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aloof both from laymen and from mendicants, who
frequents no houses, and has but few desires.

405. Him I call indeed a Brahma/2a who finds no
fault with other beings, whether feeble or strong,
and does not kill nor cause slaughter.

406. Him I call indeed a Brahma/^a who is tole-
rant with the intolerant, mild with fault-finders, and
free from passion among the passionate.

407. Him I call indeed a Brahma;^a from whom
anger and hatred, pride and envy have dropt like
a mustard seed from the point of a needle.

408. Him I call indeed a Brahma;/a who utters
true speech, instructive and free from harshness, so
that he offend no one.

409. Him I call indeed a Brahma;2a who takes
nothing in the world that is not given him, be it
long or short, small or large, good or bad.

410. Him I call indeed a Brahma;^a who fosters
no desires for this world or for the next, has no incli-
nations, and is unshackled.

405. On tasa and thavara, see Childers, s. v., and D'Alwis, Nir-
vawa, p. 115. On da«</a, 'the rod,' see Hibbert Lectures, p. 355,
note.



THE BRAHMAiVA. 93



411. Him I call indeed a Brahma/za who has no
interests, and when he has understood (the truth),
does not say How, how ? and who has reached the
depth of the Immortal.

412. Him I call indeed a Brahma;/a who in this
world is above good and evil, above the bondage of
both, free from grief, from sin, and from impurity,

413. Him I call indeed a Brahma^^a who is bright
like the moon, pure, serene, undisturbed, and in
whom all gaiety is extinct.

414. Him I call indeed a Brahma?2a who has tra-
versed this miry road, the impassable world and its
vanity, who has gone through, and reached the other
shore, is thoughtful, guileless, free from doubts, free
from attachment, and content.

415. Him I call indeed a Brahma;/a who in this
world, leaving all desires, travels about without a
home, and in whom all concupiscence is extinct.

416. Him I call indeed a Brahma;^a who, leaving
all longings, travels about without a home, and in
whom all covetousness is extinct.

417. Him I call indeed a Brahma;^a who, after
leaving all bondage to men, has risen above all

411. Akathahkathi is explained by Buddhaghosa as meaning,
' free from doubt or hesitation.' He also uses kathafikatha in the
sense of ' doubt' (verse 414). In the Kavyadarja, III, 17, the com-
mentator explains akatham by katharahitam, nirvivadam, which
would mean, ' without a katha, a speech, a story without contra-
diction, unconditionally.' From our passage, however, it seems as
if kathafikatha was a noun derived from kathahkathayati, ' to say
How, how?' so that neither the first nor the second element had
anything to do with kath, 'to relate;' and in that case akatham,
too, ought to be taken in the sense of ' without a Why.'

412. See verse 39. The distinction between good and evil
vanishes when a man has retired from the world, and has ceased
to act, longing only for deliverance.



94 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXVI.

bondage to the gods, and is free from all and every
bondage.

418. Him I call indeed a Brahma^^a who has left
what gives pleasure and what gives pain, who is
cold, and free from all germs (of renewed life), the
hero who has conquered all the worlds.

419. Him I call indeed a Brahma;^a who knows
the destruction and the return of beings everywhere,
who is free from bondage, welfaring (Sugata), and
awakened (Buddha).

418. Upadhi, if not used in a technical sense, is best trans-
lated by ' passions or affections.' Technically there are four upadhis
or substrata, viz. the kandhas, kama, ' desire,' kilesa, ' sin,' and
kamma, ' work.' The Brahmawa may be called nirupadhi, as being
free from desire, misery, and work and its consequences, but not
yet of the kandhas, which end through death only. The com-
mentator explains nirupadhi by nirupakkilesa,/ free from sin.' See
Childers, s. v. nibbana, p. 268 a.

