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for those who would have something to bring into their
houses to have people to perform the requisite employ-
ments in the open air; for tilling, and sowing, and plant-
ing, and pasturage are all employments for the open air;
and from these employments the necessaries of life are
procured. 21. But when these necessaries have been
brought into the house, there is need of some one to take
care of them, and to do whatever duties require to be done
under shelter. The rearing of young children also demands
shelter, as well as the preparation of food from the fruits of
the earth, and the making of clothes from wool. 22. And
as both these sorts of employments, alike those without
doors, and those within, require labor and care, the gods,
as it seems to me,' said I, ' have plainly adapted the nature
of the woman for works and duties within doors, and that
of the man for works and duties without doors. 23. For
the divinity has fitted the body and mind of the man to be
better able to bear cold, and heat, and traveling, and mili-
tary exercises, so that he has imposed upon him the work
without doors; and by having formed the body of the



72 XENOPHON

woman to be less able to bear such exertions, he appears
to me to have laid upon her,' said I, ' the duties within
doors. 24. But knowing that he had given the woman
by nature, and laid upon her, the office of rearing young
children, he has also bestowed upon her a greater portion
of love for her newly-born offspring than on the man.
25. Since, too, the divinity has laid upon the woman the
duty of guarding what is brought into the house, he,
knowing that the mind, by being timid, is not less adapted
for guarding, has given a larger share of timidity to the
woman than to the man ; and knowing also that if any one
injures him who is engaged in the occupations without, he
must defend himself, he has on that account given a
greater portion of boldness to the man. 26. But as it is
necessary for both alike to give and to receive, he has
bestowed memory and the power of attention upon both
impartially, so that you cannot distinguish whether the
female or the male has the larger portion of them.
27. The power of being temperate also in what is neces-
sary he has conferred in equal measure upon both, and
has allowed that whichsoever of the two is superior in
this virtue, whether the man or the woman, shall receive
a greater portion of the benefit arising from it. 28. But
as the nature of both is not fully adapted for all these
requirements, they in consequence stand in greater need
of aid from one another, and the pair are of greater service
to each other, when the one is able to do those things in
which the other is deficient. 29. As we know, then, my
dear wife,' continued I, 'what is appointed to each of us
by Providence, it is incumbent on us to discharge as well
as we can that which each of us has to do."

30. " 'The law, too,' I told her," he proceeded, " ' gives
its approbation to these arrangements, by uniting the man
and the woman ; and as the divinity has made them part-



SELECTION FROM THE "ECONOMICS" 73

ners, as it were, in their offspring, so the law ordains them
to be sharers in household affairs. The law also shows
that those things are more becoming to each which the
divinity has qualified each to do with greater facility ; for
it is more becoming for the woman to stay within doors
than to roam abroad, but to the man it is less creditable to
remain at home than to attend to things out of doors.
31. And if any one acts contrary to what the divinity has
fitted him to do, he will, while he violates the order of
things, possibly not escape the notice of the gods, and will
pay the penalty whether of neglecting his own duties or of
interfering with those of his wife. 32. The queen of the
bees,' I added, ' appears to me to discharge such duties as
are appointed to her by the divinity.' ' And what
duties,' inquired my wife, ' has the queen bee to perform,
that she should be made an example for the business
which I have to do ? ' 33. ' She, remaining within the
hive,' answered I, ' does not allow the bees to be idle, but
sends out to their duty those who ought to work abroad;
and whatever each of them brings in, she takes cognizance
of it and receives it, and watches over the store until there
is occasion to use it ; and when the time for using it is come,
she dispenses to each bee its just due. 34. She also
presides over the construction of the cells within, that
they may be formed beautifully and expeditiously. She
attends, too, to the rising progeny, that they may be properly
reared ; and when the young bees are grown up, and
are fit for work, she sends out a colony of them under some
leader taken from among the younger bees.' 35. ' Will
it then be necessary for me/ said my wife, ' to do such
things ? ' 'It will certainly be necessary for you, ' said I
' to remain at home, and to send out such of the laborers
as have to work abroad, to their duties ; and over such as
have business to do in the house you must exercise a watch-



