
are then flooded and covered over with dry branches, to protect
the seedlings from the heat of the sun. After this the plants are
watered every six or seven days, and they are covered with a thin
layer of manure consisting of small dried fish. A small quantity of
guano (obtained from Socotra and Ras Hafoon) is then used to
destroy insects. Beds are prepared for transplantation by being
sprinkled with guano, and in about fifty days the plants are bedded
out. Cattle -dung manure is used to make the soil richer, and the
plants are watered every eight days. When two to two and a half
months have elapsed, the stalks are cut down to within three or
four inches of the ground ; this crop is called by the Arabs ' Umia,'
and is of two kinds, ' Bowraga' and ' Garin,' the latter being the
better of the two. In another two months a second crop called
' Akda' is cut in a similar manner, and the plant is allowed to run
to seed. It is then taken up by the roots, and the ground is pre-
pared for grain, for the growth of which it is used until next season.
The land is occasionally allowed to lie fallow. When the green
leaves and stalks are cut, they are placed in large store-rooms and
suspended with the tops downwards to dry for thirty or forty days ;
after drying, the best are removed and made into small bundles.



PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF COMMERCE. 127

which are piled one over the other, and the mass is pressed with
heavy stones for twenty or thirty days ; the tobacco is then ready
for the market. ' The prices of the three kinds are : —

f Garin, Rs. 10 per maund of 28 lbs.
Hamumi, \ Bowraga, Rs.6 to Rs.8 do. do.

(. Akda, Rs. i to Rs. 2 do. do.

Bombay and Cutch. — The tobacco imported from these places is
chiefly that grown in Guzerat, and is uimianufactured. It is called
by the Arabs 'Surati,' and is of three sorts — ' Vastanee,' 'Sunow,'
and Mehlow.' It arrives in bales weighing 3 and 5 cwt. The first
sort is exported to Massowa, the second is used by Somalis and
Arabs of the interior, and the third by such of the latter as can
a£Ford to purchase it. Snuif, packed in small round earthenware
jars, containing J to J lb. each, is impiorted from Kutch. One
' Sallah,' or bamboo basket of circular shape, contains 520, \ lb.
jars, or 280, \ lb. jars. It is used by the Arabs of the interior. The
prices of Bombay and Kutch tobacco are as follows : —

' Mehlow,' RS.3I to RS.4J per maund of 28 lbs.

' Vastanee,' Rs.2 to Rs. 2J „

'Sunow,' Rs.if to Rs.2 ,, ,.

Snuff (Arabic, Burdagan Nahs) —

Rs. 10 to Rs.2 2 per 'sallah' of 520 quarter-pound jars.
Rs.10toRs.20 ,, „ 280 half „ „

Madras. — The cigars and cheroots called ' Trichinopoly ' are im-
ported fi-om Madras, and ManOla cheroots and cigars from Singa-
pore ; they arefused by Europeans, the price being—

Trichinopoly cigars and cheroots, Rs-s to Rs.12 per 1000.
Manilla „ ,, Rs.30 to Rs.40 „

Indian unmanufactured tobacco is prepared in Aden for use by
the Somalis and Arabs, by drying in the sun, after which it is pounded
in a wooden mortar until converted into powder ; it is then mixed
with sal-ammoniac and retailed as snuff, or ' nassuk,' as it is called
by the Arabs. It is sold at 4 annas a bottle.

The quantity of tobacco imported and exported during the year
1875-76 was as follows : —



128 THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF ADEN.



Place.


Manufactuked.


Unmanufac-
tured.


Cigars and
Cheroots.


Imports.


Lbs.


Lbs.


No.


United Kingdom, .


4,200




14,000


Austria, .






7,000


France, .


72




22,800


Holland,


•.319




17,000


Spain,






3. 500


Turkey in Europe, .


3,546






Greece, .


4.940






Egypt,


2,165




4,250


Makalla and Shehr,




371,056




Muscat, .




336




China, .






56,500


Persia, .




5«5.424




Straits Settlements,




150


98^000


Bombay,


7,535


2,057,888


49,900


Madras, .






58,000


Calcutta,


8,820






Cutch,

Total,
Exports.


153,504


718,224




186,101


3,663,028


330,950








United Kingdom,






1,000


Malta, .






10,000


Massowa,




376,492




Dankali Coast,




48,132




ZaUa, .




36,744


10,000


Berbera,




38,385


2,000


Other Somali Ports,




2,044




Zanzibar,




227


56,650


Egypt, .




14,252




Jiddah, .




378,448




Hodaida,


"..


337,568




Mocha, ....




463,260




Lohaia,




27,972




Gaizan, .




644




Farsan




1,232
28,224




Ports in the Gulf of Aden,


If




Muscat




112




Singapore,




164




Perim Island,




2,520
480




Bombay,






Cutch, .




1,470




Total,


If


1.758.370


79,650



POLICE. 139



FART IV.— ADMINISTRATION.

Systkm of Apministration. — The Settlement is presided o^•er
by an officer who is styled Political Resident.

The duties of military commandant of the garrison are frequently
combined with those of civil governor. The Resident resides at
Steamer Point on Ras Tarshyne, but his office is in the Crater.
The Resident has two assistants, and there is a cantonment magis-
trate, who is also, ex offido, an assistant. These officers perform
all the civil, revenue, judicial, and ministerial duties of the Settle-
ment

Aden is politically subject to the Govarnment of Bombay, and is
considered for legal purposes as part of British Indix

PoucE. — The Aden police force is regulated by Bombay Act vii.
of 1S67, and consists of, — a European inspectors ; 2 jemadars ;
6 havildars (ist class) ; 6 ditto (ad class) ; 50 constables (ist class) ;
75 constables (^d class). Total, 141.
There is also a water police, as under, —

r h.avildars; 10 constables.
The second Assistant-Resident is, ex offUio. superintendent of
police.