419. Sugata is one of those many words in Buddhist Hterature
which it is almost impossible to translate, because they have been
taken in so many acceptations by the Buddhists themselves.
Sugata etymologically means 'one who has fared well,' sugati
means 'happiness and blessedness.' It is wrong to translate it
literally by 'welcome,' for that in Sanskrit is svagata; and we
cannot accept Dr. Eitel's statement (Handbook, p. 138) that
sugata stands incorrectly for svagata. Sugata is one of the
not very numerous technical terms in Buddhism for which hitherto
we know of no antecedents in earlier Brahmanism. It may have
been used in the sense of ' happy and blessed,' but it never became
a title, while in Buddhism it has become, not only a title, but
almost a proper name of Buddha. The same applies to tatha-
gata, lit. 'thus come,' but used in Sanskrit very much like
tathavidha, in the sense of talis, while in Buddhism it means
a Buddha. There are of course many interpretations of the word,
and many reasons are given why Buddhas should be called
Tathagata (Burnouf, Introduction, p. 75, &c.) Boehthngk s. v.
supposed that, because Buddha had so many predicates, he was,
for the sake of brevity, called ' such a one as he really is.' I think
we may go a step further. Another word, tadrzja, meaning



THE BRAHMAA^A. 95



420. Him I call indeed a Brahma;2a whose path
the gods do not know, nor spirits (Gandharvas),
nor men, whose passions are extinct, and who is
an Arhat (venerable).

421. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who calls
nothing his own, whether it be before, behind, or
between, who is poor, and free from the love of the
world.

422. Him I call indeed a Brahma;2a, the manly,
the noble, the hero, the great sage, the conqueror,
the impassible, the accomplished, the awakened.

423. Him I call indeed a Brahma^^a who knows
his former abodes, who sees heaven and hell, has
reached the end of births, is perfect in knowledge,
a sage, and whose perfections are all perfect.

talis, becomes in Pali, under the form of tadi, a name of
Buddha's disciples, and afterwards of Buddha himself. If applied
to Buddha's disciples, it may have meant originally ' such as he,' i. e.
his fellows ; but when applied to Buddha himself, it can only mean
'such a one,' i.e. 'so great a man.' The Sanskrit marsha is
probably the Pali mariso, which stands for madiso, Sk. madr/.fa,
' hke me,' used in Pali when a superior addresses others as his
equals, and afterwards changed into a mere title of respect.



INDEX.



The figures of this Index refer to the numbers of the verses.



Abhasvara, gods, 200.

Agni, worshipped, 107, 392.

A^atajatru, defeated by Prasena^it,
201.

Akanish//6as, 218.

Akiw/^ana, 87.

Akko^k/A, I.

Amata (am/-/ta), the immortal (Nir-
vana), 21.

Animitta, 92, 93.

Anivejana, 40.

Anujaya, foundation, root, 338.

Apastamba, Dharma-sutra, 39, 96,
109,

Appamadavagga, 21.

Arahantavagga, 90.

Arahat, and Ariya, 164.

Ariya, the elect, 22, 79.

— etymology of, 270.

Artha and dharma, 363.

Arupadhatu, 218.

Asava, asrava, 253.

Asava, khi«asava, 89.

Asrava, 39. See Asava.

Ajoka, 21.

Ajraya, 89.

Atharva-veda, 96.

Attavagga, 157.

Atula, 227.

Avadana, legend, etymology of, 183.

Avasa, monastery, 72, 302.

Avassuta, 39.

Avr/ha, 218.

Balavagga, 60.

Bee, emblem of a sage, 49.

Bhikkhuvagga, 360.

Bhikshu, a mendicant, 31, 32, 72, 75,
266, 267.

Bhikshu, different from Sramana. and
Brahmawa, 142.

Bhovadi, arrogant, addressing vener-
able people by bho ! 396.

[10]



Bhuri, knowledge, 282.
Bodhiru/^i (508-511 A.D.), 294.
Bodhyanga. See Sambodhyanga, 89.
Brahmajalasutta, 153.
Brahman, above the gods, 230.
Brahman, with Mara, 105.
Brahmawa, with 5rama«a and Bhik-
shu, 142.
Brahma«a, etymology of, 388.
Brahma«avagga, 383.
Buddha's last words, 153, 154.

— commandments, 183, 185.
Buddhavagga, 179.

Convent (avasa), 73, 302.