74 XENOPHON

ful superintendence. 36. Whatever is brought into the
house, you must take charge of it; whatever portion of it
is required for use you must give it out; and whatever
should be laid by, you must take account of it and keep it
safe, so that the provision stored up for a year, for exam-
ple, may not be expended in a month. Whenever wool is
brought home to you, you must take care that garments
be made for those who want them. You must also be care-
ful that the dried provisions may be in a proper condition
for eating. 37. One of your duties, however,' I added,
' will perhaps appear somewhat disagreeable, namely, that
whoever of all the servants may fall sick, you must take
charge of him, that he may be recovered.' 38. ' Nay,
assuredly,' returned my wife, ' that will be a most agree-
able office, if such as receive good treatment are likely to
make a grateful return, and to become more attached to
me than before.' " " Delighted with her answer," continued
Ischomachus, " I said to her, ' Are not the bees, my dear
wife, in consequence of some such care on the part of the
queen of the hive, so affected toward her, that, when she
quits the hive, no one of them thinks of deserting her, but
all follow in her train ? ' 39. ' I should wonder, how-
ever,' answered my wife, ' if the duties of leader do not
rather belong to you than to me; for my guardianship of
what is in the house, and distribution of it, would appear
rather ridiculous, I think, if you did not take care that
something might be brought in from out of doors.' 40.
' And on the other hand,' returned I, ' my bringing in
would appear ridiculous, unless there were somebody to
take care of what is brought in. Do you not see,' said I,
' how those who are said to draw water in a bucket full of
holes are pitied, as they evidently labor in vain ? ' ' Cer-
tainly,' replied my wife, ' for they are indeed wretched, if
they are thus employed.' "



SELECTION FROM THE " ECONOMICS " 75

41. " ' Some other of your occupations, my dear wife,'
continued I, ' will be pleasing to you. For instance, when
you take a young woman who does not know how to spin,
and make her skilful at it, and she thus becomes of twice
as much value to you. Or when you take one who is igno-
rant of the duties of a housekeeper or servant, and, having
made her accomplished, trustworthy, and handy, render
her of the highest value. Or when it is in your power to
do services to such of your attendants as are steady and
useful, while, if any one is found transgressing, you can
inflict punishment. 42. But you will experience the great-
est of pleasures, if you show yourself superior to me, and
render me your servant, and have no cause to fear that, as
life advances, you may become less. respected in your house-
hold, but may trust that, while you grow older, the better
consort you prove to me, and the more faithful guardian of
your house for your children, so much the more will you
be esteemed by your family. 43. For what is good and
honorable,' I added, ' gains increase of respect, not from
beauty of person, but from merits directed to the benefit
of human life.' Such were the subjects, Socrates, on which
as far as I remember, I first conversed seriously with my
wife."



CHAPTER VIII.

i. " Did you then observe, Ischomachus," said I, " thai
your wife was at all the more incited to carefulness by
your remarks?" "Indeed I did," replied Ischomachus.
" and I saw her on one occasion greatly concerned and put
to the blush, because, when I asked for something that
had been brought into the house, she was unable to give
it me. 2. Perceiving that she was in great trouble, how-
ever, I said, ' Do not be cast down, my dear wife, because



7 6 XENOPHON

you cannot give me what I am asking you for. It is
indeed pure poverty not to have a thing to use when you
need it; but our present want not to be able to find a
thing when you seek it is of a less serious nature than
not to seek it at all, knowing that it is not in your posses-
sion. However/ added I, ' you are not in fault on the
present occasion, but I, as I did not direct you, when I
gave you the articles, where each of them ought to be
deposited, so that you might know how you ought to ar-
range them and whence to take them. 3. There is indeed
nothing, my dear wife, more useful or more creditable to
people than order. A chorus of singers and dancers, for
instance, consists of a number of persons; but when they
do whatever each of them happens to fancy, all appears
confusion, and disagreeable to behold; but when they act
and speak in concert, the same persons prove themselves
worthy of being seen and heard. . . .' "

