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[163] Tertia Quinquagina Augustini, marked B. ii. 14.

[164] Surtee publications, vol. i. p. 117.

[165] This catalogue is preserved at Durham, in the library of the
Dean and Chapter, marked B. iv. 24. It is printed in the Surtee
publications, vol. i. p. 1.

[166] "King Stephen was vncle vnto him." - _Godwin's Cat. of
Bishops_, 511.

[167] He died in 1195. - Godwin, p. 735. He gave them also another
Bible in two volumes; a list of the whole is printed in the Surtee
publications, vol. i. p. 118.

[168] Surtee's Hist, of Durham, vol. i. p. xxxii. "He was wonderfull
rich, not onely in ready money but in lands also, and temporall
revenues. For he might dispend yeerely 5000 marks." - _Godwin's Cat.
Eng. Bish._ 4to. 1601, p. 520.

[169] Robert de Graystane's ap. Wharton's Angl. Sacr. p. 748, tom.
i. - _Hutchinson's Durham_, vol. i. p. 244.

[170] Surtee publ. vol. i. p. 121.

[171] Raine's North Durham, p. 85.

[172] Surtee public. vol. 1. p. 39-40.

[173] _Ibid._, vol. i. p. 41.

[174] Chambre Contin. Hist. Dunelm. apud Wharton Angliæ Sacra, tom.
i. p. 765.

[175] Lord Campbell's Lives of the Lord Chancellors, vol. i. p. 219.

[176] Absconditus est in Campanili fratrum minorum. - _Chambre ap.
Wharton_, tom. i. p. 765.

[177] In one of his letters Petrarch speaks of De Bury as _Virum
ardentis ingenii_, Pet. ep. 1-3.

[178] Epist. Seniles, lib. xvi. ep. 1.

[179] Foscolo's Essays on Petrarch, p. 151.

[180] Foscolo's Essays on Petrarch, p. 156. Famil. ep. lxxii.

[181] Hortatio ad Nicol. Laurent Petrar., Op. vol. i. p. 596.

[182] _Apud Wharton Ang. Sac._ tom. i. p. 765.

[183] _Ibid._

[184] MS. Harleian, No. 3224, fo. 89, b.

[185] There are two MSS. of the Philobiblon in the British Museum,
which I quote in giving my Latin Extracts. The first is in the
Cotton collection, marked Appendix iv. fol. 103. At the end are
these lines, _Ric. de Aungervile cognominato de Bury, Dunelm. Episc.
Philobiblon completum in Manerio de Auckland, d. 24 Jan. 1344_, fol.
119, b. The other is in the Harleian Collection, No. 3224, both are
in fine preservation. The first printed edition appeared at Cologne,
1473, in 4to., without pagination, signatures, or catchwords, with
48 leaves, 26 lines on a full page; for some time, on account of its
excessive rarity, which kept it from the eyes of book-lovers,
bibliographers confused it with the second edition printed by John
and Conrad Hüst, at Spires, in 1483, 4to. which, like the first, is
without pagination, signatures, or catchwords, but it has only 39
pages, with 31 lines on a full page. Two editions were printed in
1500, 4to. at Paris, but I have only seen one of them. A fifth
edition was printed at Oxford by T. J(ames), 4to. 1599. In 1614 it
was published by Goldastus in 8vo. at Frankfort, with a
_Philologicarium Epistolarum Centuria una_. Another edition of this
same book was printed in 1674, 8vo. at Leipsic, and a still better
edition appeared in 1703 by Schmidt, in 4to. The Philobiblon has
recently been translated by Inglis, 8vo. _Lond._ 1834, with much
accuracy and spirit, and I have in many cases availed myself of this
edition, though I do not always exactly follow it.

[186] "Greges et Vellera, Fruges et honea, Porri et Olera, Potus et
Patera rectiones sunt hodie et studio monachorum." - MS. Harl. 2324,
fol. 79, a; MS. Cot. ap. iv. fo. 108, a.

