Fabian Arthur Goulstone Ware.

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pose of bringing together in orderly arrangement the best writuigs, new and
old, upon educational subjects, and presenting a complete course of reading and
training for teachers generally. It is edited by William T. Harris, LL. D.,
United States Commissioner of Education, who has contributed for the different
volumes in the way of introduction, analysis, and commentary.

1. The Philosophy of Education. By Johann K. F. Rosenkbanz, Doc-

tor of Theology and Professor of Philosophy, University of K5nigsl>erg.
Translated by Anna C. Brackett. Second edition, revised, with Com-
mentary and complete Analysis. $1.50.

2. A History of Education. By F. V. N. Painter, A.M., Professor of

Modern Languages and Literature, Roanol^e College, Va. $1.50.
3 The Kise and Early Constitution of Universities. With a Sub-
vet OF Mediaeval Education. By S. S. Laurie, LL. D., Professor of
the Institutes and History of Education, University of Edinburgh. §1.50.

4. The Ventilation and W^arniing of School Buildings. By Gilbert

B. Morrison, Teacher of Physics and Chemistry, Kansas City High School.

5. Tlio Education of Man. By Friedrich Fboebel. Translated and an-

notated by W. N. Hailmann, A.M., Superintendent of Public Schools,
La Porte, Ind. $1.50.

6. Elementary Psycholog:y and Education. By Joseph Baldwin,

A. M., LL. D., author of " The Art of School Management." $1.50.

7. The Senses and the Will. (Part I of "The Mind of the Child.")

By W. Pbeter, Professor of Physiology in Jena. Translated by H. W.
Brown, Teacher in the State Normal School at Worcester, Mass. $1.50.

8. Memory : What it is and How to Improve it. By David BLat,

F. R. G. S., author of " Education and Educators," etc. $1.50.

9. The Development of the Intellect. (Part II of " The Mind op the

Child.") By W. Preyer, Professor of Pliysiology in Jena. Translated by
H. W. Brown. $1.50.

10. How to Study Geography. A Practical Esposition of Methods and

Devices in Teaching Geography which apply the Principles and Plans of
Ritter and Guyot. By Francis W. Parker, Principal of the Cook County
(Illinois) Normal School. $1.50.

11. Education in the United States : Its History from the Earliest

Settlements. By Richard G. Boone, A.M., Professor of Pedagogy,
Indiana University. $1.50.

12. European Schools ; cr. What I Saw in the Schools of Germant,

France, Austria, and Switzerland. Bv L. R. Klemm, Ph. D., Principal
of the Cincinnati Technical School. Full.v'illustrated. $2.00.

13. Practical Hints for the Teachers of Public Schools. By George

HowLAND, Superintendent of the Chicago Public Schools. $1.00.

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Translation from the second French edition, bv J. Russell, B. A. With an
Introduction by Rev. R. H. Quick, M. A. $1.50.

15. School Supervision. By J. L. Pickard, LL. D. $1.00.

16. Higher Education of Women in Europe. By Helene Langb, Berlin.

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17. Essays on Educational Keformers. By Robert Herbert Quick,

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18. A Text-Book in Psychology. By Johann Friedrich Herbaet. Trans-

lated by Margaret K. Smith. $1.00.

19. Psychology Applied to the Art of Teaching. By Joseph Baldwin,

A. M.,LL. D. $1.50.


20. Kousseau's Kmile ; or, Treatise on Education. Translated and an-

notated by W. U. Payne, Ph. D., LL. D. $1.50.

21. Tbe Moral Instruction of Children. By Felix Abler. $1.50.

22. English Education in the Elementary and Secondary Schools.

By Isaac sharplEss, LL. D., President oi' Haverford College. $1.00.

23. Education from a ^National Standpoint. By Alfred Focillee. $1.50.

24. Mental Development of the Child. By W. Peetek, Professor of

Physiology in Jena. Translated by II. W. Bkown. $1.00.

25. How to Study and Teach History. By B. A. Hinsdale, Ph. D., LL. D.,

University oJ Michigan. $1.50.

26. Symbolic Education. A Commentary on Froebel's " Mother-Piiat."

By Susan E. Blow. §1.50.

27. Systematic Science Teaching. By Edward G a rdnier Howe. gl.50.

28. The Education of the Greek People. By Thosias Davidson. §1.50.

29. The Evolution of the Massachusetts Public-School System. By

G. H. Martin, A. M. S1..W.

30. Pedagogics of the Kindergarten. By Feiedrich Fkoebel. S1.5C.

31. The Mottoes and Commentaries of Friedrich Froebel's Mother-

Play. By Susan E. Blow and Henrietta K. Eliot. $1.50.

