F. Sturges (Frederic Sturges) Allen.

What's what? at home and abroad online

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"^■"o Copies Received

iV^AY. 25^ 1902


Ci-ASS CC' XXc. No.

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Annie W. Allen


The vocabulary of bill-of-fare terms and names of
dishes includes those most used in the better class of
restaurants and hotels in America, Most of them are
in use in England, also, and many of them in France, and
elsewhere on the Continent. I have been assisted both
in choice of terms and definitions, by various chefs of
New York City, and especially by Mr, Augustus Wagner,
The definitions are not intended to be full, but to give
such information as will enable a person to know what
kind of a dish is meant by the term. Each particular
chef has names of his own for dishes that he has in-
vented, but unless these have become extended in their
use beyond one restaurant, they are not included. It is
remarkable how widespread many terms are that at
first seemed unusual, and how the dishes, if at all com-
plex, vary in their details and yet retain their general
make-up and identity.

The information given on gems, plants, etc., I have
gathered together from various sources, assisted by ex-
perts, F. S, A.

May, 1902.



Bill of Fare Vocabulary 11

Poisonous Plants and Remedies 63

What to do in Case of Accidents 87

Precious and Other Stones Used in Jewelry . 109


The special symbols used in respelling words for pro-
nunciation are as given in key- words below. These
symbols are essentially the same as those given in Web-
ster's International Dictionary:

ale; senate; care; am; arm; final; aw(l)=a in all.
eve; event; end; her (see urn); recent,
ice; idea; ill.

old; obey; 6rb; odd; (f)oo(d); ou(t); oi(l).
use; unite; fiill, and=oo in foot; up; Urn, and=e in
her, fern, etc.

N = n in French bon; zh = z in azure.

It must be borne in mind that the vowels in French
are spoken quickly, so that they do not have the glide
(or vanishing sound) at the end that is given to accented
vowels in English.

French eu, and oeu are much like e in the English word
"her"; French u is much like u in the English word
"pull." The French nasal n (indicated in this book by
n) can easily be pronounced by trying to pronounce
" onion," without touching the tongue to the roof of the
mouth; that is, leaving the mouth passage continuously
open while pronouncing it.



abaisse (a-bas'). Thin undercrust of pastry.

agneau (a-nyo'). Lamb.

aillolis (a-yo-le'). A Provengale sauce of olive oil
with garlic pounded in it.

a la (a la), au (o), aux (o). With; according to; after
the manner of; as, huitres aux champignons, oysters with

If a dish is cooked, or served, or made, with anything
as an ingredient or garnish, the dish may be said to be
" d la " that substance. So it may be possible to ascer-
tain the meaning of phrases not given below by look-
ing elsewhere in the vocabulary under the word used
with the words '" a la."

a la bearnaise (a la ba-ar-naz'). With a sauce of tar-
ragon vinegar in which shallots have been boiled till it
is reduced, then combined with egg yolks and butter, and
beaten in a bain marie, then seasoned with red pepper
and lemon Juice.

a la bechamel (a la ba-sha-mel'). After the fashion of
Bechamel (a French gastronomer); said of a sauce (see
Bechamel) ; also prepared or served with this sauce.

a la Bercy (a la bar-se'). Served with bearnaise
sauce, "stuffed green pepper and stuffed tomato.

a la bigarade (a la be-ga-rad'). Flavored with
(Seville) orange juice or peel.

a la bonne femme (a la bun fem). Of, or in the style
of, the housewife; specifically said of a kind of maigre
soup made \Wth fish, bouillon, legumes, and an assort-
ment of vegetables.

a la bordelaise (a la bor-de-laz'). With Bordeaux
wine; said of various preparations containing it; as of
a sauce, with garlic, shallots, or onions, chopped mush-


rooms, and a piece of marrow; also with sauce k la

a la bourguignotte (a la boor-ge-nyot). Generally,
prepared with the addition of red wine of Burgundy,
or of Bordeaux, or of the Midi (i.e. meridional provinces
of France). At Bordeaux, or when made elsewhere with
Gironde wine, the dish would be d la bordelaise.