[187] Wharton Ang. Sac., tom. i. p. 766, he is called _Ricardus
Fitz-Rause postomodum Archiepiscopus Armachanus_.

[188] Scarcely.

[189] Translated by Trevisa, MS. Harleian, No. 1900, fol. 11, b.

[190] The original is _grandis et nobilis libraria_.

[191] Chaplain.

[192] Could not.

[193] Profitable.

[194] Philobiblon, transl. by Inglis, p. 56.

[195] "Curiam deinde vero Rem. publicam Regni sui Cacellarii, viz.:
est ac Thesaurii fugeremur officiis, patescebat nobis aditus faciles
regal favoris intuitu, ad libros latebras libere perscruta tandas
amoris quippe nostri fama volatitis jam ubiqs. percreluit tam qs.
libros _et maxime veterum_ ferabatur cupidite las vestere posse vero
quemlibet nostrum per quaternos facilius quam per pecuniam adipisa
favorem." - MS. Harl. fo. 85, a. MS. Cott. 110, b.

[196] MS. Cottonian Claudius, E. iv. fol. 203, b. _Warton's Hist. of
Poetry, Dissert. ii._; and _Hallam's_ Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 611.
Both notice this circumstance as a proof of the scarcity of books in
De Bury's time.

[197] _Ibid._ Among the MSS. in the Royal Library, there is a copy
of John of Salisbury's _Ententicus_ which contains the following
note, "Hunc librum fecit dominus Symon abbas S. Albani, quem postea
venditum domino _Ricardo_ de Bury. Episcope Dunelmensi emit Michael
abbas S. Albani ab executoribus prædicti episcopi, A. D. 1345."
Marked 13 D. iv. 3. The same abbot expended a large sum in buying
books for the library, but we shall speak more of Michael de
Wentmore by and bye.

[198] "Sed revera libros non libras maluimus, Codicesque plus quam
florenos, ac pampletos exiguos incrussatis proetulimus
palafridis." - MS. Harl. fo. 86, a. MS. Cott. fo. 111, a.

[199] Inglis's Translation, p. 53.

[200] Inglis's Translation, p. 58.

[201] The Stationers or Booksellers carried on their business on
open Stalls. - _Hallam, Lit. Europe_, vol. i. p. 339. It is pleasing
to think that the same temptations which allure the bookworm now, in
his perambulations, can claim such great antiquity, and that through
so many centuries, bibliophiles and bibliopoles remain unaltered in
their habits and singularities; but alas! this worthy relic of the
middle ages I fear is passing into oblivion. Plate-glass fronts and
bulky expensive catalogues form the bookseller's pride in these days
of speed and progress, and offer more splendid temptations to the
collector, but sad obstacles to the hungry student and black-letter
bargain hunters.

[202] _Philob._ xix.

[203] Inglis, p. 96. "In primis quidam circa claudenda et apienda
volumina, sit matura modestia; ut nec præcipiti festinatione
solvantur, nec inspectione finita, sina clausura debita
dimittantur." _MS. Harl._ fol. 103.

[204] _Chambre ap. Wharton_, tom. i. p. 766.

[205] Godwin Cat. of Bish. 525.

[206] _Chambre ap. Wharton_, tom. i. p. 766.

[207] It is marked A, ii. 16, and described in the old MS. catalogue
as _De manus Bedæ_, ii. fol. _Baptizatus_.

[208] The attractive words "_Est vetus Liber_" often occur.

[209] From a volume of Thomas Aquinas, the following is transcribed:
"Lib. Sti. Cuthberti de Dunelm, ex procuratione fratis Roberti de
Graystane quem qui aliena verit maledictionem Sanctorum Mariæ,
Oswaldi, Cuthberti et Benedicti incurrat." See _Surtee
publications_, vol. i. p. 35, where other instances are given.

[210] Surtee publ. vol. i. p. 85.

[211] He wrote The Chronicle of Durham Monastery in 1130.