32. The Songs and Music of Froebel's Mother-Play. By Susan E.

Blow. $1.50.

33. The Psychology of Number. By James A. McLellan, A. M., and

John L)ewey', Ph. D. $1.50.

34. Teaching the Language-Arts. By B. A. HrNSDALE. LL. D. $1.00.

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36 Herbart's A B C of Sense-Perception, and Introductory Works.

By William J. Eckoef, Pd. D., Ph. D. $1.50.

37 Psychologic Foundations of Education. By William T. Harris,

A.M., LL.D. $1.50.

38 The School System of Ontario. By the Hon. George W. Ross, LL. D.,

Minister of Education for the Province of Ontario. gl.OO.

39 Principles and Practice of Teaching. By James Johonnot. $1.50.
40. School Management and Methods. By Joseph Baldwin. $1.50.
41 Froebel's Educational Eaws for all Teachers. By James L.

Hughes, Inspector of Schools, Toronto. 81-50.
42. Bibliography of Education, By Will S. Monroe, A. B. $2.00.
43 The Study of the Child. By A. R. Taylor, Ph.D. $1.50.
44. Education by Development. By Friedrich Froebel. Translated by

Josephine Jarvis. $1.50.

45 I^etters to a Mother. By Susan E. Blow. $1.50.

46 Montaigne's The Education of Children. Translated by L. E. Rec-

tor, Ph. D. $1.00.

47. The Secondary School System of Germany. By Frederick E.

Bolton. $l..'i0.

48. Advanced Elementary Science. By Edward G. Howe. $1.50.

49 Dickens as an Educator. By James L. Hughes. $1..50.

50 Principles of Education Practically Applied. Revised edition.

By James M. Greenwood. $1.00.

other volumes in preparation.









"... and then as to her manner ; upon my word I think
it is particularly graceful, considering she never had the
least education : for you know her mother was a Welsh
milliner and her father a sugar-baker at Bristol."

School for Scandal, act it, sc. S




I. L /CIQ J-

Copyright, igoi,



The publishers take pleasure in offering- to the
public the present volume of the International
Education Series. It is written by an English
scholar who has made a reputation for his philo-
sophic insight into the aims and purposes of the
chief national systems of education at present in
operation upon the continent of Europe. In the
light of his broad general studies, Mr. Ware dis-
cusses the situation in Great Britain, and throws
light upon home questions that are pressing for
a solution. To those readers of educational
treatises of a generation ago which served up
only an inventory of national differences and
peculiarities without tracing these to a com-
mon principle or any fundamental process, the
writings of Mr. Ware are in the nature of a
revelation. They afford enlightenment to the
seeker after wisdom, while the mere inventory
has a tendency to obscure one's vision by divid-
ing and subdividing his attention upon a mul-
titude of details without unity, and thereby
laming his will or his power to act.

The philosophic study of education traces the
dead results — the facts or products of a system
of education — into the processes which have pro-
duced it. In the next place it discovers the aims


Editor's Preface.

and purposes which have impelled and guided
the processes and formed their methods. Ar-
rived at an insight into purposes and aims, one is
able to compare intelligently the system of one
nation with that of another. It is only in the
light of the national aim and purpose that the
methods and results of an educational system can
be criticised. The philosophical view, of course,
examines and compares national purposes and
aims in view of the status of the people of a
country and the direction of progress which
their civilization is taking. In the present book
it is believed by the publishers that Mr. Ware
has presented in a clear and convincing style a
series of reflections upon his theme, namely,
upon the " Educational Foundations of Trade
and Industry," which will prove quite as en-
lightening to readers in America as in England.
To see the systematic and efficient efforts of the
French, and especially of the Germans, as viewed
from the standpoint of an intelligent English-
man, will prove helpful to us, who are beginning
to make earnest efforts to re-enforce our indus-
tries by school education.

It is hoped that the present work wnll meet
a cordial reception from the directors of edu-
cation, and from all who are interested in meet-
ing a national want by schools for trade and

W. T. Harris.

Washington, D. C, December 7, igoi.