a la caledo'nian (a la). Boiled slowly in plain water
and then baked with dressing of butter, chopped
parsley, and a little lemon juice; said of finnan haddie
when so cooked.

a la Camerani (a la ka-ma-ra'ne). After the fashion
of Camerani; said of a kind of rich chicken-liver soup.

a la Chateaubriand (a la sha-to-bre-aN'). With maitre
d'hotel butter. See Maitee d'hotel buttek.

a la chevreuil (a la she-vrti'y'). Served with a savory
sauce; said of fillets of beef.

a la chipolata (a la che-po-lii'ta). Containing an addi-
tion of the strongly flavored Italian sausages, or the
mince with which they are filled.

a la chiffonade (a la she-fo-nad'). See Chiffonade.

a la cocotte (a IS, ko-kot'). Baked (as eggs) in a
cocotte, with butter and cream, or with cheese, or the
like, and served in the cocotte.

a la crapaudine (a la krii-po-den'). Like a crapaudine
(the flat piece of iron on which a grate pivot rests) ; said
of grilled chicken, pigeon, etc., when prepared by bon-
ing, removing the legs and wings, and pressing flat.

a la Crecy (a la kra-se'). Same as A la Cboissy.

a la Creole (a la kra-ol'). With tomatoes.

a la Croissy (a la krwa-se')- Containing carrots in
quantity, or at least strongly flavored with them; said
specifically of a purge of onions, carrots, turnips, and
parsnips stewed in coulis. According to others, contain-
ing turnips in quantity, or strongly flavored with them.

a la daube (a la dob). Stewed in daube; said specific-
ally of dishes cooked with small square pieces of salt
pork, the round slices of carrots, glaced onions, and
turnips. See Daube.

a la Dauphine (a la do-fen'). With atelets sauce.

a la Dauphine (a la do-fe-na'). With various vege-
tables, spinach, lettuce, leek, onions, sorrel, beets etc.;
said of a kind of soup.


a la Dauphinoise (a la do-fe-nwaz'). Generally, sauced
over with a thick sauce (or with egg yolk), bread-
crumbed, and then fried.

a la diable (a la de-a'bl'). Devilled.

a la Duchatelet (a la du-sha-tla'). See Blond de


a la financiere (a IS. fe-naN-syar'). With extract of
truffles (lit. after the style of a financier); said of a
variety of espagnole sauce, and of dishes served with
it; also served with truffles, mushrooms, bits of sweet-
bread, and, often, also sliced olives and chicken livers.

a la Flamande (a la fla-maNd'). Containing cabbage,
but more particularly Brussels sprouts, and, usually,
turnips and carrots cut in big slices. ^

a la Florentine (a la flo-raN-ten'). See A l'Ital-


a la Frangaise (a la fraN-saz'). After the French
style; a term applied to various preparations, none of
which are really typical, and some of which are merely
fanciful dishes.

a la Genevoise (a la zha-ne-vwaz'). Cooked with
champagne; said of certain dishes of fish.

a la Gerard (a la zha-rUr'). Muddled, or miscarried,
or hit upon by chance; sarcastically so termed, as a dish
not turning out as intended. See Manchons de veau
A LA. Gerard.

a la godiveau (a la go-de-vo'). With balls made of
mincemeat, usually of veal.

a la Holstein (a la hol'stin). Fried, and served with a
fried egg, sardelles, capers, pickled beets, and pickles,
and sometimes scraped horseradish.

a la jardiniere (a la zhiir-de-nyar'). Made with a
typical collection of cooked vegetables, as soups, ragoQts,
and removes. See Jardinere.

a la julienne (a la zhii-lyen'). With various vege-
tables sliced in strips, as carrots, turnips, leeks, onions,
celery, lettuce, tarragon, sorrel; said especially of a kind
of rich stock soup. Also: Said of potatoes cut in very
slender strips and fried crisp floating in hot fat.

a I'Algerienne (a lill zha-re-en'). Cobked with slices
of ra\v ham; said of a preparation of fow^l.

a la Languedoc (a la laNg-dok'). Cooked with or in
olive oil; with olive oil.