n. "I once saw, I think, the most beautiful and accu-
rate arrangement of implements possible, Socrates, when
I went on board that large Phoenician vessel to look over
it; for I beheld a vast number of articles severally ar-
ranged in an extremely small space. 12. For the ship,"
continued he, " is brought into harbor and taken out again
by means of various instruments of wood and tow ; it
pursues its voyage with the aid of much that is called
suspended tackle; it is equipped with many machines to
oppose hostile vessels; it carries about in it many weapons
for the men ; it conveys all the utensils, such as people use
in a house, for each company that take their meals together ;
and, in addition to all this, it is freighted with merchandise,
which the owner of the ship transports in it for the purpose
of profit. 13. And all the things of which I am speak-
ing," continued he, " were stowed in a space not much
larger than is contained in a room that holds half a score



SELECTION FROM THE "ECONOMICS" 77

dinner-couches. Yet I observed that they were severally
arranged in such a manner that they were not in the way
of one another, nor required anybody to seek for them, nor
were unprepared for use, nor difficult to remove from their
places, so as to cause any delay when it was necessary to
employ them suddenly. 14. The pilot's officer, too, who is
called the man of the prow, I found so well acquainted with
the location of them all, that he could tell, even when out of
sight of them, where each severally lay, and how many
there were, not less readily than a man who knows his
letters can tell how many there are in the name Socrates,
and where each of them stands. 15. I saw," pursued
Ischomachus, " this very, man inspecting, at his leisure, all
the implements that it is necessary to use in a ship, and,
wondering at his minute examination, I asked him what he
was doing. ' I am examining, stranger,' said he, ' in case
anything should happen, in what state everything in the
vessel is, and whether anything is wanting, or is placed so
as to be inconvenient for use. 16. For,' said he, ' there
is no time, when heaven sends a storm over the sea, either
to seek for what may be wanting, or to hand out what may
be difficult to use ; for the gods threaten and punish the
negligent; and if they but forbear from destroying those
who do nothing wrong, we must be very well content;
while, if they preserve even those that attend to everything
quite properly, much gratitude is due to them.' 17. I,
therefore, having observed the accuracy of this arrange-
ment, said to my wife, that it would be extremely stupid
in us, if people in ships, which are comparatively small
places, find room for their things, and, though they are
violently tossed about, nevertheless keep them in order,
and, even in the greatest alarm, still find out how to get
what they want; and if we, who have large separate reposi-
tories in our house for everything, and our house firmly



78 XENOPHON

planted on the ground, should not discover excellent and
easily-found places for our several articles; how could
this, I say, be anything but extreme stupidity in us ? "

1 8. " How excellent a thing a regular arrangement of
articles is, and how easy it is to find, in a house, a place such
as is suitable to put everything, I have sufficiently shown.
19. But how beautiful an appearance it has, too, when
shoes, for instance, of whatever kind they are, are arranged
in order; how beautiful it is to see garments, of whatever
kind, deposited in their several places; how beautiful it is
to see bed-clothes, and brazen vessels, and table furniture,
so arranged; and (what, most of all, a person might laugh
at, not indeed a grave person, but a jester), I say, that pots
have a graceful appearance when they are placed in regu-
lar order. 20. Other articles somehow appear, too, when
regularly arranged, more beautiful in consequence; for the
several sorts of vessels seem like so many choral bands;
and the space that is between them pleases the eye, when
every sort of vessel is set clear of it ; just as a body of
singers and dancers, moving in a circle, is not only in itself
a beautiful sight, but the space in the middle of it, being
open and clear, is agreeable to the eye. 21. Whether
what I say is true, my dear wife,' said I, ' we may make
trial, without suffering any loss, or taking any extraordi-
nary trouble. Nor ought we at all to labor under the
apprehension that it will be difficult to find a person who
will learn the places for every article, and remember how
to keep each of them separate ; 22. for we know very well
that the whole city contains ten thousand times as much
as our house, and yet, whichsoever of the servants you order
to buy anything and bring it to you from the market place,
not one of them will be in perplexity, but every one will
show that he knows whither he must go to fetch any
article. For this/ added I, ' there is no other reason



SELECTION FROM THE "ECONOMICS" 79

than that each article is deposited in its appointed place.
23. But if you should seek for a person, and sometimes
even for one who is on his part seeking you, you would
often give up the search in despair before you find him;
and for this there is no other cause, than that it is not
appointed where the particular person is to await you.' "

CHAPTER IX.