The following pages have been written with the
intention of placing before the English public an
accurate, though necessarily far from complete,
account of the educational foundations of foreign
trade and industry. As need for educational re-
form is generally expressed in England in terms
of foreign commercial or industrial success, I may
be justified in thinking that many persons in this
country will be interested to know, or to complete
their knowledge of, what our foremost rivals are
really doing in their schools. This book originated
in a suggestion of Professor H. L. Withers, of
Owens College, Manchester, that I should write
on the subject of foreign trade and foreign educa-
tion. I am not qualified to discuss the question
from an industrial or commercial point of view ;
I have therefore confined my attempts to showing
the educational intentions of Germany, France,
and the United States of America, and the way
in which these intentions are put into practice in



their schools. The relation between their educa-
tion and their success in commerce and industry
is now- generally recognized in England ; but it
is not for an educationist to express any opinion
on this matter. The following plan of a complete
national system of education will explain most of
the technical terms which I have been obliged to
use in the following pages. The dotted lines and
arrows show the principal passages from one
division of the system to the other. The two
divisions are distinct in most countries, the great
.exception being America.

Universities ,^ . Technical High Schools

I ^i:::^- — I

Secondary Schools _^ Lower Technical Schools
I^ ^ I

"""■"^- Higher Primary Schools *

'^^^ I

Preparatory Schools Primary (or Elementary Schools)

The only direct assistance in my undertaking
which I have to acknowledge is that of my wife.
To her judgment and practical help I am greatly
indebted, and to her I have dedicated my book.

I must, however, take this opportunity of publicly
admitting how much I owe to the writings of Mr.
Spenser Wilkinson and Mr. Michael E. Sadler.
All students of National Education are under a
heavy debt to these two gentlemen ; my obliga-
tion to them is particularly great, as I have had

• Called in England " Higher Grade Schools."


many opportunities during recent years of dis-
cussing personally with them matters of common

Among the chief works which I have consulted,
and from which I have quoted, I may mention,
" Special Reports on Educational Subjects " of the
English Board of Education, the volumes pub-
lished in connection with the Paris Exhibition of
1900 by the French Ministry of Public Instruction
and Ministry of Commerce, the Annual Reports
of the United States Commissioner of Education,
and the admirable " Monographs on Education in
the United States," published in connection with
the American Educational Section of the Paris
Exhibition of 1900.

F W.


June 8//1, 1901.




I. The Growth of National Systems of Educa-
tion . I

II. Voluntary Efforts in England to lay Educa-
tional Foundations ..... 14

III. The Attempts of the English Government

TO lay Educational Foundations ... 29

IV. The Foundations laid by German Government 57

V. The Foundations laid in France . . .147
VI. The Foundations laid in America . . . 226

VII. Conclusions 286

Index ••-.....- 295





Whatever may be considered the most remark-
able achievement of the nineteenth century, there
can be little doubt that the national education
systems which it has founded will be held respon-
sible by future generations for much of the pro-
sperity which they may enjoy, and many of the woes
which they will suffer. It is true that, in all ages of
civilization, much attention has been paid to the
education of the ruling classes. From time to time
charitable persons have endeavoured to extend the
benefits of education to the children of the poor,
and in England, at any rate, there has never been
wanting a recognition of the right of the talented
child to enter through the school into the aris-
tocracy of intellect. But it was only during the


Universal Need of Education.

last century that the civilized world awoke to the
full realization of the fact that no man is qualified
to fill the position, however hunible it may be,
which his couatry has assigned to him without
having been educated in the school ; that is to say,
developed mentally, morally and physically, through
a systematic course of instruction, to such a pitch
as will enable him to contend successfully against
the difficulties and complexities of modern life, not
only those difficulties and complexities which enter
into the common environment, but also those which
he must encounter in his own special sphere of
activity. The realization of this fact led to the
creation of national systems of education, that is to
say, systems which provide education for the whole
people of a nation, not as if they were divided into
distinct and independent classes, but, even where
social barriers are most firmly established, as
united in a common purpose, and possessed of
common modes of thought and action.