a I'Allemande (a lal-maNd'). Having a German pro-
vincial peculiarity of preparation, as a garnish of
sauerkraut, prunes stewed in wine, quenelles of pota-
tatoes, etc. Specifically said of fillets of hare served
with a sauce of tomato, poivrade, cinnamon, and cherry

a la Loren'zo (a la). Made of minced crab meat, put
on toast spread with anchovy paste, then all covered
with parmesan cheese and bread crumbs, buttered,
browned in the oven, and served; said of a canape of crab

a I'Alsacienne (a lal-sa-syen). With pork and frank-
furters; also with onions and pork.

a la lyonnaise (a la le-o-naz')- With flaked or sliced
fried onions; as, potatoes a la li/onnalsc, or lyonnaise
potatoes; sauce a la lyonnaise, or Lyons sauce, that is,
espagnole sauce with flaked onions fried in oil. Any-
thing cooked or served in this sauce, as ox palates, may
be said to be a la lyonnaise.

a la macedoine (a la ma-sa-dwan'). Made with or of
a typical collection of green vegetables, mostly in white
sauce; also applied to collections of ripe fruit imbedded
in jellies, etc. A dish prepared d la macedoine may be
called a macedoine simply.

a la Maintenon (a la niaN-te-noN'). A term vari-
ously used to designate a mode of cooking mutton or
lamb chops; as, (a) wrapped in caul; (6) garnished with
cockscombs and truffles; (c) served with a soubise;
(d) served with financiSre sauce; (e) served with
d'Uxelles sauce, etc.

a la maitre d'hotel (a la ma'tr' do-tel'). Prepared by
a substantial, but homely, modest sort of cooking. Also
served with maitre d'hotel butter.

a la Marengo (a la ma-ren'go). With some garlic and

a la Marseillaise (a la mar-se-laz'). With Marsala

a la Ma'ryland (a la). With a sauce of butter and
cream, with or without wine. It is like a la Newburgh,
but less rich.

a la Meyerbeer (a la mi-tlr-bar'). Shirred and served
with broiled kidney and truffle sauce; said of eggs.

a la Milanaise (a la me-la-naz'). See A l'Italienne.


a la Napolitaine (a la na-po-le-tan'). See A l' Ital-


a la mode (a la mod). A term used to designate
various preparations of beef in which the meat is cut
into pieces of three or four ounces each, and slowly
stewed, and the gravy is thickened and flavored, as with
bay leaves and allspice.

a la mode de Caen (a la mod de kaN). A term used
to designate tripe prepared with vegetables, leeks, wine,
cognac, etc.

a la neige (a la nazh'). In some form that suggests
snow, as Avith white-of-egg froth, or in balls of white
boiled rice, or the like.

a la New'burgh (a la). With a sauce made of cream,
egg yolks, Madeira or sherry wine, and butter shaken
in a dish over a slow fire until they thicken. Said also
of this sauce.

a r Anglaise {'A laN-glaz'). After the English fashion;
generally roasted or boiled in the plainest manner, or
prepared in a manner peculiar to the English without
necessarily being plain; as, sauce beurre a V Anglaise,
melted butter sauce, made by combining melted butter,
flour, and broth or water, and flavoring with nutmeg and
pepper. Dishes served with this sauce are said to be
« r Anglaise,

a la Nivernaise (a la ne-var-naz'). Containing a
nivernaise; said of a kind of soup a la julienne. See

a la Normande (a lii nor-maNd'). Generally, with
apples in the composition of the dish in some shape or
other. To this rule the only exception is the matelote,
which is a fish ragout of which a particular modification
is popular in Normandy.

a la Parisienne (a la pa-re-syen'). Applied loosely to
dishes which are generally luxuriously prepared, and
overladen with expensive garnishes. Specifically said;
(a) of fillets of beef garnished with green peas and cray-
fish tails; (6) of potatoes stewed in bouillon, esp. when
cut into small balls. Potatoes so cut are often called
a la Parisienne, however cooked. Compare A la Fran-


a la Perigord (a la pa-re-gor'). Flavored with, or con-
sisting of, truffles, — alluding to the circumstance that


these mushrooms grow of excellent size and quality in
the province of Perigord.