[212] His book on the Rights and Privileges of Durham Church is in
the Cottonian Library, marked _Vitellius_, A, 9.

[213] Lawrence was elected prior in 1149, "a man of singular
prudence and learning, as the many books he writ manifest."
_Dugdale's Monast._ vol. 1. p. 230.

[214] Wrote the Life and Miracles of St. Cuthbert, the original book
is in the Durham Library.




CHAPTER VI.

_Croyland Monastery. - Its Library increased by
Egebric. - Destroyed by Fire. - Peterborough. - Destroyed by the
Danes. - Benedict and his books. - Anecdotes of
Collectors. - Catalogue of the Library of the Abbey of
Peterborough. - Leicester Library, etc._


The low marshy fens of Lincolnshire are particularly rich in monastic
remains; but none prove so attractive to the antiquary as the ruins of
the splendid abbey of Croyland. The pen of Ingulphus has made the affairs
of that old monastery familiar to us; he has told us of its prospering
and its misfortunes, and we may learn moreover from the pages of the monk
how many wise and virtuous men, of Saxon and Norman days, were connected
with this ancient fabric, receiving education there, or devoting their
lives to piety within its walls. It was here that Guthlac, a Saxon
warrior, disgusted with the world, sought solitude and repose; and for
ten long years he led a hermit's life in that damp and marshy fen; in
prayer and fasting, working miracles, and leading hearts to God, he spent
his lonely days, all which was rewarded by a happy and peaceful death,
and a sanctifying of his corporeal remains - for many wondrous miracles
were wrought by those holy relics.

Croyland abbey was founded on the site of Guthlac's hermitage, by
Ethelred, king of Mercia. Many years before, when he was striving for the
crown of that kingdom, his cousin, Crobrid, who then enjoyed it, pursued
him with unremitting enmity; and worn out, spiritless and exhausted, the
royal wanderer sought refuge in the hermit's cell. The holy man comforted
him with every assurance of success; and prophesied that he would soon
obtain his rights without battle or without bloodshed;[215] in return for
these brighter prospects, and these kind wishes, Ethelred promised to
found a monastery on that very spot in honor of God and St. Guthlac,
which promise he faithfully fulfilled in the year 716, and "thus the
wooden oratory was followed by a church of stone." Succeeding benefactors
endowed, and succeeding abbots enriched it with their learning; and as
years rolled by so it grew and flourished till it became great in wealth
and powerful in its influence. But a gloomy day approached - the Danes
destroyed that noble structure, devastating it by fire, and besmearing
its holy altars with the blood of its hapless inmates. But zealous piety
and monkish perseverance again restored it, with new and additional
lustre; and besides adding to the splendor of the edifice, augmented its
internal comforts by forming a library of considerable importance and
value. We may judge how dearly they valued a _Bibliotheca_ in those old
days by the contribution of one benevolent book-lover - Egebric, the
second abbot of that name, a man whom Ingulphus says was "far more
devoted to sacred learning and to the perusal of books than skilled in
secular matters,"[216] gladdened the hearts of the monks with a handsome
library, consisting of forty original volumes in various branches of
learning, and more than one hundred volumes of different tracts and
histories,[217] besides eighteen books for the use of the divine offices
of the church. Honor to the monk who, in the land of dearth, could amass
so bountiful a provision for the intellect to feed upon; and who
encouraged our early literature - when feeble and trembling by the renewed
attacks of rapacious invaders - by such fostering care.

In the eleventh century Croyland monastery was doomed to fresh
misfortunes; a calamitous fire, accidental in its origin, laid the fine
monastery in a heap of ruins, and scattered its library in blackened
ashes to the winds.[218] A sad and irreparable loss was that to the
Norman monks and to the students of Saxon history in modern times; for
besides four hundred Saxon charters, deeds, etc., many of the highest
historical interest and value beautifully illuminated in gold (_aureis
pictures_) and written in Saxon characters,[219] the whole of the choice
and ample library was burnt, containing seven hundred volumes, besides
the books of divine offices - the Antiphons and Grailes. I will not
agonize the bibliophile by expatiating further on the sad work of
destruction; but is he not somewhat surprised that in those bookless days
seven hundred volumes should have been amassed together, besides a lot of
church books and Saxon times?