Dah, to burn, not sah, 31.
DaWanidhana, 142, 405.
Daw^avagga, 129.
Death, its dominion, 86.

— king of, 170.

Dhamma, plur., forms, things, 279.
Dhamma, plur., three of the five khan-

dhas, vedana, sa;7/7a, and safi-

khara, i.
Dhammadana, 354.
Dhammatthavagga, 256.
Dhanapalaka, 324.
Dharma, explained, i.
Dhatu, eighteen, 89.
Digambaras (Gainas, followers of

Mahavira), 141.
Dipa, island (arhatship), 25, 26.
Dipa, dvipa, island, 236, 238.
Dipaiikara, 236, 238.
Dipavawsa, 21.
Disciple (sekha), 45.
D\tt/A, drishn, heresy, 164.
Divyavadana, 141, 149.
Drinking, 247.

Eightfold, the way, 191, 273.
Elephant, Buddha, 320.

1



98



DHAMMAPADA.



Fetters of life, 345, 346, 350.

Fire, worshipped by Brahmans, 107,

392.
Flowers, with and without scent, 51,

52.
Four truths, 190, 273.

Gandharva, 104.

Gatha, loi.

Gathasangraha, 183,

Gods, 94, 200.

Gold pieces, 186, 230 (nekkha).

Good and evil bear fruit, 119-122.

Gotama, 296.

Graha, gaha, 251.

Gainas, 104, 141.

Gambu river, gold of it, 230.

Garavagga, 146.

Gataka, 9, 33, 35-39, 72, i49, 158,

179, 187, 285, 294, 306, 345.
Ga;a, sign of 5aiva ascetic, 141.

Hair, platted, of Brahmans, 393, 394-
Hatred, how it ceases, 3, 4.
— ceases by love, 5.
Hitopadeja, 129.

Immortal place, 114.
Immortality and death, 21.
Indra's bolt, 95.
Island (dipa), 25, 26.

Kakajura, 244.

Kali, unlucky die, 202.

Kalya«amitra, 78.

Kanakamuni, 183.

Kasava, kashaya, yellow dress, 9.

Kathasaritsagara, 125.

Kavyadarja, 411.

Kiliw/Ai, klish/a, 15.

KisagotamT, 45.

Kodhavagga, 221.

Kuja, grass, 311.

Kuja grass, for eating with, 70.

A'ittavagga, 33.

Lalita-vistara, 39, 44, 46, 153, 251,

2^54, 275, 282, 320, 326, 388.
Lankavatara-sutra, 294.
Lily (lotus), its purity, 58, 59,
Lokavagga, 167.
Lotus leaf, water on it, 401,

Made and not made, 383.



Maggavagga, 273.
Maghavan, Indra, 30.
Mahabharata, 9, 44, 87, 92, 96, 129,

1315133,142,150,185,187,1985

200,202, 223, 227, 248, 275, 287,

306, 364, 395.
INIahaparinibbana-sutta, 39, 153.
Mahavawsa, 21.
Mahavastu, quotes Dharmapada, and

Sahasravarga, 100,
Mahavira, 141.
Malavagga, 235.
Mallika, 54.
Mandhat/v, 185.
INIanu, laws, 71, 96, 109, 131, 150,

251, 320, 345, 346.
INIara, the tempter, 7, 8, 34, 37, 40,

46, 57, 105, 175, 274, 276, 337,

350.
iNIilk, turning suddenly, 71.
jMiracles, Buddha's view of, 254.
jNIithila, 200.

Muni, etymology of, 268, 269.
Mustard seed, on a needle, 401, 407.

Nagavagga, 320,

Nakedness, 141.

Namarupa, mind and body, 221, 367.

Nibbuta, nirvr/ta, freed, 89.

Niraya, hell, 306.

Nirayavagga, 306.

Nirukti, 363.

Nirva«a, 23, 32, 75, 126, 134, 184,
203, 204, 218, 225, 226, 285,
289, 323, 368, 372, 374.

Nishkashaya, free from impurity,
play on word, 9.