a la Polonaise {'& la po-lo-naz'). Having red beets or
red cabbage, so as to have their juice, color, and taste; as
Polish ragout, or borsh, which is the type of dishes
a la Polonaise. Also said of; (a) A kind of puff paste
tart with drops of jelly at the corners; (6) espagnole
sauce with small onions, raisins, and sliced almonds
added, and made sweet and sour with sugar and vinegar.

a la poulette (a la poo-let'). With white velout^
sauce (which is especially adapted for use with fowl's

a la printaniere (a lapraN-ta-nyar'). Made with a
typical collection of cooked early or spring vegetables;
of a somewhat wider application than a la jardiniere.

a la Provengale (a la pro-vaN-sal'). Generally, pre-
pared with more or less of olive oil, and flavored with
garlic; not rarely with a mixture (aillolis) of both in-
gredients, and sometimes (as capilotade of chicken,
fillets of beef, etc.) with onions and tomatoes added.

a la Reine (a la ran). Of, or after the style of, the
queen; said specifically of a kind of chicken soup (potage
d la reine, po-tazh' a la ran) containing white meat of
chicken pounded and rubbed to a powder.

a la Roland (a la). Made of minced lobster meat
in the same manner as a la Lorenzo dishes of crab meat.
See A LA Lorenzo.

a la Saint Cloud (a la saN kloo). With sliced truffles;
said of a kind of veloute sauce.

a la Saint Pardoux (a la saN piir-doo'). With morels,
herbs, and a binding of egg yolk; said of a variety of
white or veloute sauce.

a la serviette (a la ser-vyet'). Served in or on a nap-
kin, as braised truffles.

a la Soubise (a la soo-bez'). Generally containing
onions in quantity; or, at least, strongly garnished and
flavored with them; esp. served with a white onion sauce
used with lamb or mutton.

a la tartare (a la tar-tar'). With tartare sauce, or a
sauce of similar ingredients. Also, said of a steak
chopped and garnished with onions, pickles, pickled beets,
sardelles, and yolk of egg, to be eaten raw.

a la turque (a la tiirk). Shirred and served with


chicken livers and mushrooms; said of eggs. Also boiled
with rice and saffron; said of chicken.

a I'Aurore (a lo-ror'). With a pink sauce made by
coloring veloute sauce with lobster coral or Armenian
bole. Also, said of sliced hard-boiled eggs put in a
dish, covered with veloute, sprinkled with grated egg
yolk, and baked.

a la vert pre (a la var pra). Colored green with vege-
tables, as with a puree of spinach.

a la Viennoise (a la vya-nwaz'). Applied to dishes
usually and typically prepared in the Austrian capital,
such as the dumplings termed nuckerln, quenelles of
potatoes, and others.

a la Villeroi (a la vel-rwa'). With atelets sauce.
Also, said of a poached egg put in a thick white sauce,
then covered with egg yolk and bread crumbs, and fried.

a la vinaigrette (a la ve-na-gret'). With vinaigrette

Al'bert bis'cuit. A kind of dariole,

a r espagnole (a la-spa-nyol'). Made savory with
espagnole sauce; specifically, served with a garnish of
onions, garlic, green peppers, mushrooms, tomatoes, and
minced ham cooked together, and bound with espagnole

a I'estragon (a la-stra-goN'). With tarragon.

a I'huile (a-lwel). In olive oil; with olive oil dress-

Alici (a-le'che). Anchovies, or a similar small fish
preserved in oil according to the Italian fashion.

a I'imperatrice (a laN-pa-re-tres'). Said of shirred
eggs served with a slice of pate de fois gi-as upon each

a I'Irlandaise (a ler-ian-daz'). Containing potatoes
in some form, and often cabbage, etc., in mass or as a
prevailing garnish.

a I'ltalienne (a le-ta-le-en'). Generally made of, or
garnished with, savory macaroni, or paste of that kind,
or with ravioli; or made savory with Parma cheese. The
phrases derived from Italian towns, such as a la Milan-
fl/.sf, a la Florentine a la Napolitaine, etc., denote mere
subordinate variations of this general mode, of no partic-
ular significance. By some, macaroni with cream sauce,
sliced mushrooms, ham and chicken slit in strips, and


Parma cheese is called a la napolitaine; and macaroni
with tomato sauce and cheese, d la Italienne.