Ingulphus, who has so graphically described the destruction of Croyland
monastery by the Danes in 870, has also given the particulars of their
proceedings at the monastery of Peterborough, anciently called
Medeshamstede, to which they immediately afterwards bent their steps. The
monks, on hearing of their approach, took the precaution to guard the
monastery by all the means in their power; but the quiet habits of
monastic life were ill suited to inspire them with a warlike spirit, and
after a feeble resistance, their cruel enemies (whom the monks speak of
in no gentle terms, as the reader may imagine), soon effected an
entrance; in the contest however Tulla, the brother of Hulda, the Danish
leader, was slain by a stone thrown by one of the monks from the walls;
this tended to kindle the fury of the besiegers, and so exasperated
Hulda that it is said he killed with his own hand the whole of the poor
defenceless monks, including their venerable abbot. The sacred edifice,
completely in their hands, was soon laid waste; they broke down the
altars, destroyed the monuments, and - much will the bibliophile deplore
it - set fire to their immense library "_ingens bibliotheca_," maliciously
tearing into pieces all their valuable and numerous charters, evidences,
and writings. The monastery, says the historian, continued burning for
fifteen days.[220] This seat of Saxon learning was left buried in its
ruins for near one hundred years, when Athelwold, bishop of Winchester,
in the year 966, restored it; but in the course of time, after a century
of peaceful repose, fresh troubles sprang up. When Turoldus, a Norman,
who had been appointed by William the Conqueror, was abbot, the Danes
again paid them a visit of destruction. Hareward de Wake having joined a
Danish force, proceeded to the town of Peterborough; fortunately the
monks obtained some intelligence of their coming, which gave Turoldus
time to repair to Stamford with his retinue. Taurus, the Sacrist, also
managed to get away, carrying with him some of their treasures, and among
them a text of the Gospels, which he conveyed to his superior at
Stamford, and by that means preserved them. On the arrival of the Danes,
the remaining monks were prepared to offer a somewhat stern resistance,
but without effect; for setting fire to the buildings, the Danes entered
through the flames and smoke, and pillaged the monastery of all its
valuable contents; and that which they could not carry away, they
destroyed: not even sparing the shrines of holy saints, or the
miracle-working dust contained therein. The monks possessed a great cross
of a most costly nature, which the invaders endeavored to take away, but
could not on account of its weight and size; however, they broke off the
gold crown from the head of the crucifix, and the footstool under its
feet, which was made of pure gold and gems; they also carried away two
golden biers, on which the monks carried the relics of their saints; with
nine silver ones. There was certainly no monachal poverty here, for their
wealth must have been profuse; besides the above treasures, they took
twelve crosses, made of gold and silver; they also went up to the tower
and took away a table of large size and value, which the monks had hid
there, trusting it might escape their search; it was a splendid affair,
made of gold and silver and precious stones, and was usually placed
before the altar. But besides all this, they robbed them of that which
those poor monkish bibliophiles loved more than all. Their library, which
they had collected with much care, and which contained many volumes, was
carried away, "with many other precious things, the like of which were
not to be found in all England."[221] The abbot and those monks who
fortunately escaped, afterwards returned, sad and sorrowful no doubt; but
trusting in their Divine Master and patron Saint, they ultimately
succeeded in making their old house habitable again, and well fortified
it with a strong wall, so that formerly it used to be remarked that this
building looked more like a military establishment than a house of God.