I. "And what was the result," said I, "my dear Ischo-
machus? Did your wife appear to attend to any of the
matters which you took so much pains to impress upon
her ? " " What else did she do but promise that she would
attend to what I said, and manifest the greatest pleas-
ure, as if she had found relief from perplexity? and she
requested me to arrange the various articles, as soon as I
could, in the manner which I had proposed." 2. " And
how, Ischomachus," said I, " did you arrange them for
her ? " " What else could I do but determine upon show-
ing her, in the first place, the capacity of the house? For
it is not adorned with decorations, but the apartments in
it are constructed with such a view that they may be as
convenient receptacles as possible for the things that are
to be placed in them ; so that they themselves invite what-
ever is adapted for them respectively. 3. Thus the inner
chamber, being in a secure part of the house, calls for the
most valuable couch coverings and vessels ; the dry parts
of the building for the corn; the cool places for the wine;
and the well-lighted portions for such articles of workman-
ship, and vases, as require a clear light. 4. I pointed out
to her, too, that the apartments for people to live in, which
are well ornamented, are cool in the summer and exposed
to the sun in winter; and I made her notice as to the
whole house how it lies open to the south, so that it is



8o XENOPHON

plain it has plenty of sun in winter, and plenty of shade
in summer. ... 6. When we had gone through these
places," he continued, " we then proceeded to classify our
goods. We began by collecting, first of all, whatever we
use for offering sacrifices ; after this, we arranged the
dresses for women, such as are suited for festival days ;
and then the equipments for men, as well for festivities
as for warfare; and next the bed-covering in the women's
apartments, the bed-coverings in the men's apartments,
the shoes for the women and the shoes for the men. 7. Of
utensils there were distinct collections, one of instruments
for spinning, another of those for preparing corn, another
of those for cooking, another of those for the bath, another
of those for kneading bread, another of those for the table.
These in general we divided into two sorts, such as we
have to use constantly, and such as are required only at
festal entertainments. 8. We also made one assortment of
what would be used in a month, and another of what was
computed to last for a year ; for in this way it is less likely
to escape our knowledge how particular things are expended.
When we had thus distinguished all our goods into classes,
we conveyed them severally to the places best suited for
them. 9. Afterwards, whatever utensils the servants re-
quire daily, such as those for preparing corn, for cooking,
for spinning, and any others of that sort, we pointed out
to those who use them, the places where they were to put
them, and then committed them to their keeping, charging
them to keep them safely ; 10. but such as we use only for
festival days, for entertaining guests, or only occasionally
at long intervals, we committed, after pointing out the
places for them, and numbering and making lists of them,
to the housekeeper, and told her to give out any of them to
whatever servant needed them, to bear in mind to which
of them she gave any one, and, after receiving them back,



SELECTION FROM THE "ECONOMICS" 81

to deposit them respectively in the places from which she
took them."

ii. "Of the housekeeper we made choice after con-
sidering which of the female servants appeared to have
most self-restraint in eating, and wine, and sleep, and con-
verse with the male sex; and, in addition to this, which
seemed to have the best memory, and which appeared to
have forethought, that she might not incur punishment
from us for neglect, and to consider how, by gratifying
us, she might gain some mark of approbation in return.
12. We formed her to entertain feelings of affection to-
ward us, giving her a share in our pleasure when we had
an occasion of rejoicing, and consulting her, if anything
troublesome occurred, with reference to it. We also led
her to become desirous of increasing our property, by
stimulating her to take accounts of it, and making her in
some degree partaker of our prosperity. 14. We also
excited in her a love of honesty, by paying more respect
to the well-principled than to the unprincipled, and show-
ing her that they lived in greater plenty and in better
style. We then installed her in her appointment. 14. But
in addition to all this, Socrates," said he, " I told my wife
that there would be no profit in all these arrangements,
unless she herself took care that the appointed order for
everything should be preserved. I also instructed her that
in the best-regulated political communities it is not thought
sufficient by the citizens merely to make good laws, but
that they also appoint guardians of the laws, who, over-
looking the state, commend him who acts in conformity
with the laws, and, if any one transgresses the laws, punish
him. 15. I accordingly desired my wife," continued he,
"to consider herself the guardian of the laws established
in the house, and to inspect the household furniture, when-
ever she thought proper, as the commander of a garrison