Allemande sauce (al-maNd'). Veloute sauce, with the
addition of essence of mushrooms, cream, and a leason,
or binding, of yolk of eggs. It is essentially bechamel
with yolk of eggs. It is often flavored with nutmeg and
lemon juice.

almond (a'mund). A nut or fruit of any one of sev-
eral varieties of the one species Amygdalus communis;
as the bitter, sweet, thin-shelled, thick-shelled, and
Jordan almonds.

alose (a-los'). Shad.

aloyau (a-lwa-yo'). Loin of beef; short rib of

amer (a-mar'). Bitters; as amer d^ Allemande (dal-
maNd'), bitters of Holland gin.

Amontillado (a-mon-tel-ya'do). A cheaper variety of
wine classed as sherry, but in reality a wine from
Sicily or other Mediterranean or Atlantic Islands, mixed
with a little real sherry.

ananas (a-na-na'). Pineapple,

anchois (an-shwa'). Anchovies.

anchovy (an-cho'vi). A small fish of the herring
family, caught in the Mediterranean, and pickled for ex-

andouille (an-doo'y'). Tripe.

Angel'ica. The green, aromatic stalks of the plant
Archangclica officinalis, dried and candied. They retain
their green color. They are used in puddings and in
pastry, and, with the seeds, are used to make a liqueur
called angelica.

anguilles (an-ge'y^). Eels.

anguilles grillee (an-ge'y' gre-ya'). Spitch-cocked,
or grilled, eels..

anisette'. A cordial or liqueur flavored with anise

apricot (a'pri-kot). A fruit allied to the plum, of an
orange color, oval shape, and high flavor.

Are'na rarebit. Same as Long Island rarebit.

armer ritter (ar'mer rit'ter). Slices of bread dipped
in egg and milk, sweetened, Ibread- crumbed, and fried;
a variety of French toast.

ar'rack. A spirituous drink made from fermented


rice, molasses, and palm wine; any spirituous liquor; an
East Indian term.

arroz a la Valencia'na (iir-ro' a la). Valencia rice, a
farinaceous substance in grains like rice.

artichaut (ar-te-slio'). Artichoke.

ar'tichoke. A plant somewhat resembling a thistle.
It bears a kind of flowerhead which, with the receptacle,
is esteemed for food.

asperge (a-sparzh'). Asparagus.

aspic (as-pek'). A savory jelly made of calves' feet,
etc., or with extract of meat, flavored to suit the fancy,
and stiffened with gelatine. The name is also given to
various entrees made by imbedding different meats, etc.,
in the jelly.

aspiquee (as-pe-ka'). Made sour with vinegar or
lemon juice.

atelets sauce (at-la') or sauce aux hatelets (sos o
zat-la'). A sauce (such as egg^ and bread crumbs) used
for covering bits of meat, small birds, or fish, strung on
skewers (called hatelets) for frying.

attereau (a-tro). A kind of ragout.

au (o). See A la.

Aubergine (o-bar-zhen'). The fruit of Solanum escu-
lent um, a plant related to the potato and tomato. It is
cooked like squash.

au beurre roux (o bur roo). With browned butter.

au chingaras (o shaN-ga-rii'). Sandwiched with ham
and grilled; said of ox palates.

au four (o foor). Baked in the oven, as a stuffed

au fromage (o fro-mazh'). With cheese.

au gras (o gra). Containing meat; said of soups so

au gratin (o gra-taN'). With a crust made by brown-
ing in the oven; as spaghetti is often served au gratin.

au jus (o zhii). In juice; in broth.

au kirsch (o kersh). With kirschwasser; as an ome-
lette or a punch containing this liqueur is termed au

aumelette (om-lef). Omelette.

au naturel (o na-tii-rel'). In the natural condition;
as, anchovies an nature], i.e., without oil or seasoning.

au rhum (o riim). With rum.


auro'ra sauce. Sauce a 1' aurore. See A l' Aueore.

au supreme (o sii-pram'). With supreme sauce.

au vert pre (o var pra). With sweet or fresh herbs,
esp., when they give a green color to the dish.

au vin blanc (o vaN blaN'). With white- wine sauce,
as fillets of fish.