Eminently productive was the monastery of Peterborough in Saxon
bibliomaniacs. Its ancient annals prove how enthusiastically they
collected and transcribed books. There were few indeed of its abbots who
did not help in some way or other to increase their library. Kenulfus,
who was abbot in the year 992, was a learned and eloquent student in
divine and secular learning. He much improved his monastery, and greatly
added to its literary treasures.[222] But the benefactors of this place
are too numerous to be minutely specified here. Hugo Candidus tells us,
that Kinfernus, Archbishop of York, in 1056, gave them many valuable
ornaments; and among them a fine copy of the Gospels, beautifully adorned
with gold. This puts us in mind of Leofricus, a monk of the abbey, who
was made abbot in the year 1057. He is said to have been related to the
royal family, a circumstance which may account for his great riches. He
was a sad pluralist, and held at one time no less than five monasteries,
viz. Burton, Coventy, Croyland, Thorney, and Peterborough.[223] He gave
to the church of Peterborough many and valuable utensils of gold, silver,
and precious stones, and a copy of the Gospels bound in gold.[224]

But in all lights, whether regarded as an author or a bibliophile, great
indeed was Benedict, formerly prior of Canterbury, and secretary to
Thomas à Becket,[225] of whom it is supposed he wrote a life. He was made
abbot of Peterborough in the year 1177; he compiled a history of Henry
II. and king Richard I.;[226] he is spoken of in the highest terms of
praise by Robert Swapham for his profound wisdom and great erudition in
secular matters.[227] There can be no doubt of his book-loving passion;
for during the time he was abbot he transcribed himself, and ordered
others to transcribe, a great number of books. Swapham has preserved a
catalogue of them, which is so interesting that I have transcribed it
entire. The list is entitled:

DE LIBRIS EJUS.

Plurimos quoque libros 3 scribere fecit, quorum nomina subnotantur.

Vetus et Novum Testamentum in uno volumine.

Vetus et Novum Testamentum in 4 volumina.

Quinque libri Moysi glosati in uno volumine.

Sexdecim Prophetæ glosati in uno volumine.

Duodecim minores glosati Prophetæ in uno volumine.

Liber Regum glosatus, paralipomenon glosatus. Job, Parabolæ
Solomonis et Ecclesiastes, Cantica Canticorum glosati in
uno volumine.

Liber Ecclesiasticus et Liber Sapientiæ glosatus in uno volumine.

Tobyas, Judith, Ester et Esdras, glosati in uno volumine.

Liber Judicum glosatus.

Scholastica hystoria.

Psalterium glosatum.

Item non glosatum.

Item Psalterium.

Quatuor Evangelia glosata in uno volumine.

Item Mathæus et Marcus in uno volumine.

Johannes et Lucas in uno volumine.

Epistolæ Pauli glosatæ Apocalypsis et Epistolæ Canonicæ
glosata in uno volumine.

Sententiæ Petri Lombardi.

Item Sententiæ ejusdem.

Sermones Bernardi Abbatis Clarevallensis.

Decreta Gratiani.

Item Decreta Gratiani.

Summa Ruffini de Decretis.

Summa Johannes Fuguntini de Decretis.

Decretales Epistolæ.

Item Decretales Epistolæ.

Item Decretales Epistolæ cum summa sic incipiente; Olim.
Institutiones Justiniani cum autenticis et Infortiatio Digestum
vetus.

Tres partes cum digesto novo.

Summa Placentini.

Totum Corpus Juris in duobus voluminibus.

Arismetica.

Epistolæ Senecæ cum aliis Senecis in uno volumine.

Martialis totus et Terentius in uno volumine.

Morale dogma philosophorum.

Gesta Alexandri et Liber Claudii et Claudiani.

Summa Petri Heylæ de Grammatica, cum multis allis rebus
in uno volumine.

Gesta Regis Henrica secunda et Genealogiæ ejus.

Interpretatione Hebraicorum nominum.

Libellus de incarnatione verbi. Liber Bernardi Abbatis ad
Eugenium papam.

Missale.

Vitæ Sancti Thomæ Martyris.[228]

Miracula ejusdem in quinque voluminibus.

Liber Richardi Plutonis, qui dicitur, unde Malum Meditationes
Anselmi.

Practica Bartholomæi cum multis allis rebus in uno volumine.