PAINTER FED. Ess. 6



82 XENOPHON

inspects his sentinels; to signify her approbation if every-
thing was in good condition, as the senate signifies its
approval of the horses and horse-soldiers ; to praise and
honor the deserving like a queen, according to her means,
and to rebuke and disgrace any one that required such
treatment. 16. But I moreover admonished her," added
he, " that she would have no reason to be displeased, if I
imposed on her more trouble with regard to our property
than I laid on the servants ; remarking to her, that servants
have only so far a concern with their master's property as
to carry it, or keep it in order, or take care of it; but that
no servant has any power of using it unless his master puts
it into his hands, while it belongs all to the master himself,
so that he may use any portion of it for whatever purpose
he pleases. 17. To him therefore that receives the greatest
benefit from its preservation, and suffers the greatest loss
by its destruction, I showed her that the greatest interest
in its safety must belong."

18. " Well then, Ischomachus," said I, " how did your
wife, on hearing these instructions, show herself disposed
to comply with your wishes ? " " She assured me, Soc-
rates," replied he, " that I did not judge rightly of her,
if I thought that I was imposing on her what was dis-
agreeable, in telling her that she must take care of the
property ; for she remarked," said he, " that it would have
been more disagreeable to her if I had charged her to
neglect her property, than if she were required to take
care of the household goods. 19. For it seems to be a
provision of nature," concluded he, " that as it is easier
for a well-disposed woman to take care of her children than
to neglect them, so it is more pleasing (as he thought, he
said), for a right-minded woman to attend to her prop-
erty, which, as being her own, affords her gratification,
than to be neglectful of it."



IV. CICERO.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

Marcus Tullius Cicero, the distinguished orator, states-
man, and philosopher, was perhaps the best representative
of the Graeco-Roman culture of his day. To natural gifts
of a high order he added the best culture of Rome and
Athens. The numerous works that have descended to us
afford ample opportunity to judge of his character and his
ability. In oratory he fairly rivaled Demosthenes; and in
his various philosophical treatises, written with a polished
copiousness previously unknown in Rome, he has reflected
the best thought of Roman and Grecian antiquity. Though
lacking in force and independence of character, he was a
man of keen penetration and strict integrity.

Cicero was born at Arpinum 106 B. C. of an equestrian
family. At an early age he was taken to Rome by his
father, a man of large influence and culture, that he might
enjoy the superior educational advantages of the metropolis.
He there studied under the orator Crassus and the poet
Archias, the latter of whom he afterwards defended in a
beautiful oration. In addition to the laws of his country
and the literature of Greece and Rome, he made a careful
study of the leading systems of philosophy, and thus ex-
emplified the principles which he inculcated later, that the
orator should be acquainted with the whole circle of knowl-
edge.

At the age of twenty-six Cicero entered upon his legal
career, and at once distinguished himself by his moving

83



84 CICERO

eloquence. Ostensibly to regain his health but really to
escape the jealousy of the dictator Sulla, he withdrew to
Athens, where he further devoted himself to the cultivation
of his oratorical powers. Through further travel, especially
in the Roman province of Asia, he stored his capacious and
acquisitive mind with new treasures of learning. On re-
turning to Rome he successfully rilled several political offices,
and was finally elected, by an overwhelming vote, to the
consulship. While filling this office he frustrated the
treasonable designs of Catiline, and was proclaimed " the
father of his country."

But not long afterwards he became the victim of partisan
violence, and in 58 B. C. suffered banishment from Rome.



Online LibraryF. V. N. (Franklin Verzelius Newton) PainterGreat pedagogical essays; Plato to Spencer → online text (page 6 of 33)