aux (o). See A la.

aux cressons (o kres-soN'). With watercresses.

aux rognons (o ro-nyoN'). With kidneys.

baba (ba'ba). A kind of rich brioche cake, generally
served with rum sauce.

baignet (ba-nya'). A kind of fritter.

bain Marie (baN ma- re'). A waterbath used in cook-

ballotine (ba-lo-ten'). A shoulder of lamb, boned,
stuffed, larded, and braised.

barbue (bar-bii'). A kind of fish.

bard (bar). Barbel, a kind of fish.

bardes de lard (bard de lar). Fat slices of bacon for
covering meat to be braised.

bar le due (bar le diik). A kind of jam of white goose-

bar'on of beef. The two sirloins not cut down the
back, but left together.

bar'on of hare. A dish consisting of the two loins of
a hare braised.

bar'on of lamb. The entire two loins of the lamb, with
the upper part of both legs.

barszcze (borsch). See Borsch.

batvin'ia. A kind of Russian soup containing slices
of salmon.

Bava'rian cream. A cream jelly thickened with gela-
tine and set in a mold, and variously flavored and en-
riched; a Bavaroise; a kind of flummery.

Bava'rian dumplings. Boiled pudding, consisting of
bread fried in fat, breadcrumbs soaked in cream or milk,
eggs, butter, flour, salt, and spice; or some other similar

Bava'rian sauce. A modified Dutch sauce of vinegar,
eggs, and butter fiavored with crayfish butter.

Bavaroise (ba-va-rwaz'). Bavarian. See Bavarian


becasse (ba-kas'). Woodcock.


beccafica (bek-kii-fe'ka). A kind of small Italian
bird prized for its flesh in the fall.

Bechamel (ba-shii-mel'), or, more properly, Bechamelle.
Veloute white sauce mixed with cream; named after
Louis de Bechamel, a French gastronomer.

beche de mer (bash de mar). The trepang.

beignet (ba-nya'). A fritter.

benedictine (ben-e-dik'tin). A cordial resembling

beurre (bur). Butter.

beurre frais (bur fra). Fresh (unsalted) butter.

beurre lie (bur le-a'). Dutch sauce with less butter
than usual.

beurre noir (bilr nwar). Butter browned without

beurre roux (bilr roo). Butter browned with flour.

bigarade sauce (be-ga-rad'). Espagnole sauce flavored
with orange juice and peel.

bigarreaux (be-gii-ro'). Hard white or red cher-

binger schoppen (bing'ilr shop'pen). See Schoppen.

biscottes (be-scof). Thin slices of brioche, dried,
buttered, and sugared.

biscuit (be-skwe'), French sponge cake.

bis'cuit a c&uper (a koo-pa'). A form of sponge cake
to be sliced and glaced with flavored sugar or sugar
mixed with fruit juice.

bis'cuit a la Genoise (a la zha-nwaz'). Sponge cake
with aniseed flavor, to be cut and toasted.

bis'cuit a 1' Ursuline (a liir-sii-len'). A sponge cake
with rice and apple or apricot jam mixed into the paste,
and grilled orange flower.

bis'cuit de niauffes (df nyof). Piskinioff's.

bisque (bisk or besk). A soup of crayfish, made by
cooking them in broth with herbs, sliced roots, and
seasoning; other similarly prepared shellfish soups or
sauces are also called bisques.

black pud'ding. A kind of sausage made of blood,
suet, etc., and thickened with meal.

blancmanger(blaN-max-zha') or blamange (bla-manj').
A jelly made with calf's foot, or gelatine, and milk of
almonds; also, a jelly made of milk and starch, isinglass,
or sea moss, with or without added chocolate, grenetine.


or the like. This latter dish is more properly called

blanquette (blaN-kef). A mince of white meat, as of
chicken, warmed in veloute sauce, and pointed with
butter and lemon juice. It often has added to it mush-
rooms, morels, or truffles.

blend. A liquor made by blending or mixing together
different liquors. Blending does not necessarily imply
inferiority. Most wines are blended.

bloat'er. A herring steeped for a short time, slightly
salted, and partially smoke-dried. The better kinds are

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