Ars Physicæ Pantegni, et practica ipsius in uno volumine.

Almazor et Diascoridis de virtutibus herbarum.

Liber Dinamidiorum et aliorum multorum in uno volumine.

Libellus de Compoto.

Sixty volumes! perhaps containing near 100 separate works, and all added
to the library in the time of one abbot; surely this is enough to
controvert the opinion that the monks cared nothing for books or
learning, and let not the Justin, Seneca, Martial, Terence, and Claudian
escape the eye of the reader, those monkish bookworms did care a little,
it would appear, for classical literature. But what will he say to the
fine Bibles that crown and adorn the list? The two complete copies of the
_Vetus et Novum Testamentum_, and the many glossed portions of the sacred
writ, reflect honor upon the Christian monk, and placed him conspicuously
among the bible students of the middle ages; proving too, that while he
could esteem the wisdom of Seneca, and the vivacity of Terence, and feel
a deep interest in the secular history of his own times, he did not lose
sight of the fountain of all knowledge, but gave to the Bible his first
care, and the most prominent place on his library shelf. Besides the
books which the abbots collected for the monastery, they often possessed
a private selection for their own use; there are instances in which these
collections were of great extent; some of which we shall notice, but
generally speaking they seldom numbered many volumes. Thus Robert of
Lyndeshye, who was abbot of Peterborough in 1214, only possessed six
volumes, which were such as he constantly required for reference or
devotion; they consisted of a Numerale Majestri W. de Montibus cum alliis
rebus; Tropi Majestri Petri cum diversis summis; Sententiæ Petri
Pretanensis; Psalterium Glossatum; Aurora; Psalterium;[229] Historiale.
These were books continually in requisition, and which he possessed to
save the trouble of constantly referring to the library. His successor,
abbot Holdernesse, possessed also twelve volumes,[230] and Walter of St.
Edmundsbury Abbot, in 1233, had eighteen books, and among them a fine
copy of the Bible for his private study. Robert of Sutton in 1262, also
abbot of Peterborough, possessed a similar number, containing a copy of
the Liber Naturalium Anstotelis; and his successor, Richard of London,
among ten books which formed his private library, had the Consolation of
Philosophy, a great favorite in the monasteries. In the year 1295 William
of Wodeforde, collected twenty volumes, but less than that number
constituted the library of Adam de Botheby, who was abbot of Peterborough
many years afterwards, but among them I notice a Seneca, with thirty-six
others contained in the same volume.[231]

Abbot Godfrey, elected in the year 1299, was a great benefactor to the
church, as we learn from Walter de Whytlesse, who gives a long list of
donations made by him; among a vast quantity of valuables, "he gave to
the church _two Bibles_, one of which was written in France," with about
twenty other volumes. In the war which occurred during his abbacy,
between John Baliol of Scotland and Edward I. of England, the Scots
applied to the pope for his aid and council; his holiness deemed it his
province to interfere, and directed letters to the king of England,
asserting that the kingdom of Scotland appertained to the Church of Rome;
in these letters he attempt to prove that it was opposed to justice, and,
what he deemed of still greater importance, to the interests of the holy
see, that the king of England should not have dominion over the kingdom
of Scotland. The pope's messengers on this occasion were received by
abbot Godfrey; Walter says that "He honorably received two cardinals at
Peterborough with their retinues, who were sent by the pope to make peace
between the English and the Scotch, and besides cheerfully entertaining
them with food and drink, gave them divers presents; to one of the
cardinals, named Gaucelin, he gave a certain psalter, beautifully written
in letters of gold and purple, and marvellously illuminated, _literis
aureis et assuris scriptum et mirabiliter luminatum_.[232] I give this
anecdote to show how splendidly the monks inscribed those volumes
designed for the service of the holy church. I ought to have mentioned
before that Wulstan, archbishop of York, gave many rare and precious
ornaments to Peterborough, nor should I omit a curious little book
anecdote related of him. He was born at Jceritune in Warwickshire, and


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