Old-in-vain, 260.
Overcome evil by good, 223.

Paki««akavagga, 290.

Pakkhandin, praskandin, 244.

PaWitavagga, 76.

Papavagga, 116.

Paragamin, 85.

Pare, 01 ttoAXoi, 6.

Parjvanatha, 141.

Path, the evil and the good, 17, 18,

316-319.
Patricide, 294.
Piyavagga, 209.
Platted hair, 141.
Prapa/z^a, 254.
Prasena_g-it, defeated by A^atajatru,



INDEX.



99



Pratibhana, 363.

Pratimoksha, 183, 185.

Pravra^, 83.

Pravra^ita, etymology of, 388,

Proverbs, 96.

Puns, 283, 294, 295, 305.

Pupphavagga, 44.

Ra^a, dust, passion, 313.
Ramayawa, 129.

Sacrifice, wortliless, 106.
Sahassavagga, quoted in Mahavastu,

100.
Sahita=:Tipi/aka, 19.
St. Luke, 130.
St. Matthew, 252.
St. Mark, 157.
Sama«a, etymology of, 265.
Sama;7/?a, priesthood, 20.
Sambodhyahga, 89.
Saw/sara, 60.

Sawskara, conception, 202.
— the five skandhas, 202.
Sawyutta-nikaya, 69.
Sanatsu^atiya, 21.
Sankhara, creature, 255.
Sankhata, 70.
Siiflgtid, perception, 202.
Sara, truth, reality, 1 1 .
Sati, smnti, intense thought, 91.
Sayanasanam, jayanasanam, 185.
Self, lord of self, 160, 165.
Seven elements of knowledge, 89.
Shore, the other, 85, 384.
— the two shores, 385.
Sindhu horses, 322.
Skandha, body, 202.
Snowy mountains, 304.
Spider, 347.

Spoon, perceives no taste, 64.
Sugata, Buddha, 285,419 (welfaring).
Sukhavagga, 197.

Suttanipata, 20, 61, 87, 125, 141, 142,
170, 185, 205, 239, 306, 328,

339, 345, 353, 3^4, 375, 39^-
423.

5akala-pratijakhya, 352.
Sunya, 92.

5vetambaras (Gainas, followers of
Parjvanatha), 141.



Tabernacle, maker of, 153.

Tagara, plant, 54.

Taittiriya-arawyaka, 96.

Tawhavagga, 334.

Tathagata, 254.

Tathagatas, are preachers, 276.

Ten evil states, 137.

Thirty-six passions, 359.

Thought, word, and deed, 96.

Thoughts, their influence, i.

Tirthankara, 104.

Tonsure, 264.

Trijara«a, 190.

Trividhadvara, thought, word, and

deed, 96.
Twin-verses, i.

Ukku/ika, see Utkamkasana, 141.
Uncreated (akata), 97.
Upadana, 20.
Upadhi, 418.
Upadhiviveka, 203.
Upama, aupamya, 129.
Upasarga, misfortune, 139.
tJrdhvawsrotas, 218.
Utka/ukasana, sitting on the hams,
141.

Vaha, horse, or vaha, wave, 339.

Vana, forest and lust, 283.

Vasish^/ja-Bharadvag-a-sutra, 396.

Vassika flower, 377.

Vassiki, flower, 55.

Vedana, sensation, 202.

Videha, king of, 200.

Vi_§-;7ana, knowledge, 202.

Vimoksha, freedom, 92, 93.

Vinaya-pi/aka, 28, 307.

Vishwu-sutra, 9.

Vijvabhu Tathagata, 49.

Viveka, separation, retirement, 7 5, 87,

Works, good, 220.
World, the next, 176.
— of the gods, 177.

Yama, 44, 45, 235.

Yama's messengers, 235.

Yamakavagga, i.

Ye dhamma, &c., 183.

Yellow dress, 9, 10, 307.

Yon'uab, truly, thoroughly, ^26.



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Online LibraryF. Max (Friedrich Max) MüllerThe Dhammapada, a collection of verses; being one of the canonical books of the Buddhists → online text (page 11 of 11)