The force is distributed as follows : —

In the Crater, . . . . S5

Isthmus, ..... 5

M.vala, IS

Sto.uner Point, .... 36



Total, 141

The water police are employed afloat in matters connected with
the shipping and maritime population.

The maintaiance of the force (exdusi\-e of the water police, who
are paid from the port fund) costs Government about Rs. 33,000
annually ; Rs.3000 .ire further contributed from municipal collec-
tions.

In 1S76, II 7 J persons were apprehended by the police, of whom
913 were convicted, and j6o were acquitted and discharged.

Civil .\nd Criminal JtreriCK. — The administration of civil and



I30 THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF ADEN.

criminal justice is regulated by a special Act of the Government of
India.' The Bombay Cantonment Act^ is also in force within
military limits, as is also Act in. of 1859, which defines the civil
jurisdiction of cantonment magistrates. The procedure in civil
cases is that followed in the Mofussil in India ; in criminal matters
the Indian Criminal Procedure Code ' is the guide, and the Indian
Penal Code is the substantive criminal law. Most of the Acts of
the Government of India that are applicable to the whole of British
India are in force at Aden, as also are others that have been
specially extended ; this is the case with some Acts of the Bombay
Government.

Aden has been declared to be one of the scheduled districts by
Government of India Act xiv. of 1874.

Civil suits are disposed of daily in the Resident's Court, situated
in the Crater, by the Assistants to the Resident, and the Registrar
of this Court has been invested with jurisdiction, under Section 40,
Act XI. of 1865,* to hear and determine suits not exceeding Rs.20.

In 1876, 2796 suits were disposed of in the above manner, to the
value of Rs.142,941.

The cost of the maintenance of the establishment on both the
civil and criminal sides of the Resident's Court amounts annually
to about Rs.ii,ooo, and the receipts on account of Court Fees, etc.,
to Rs. 17,000 and upwards.

The officers exercising criminal jurisdiction are : —
Political Resident,' . . ( Magistrate of the District, Justices of

I the Peace, and Sessions Judge,
ist Assistant Resident, . \

2d Ditto, . f ist Class Magistrates and Justices of

Cantonment Magistrate f the Peace.

and ex officio Assistant, /
Officer Commanding Aden ) ^^ ^,^^^ Magistrate.

Troop, J

Officer Commanding at ) Power to punish native followers under

Perim, / Sec. 166, Act v. of 1869.

One of the Assistants to the Resident sits daily on the bench, in
the Court House in the Crater, to try magisterial cases and to hear

' See Appendix B., p. 203.

'^ Bombay, Act III. of 1867. ' Act X. of 1872.

■* Mofussil Small Cause Court Act.

' The Resident has also jurisdiction as a Judge of the Vice- Admiralty Court
in connection with the Slave Trade Treaties made with the Sultan of Zanzibar
and other Chiefs.



PJ^/SONS. 131

complaints, etc. There is also a Court-house at Steamer PoiDt,
where cognisable cases, occurring in that locality and on board the
shipping in harbour, are disposed of by the Assistant who resides
in that part of the Settlement

The Cantonment Magistrate tries cases arising in military limits,
and the Officer Commanding the Aden Troop exercises jurisdiction
over offences occurring outside the barrier gate within British limits.

The number of cases disposed of in the Resident's Court by the
Magistrates in the Settlement in 1876 was 717, and the number of
persons arraigned was 1172.

Fifty per cent, of the offences occurring in the Settlement .ore
committed by the Somalis, whose savage instincts are essentially
predatory and decidedly bellicose.

Serious crimes are not of frequent occurrence ; only one execution
has taken place in the last ten years.*

An office for the Registration of Deeds and Assurances is
esublished in Aden, which has been declared a Registration Dis-
trict under Act viii. of 187 1. This establishment is superintended
by the ist Assistant Resident, who is ex officio Registrar, the head
clerk of the Resident's court being Sub-Registrar.

In 1S75-76, 208 compulsory and :;4 optional registrations took
place, the documents presented being principally mortgages. The
value of the property affected was Rs.23S,s6i.

There has always hitherto been, and probably always will be, a
yearly deficit in tlie maintenance of this office.

Prisons. — The Aden jail is not a very substantial building, con-
sisting merely of a few sheds surrounded by a high wall ; but it has
been found that this style of construction is best suited to the
climate, and escapes are almost unheard of. The jail is under the
superintendence of the Civil Surgeon, as is the practice in India.
The cost of maintenance of prisoners, including charges for the
fixed establishment and the military guard, seldom amounts to less
than Rs.300 per head per annum. The daily average of prisoners
aggregated seventy-five in the year 1S75-76. The produce of con-
vict labour was sold for Rs. 1 795 in the same year.

There is also a Civil Jail, in which a limited number of debtors
can be confined, but the inmates seldom exceed fifteen or si.Kteen
per annum, and the daily average of prisoners is barely one. The
building is hired for the purpose, and the annual expenditure
amounts to Rs.240.

' Among the ci\-il population.



132 THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF ADEN.

Municipal System.— Shortly after the occupation of Aden it
became obvious that some means must be speedily taken to insure
the town being built with regularity, and after full consideration
Government decided to grant land for building purposes on condi-
tion that the holders consent to pay all taxes which Government
might see fit to impose thereafter, and further to pay a quit-rent of
one pie^ per square yard ; this ground-rent however was not insisted
on till 1855.

The proceeds of this cess were to be devoted to municipal pur-
poses, and form the nucleus of a ' Municipal Fund.' Gradually it


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