It is no mere coincidence that the realization of
this fact has originated with the commencement,
and has kept pace with the growth, of that great
industrial development which has undermined the
foundations of the old social and economic order,
and seems destined to work changes even in the
physical aspect of our world. The marvellous
scientific discoveries of the last century and of the
closing years of its predecessor, which produced in


Results of Scientific Progress.

one direction the Industrial Revolution, gave us
in another a deeper insight into the activities and
possibilities of the human mind ; they threw such
light on the workings of the human intelligence,
and of the development of the human body, that
laws were discovered for the training of both, which
if they were not altogether unknown to our an-
cestors, had only been advanced hitherto in a timid
and uncertain manner. New views were thus
acquired as to the value and the power of educa-
tion. For centuries, one might almost say since
the moment when Greek civilization reached its
zenith, the schools of Europe had devoted them-
selves almost exclusively to the training of scholars.
Their one aim had become the pursuit of learning
and the achievement of scholarly culture through
contact with the thoughts and writings of the past.
The interdependence of mind and soul and body,
pointing to the concurrent training of this human
trinity into a sound and fully developed living
organism, capable of conquering the actual sur-
roundings in the midst of which it had to exist,
had been lost sight of, and was not restored to the
world until rediscovered by modern science, and
expressed in new formulas with added truth.

At the same time the Industrial Revolution
brought with it the demand for increased knowledge
on the part of those workers whose duty it was to
control the new forces applied to industry. Neither


Destruction of Self-dependence.

must the changes which it introduced into the condi-
tions of labour be ignored. New responsibilities
were thrust upon nations with regard to that
large class of workers, for whom the marvels of
machinery meant but the destruction of inde-
pendent work and the earning of a living by-
mechanical labour, subversive of that "self-de-
pendent power " which Goldsmith rightly held to
be the true source of a nation's strength, and the
destruction of which from other causes he deplored
even in his time. Every addition to labour-saving
appliances confirmed the truth of Adam Smith's
assertion as to the mental, moral, and physical
effects of the progress of the division of labour on
the majority of the population. In this progress,
he said, " the employment of the far greater part of
those who live by labour, that is, of the great body
of the people, comes to be confined to a few very
simple operations ; frequently to one or two. . . .
The man whose whole life is spent in performing a
few simple operations, of which the effects too are
perhaps always the same, or very nearly the same,
has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to
exercise his invention, in finding out expedients
for removing difficulties which never occur. He
naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion,
and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it
is possible for a human creature to become. . . .
His dexterity at his own particular trade seems, in


Effects of the Industrial Revolution —

this manner, to be acquired at the expense of his
intellectual, social, and martial virtues. But in
every improved and civilized society, this is the
state into which the labouring poor, that is, the
great body of the people, must necessarily fall, un-
less Government takes some pains to prevent it."
And so deeply did the great economist feel the
dangers to which the nation was thus exposed that,
in spite of his objection to public institutions for
education, he was convinced that Government alone
could prevent these dangers by providing elemen-
tary instruction for the inferior ranks of the people.
The poet Wordsworth expressed the same view
some thirty-five years later in his "earnest wish
expressed for a system of national education
established universally by Government," in which
he pleads that none be forced

" To drudge through weary life without the aid
Of intellectual implements and tools."

Such were some of the views expressed by men in
our own land as to those tendencies which had to
be counteracted by education, but which were con-
firmed by the new industrial development.

We may say, therefore, that the growth of
national systems of education during the nine-
teenth century was due to two main causes. As
we shall see later, these causes were not productive
of as great effect in England as elsewhere ; but


And the New Conditions of Labour.

they were clearly perceived by those of our leading
thinkers whose attention was not absorbed by
problems which appeared at the time to be of a
more pressing nature. Briefly, these two causes
may be stated as follows. On the one hand, the
new conditions of labour threatened the destruc-
tion of that " self-dependent power " which may be
regarded as one of the chief sources of a nation's
strength ; secondly, the application of the new
discoveries of science to industry necessitated
greater intelligence and wider knowledge than had
hitherto sufficed for those at the head of industrial
undertakings. The first of these, it may at once be
noted, points to the general education of all classes
of the people ; the second to the special educa-
tion of those who, by fortune or by merit, rise to a
position of greater responsibility than their fellows.
It may appear a somewhat remarkable fact that
England, the birth-place of modern industry, is
the last of the great nations to build up its educa-
tional system. The close of the eighteenth century
saw public provision made for schools in Wiirtem-
berg, Saxony, and Prussia. The opening of the
nineteenth witnessed the creation of a complete
system of education of all grades in France, under
the direction of Napoleon. It was not until 1870
that our parliament established elementary schools,
insuring the primary education of all children in
the land ; and we are still to-day behind all other


Causes of England's Backwardness.

great nations in making public provision for the
higher branches of education.

We often hear it said that this is due to the
natural conservatism of the English character. If
another country introduces changes which we
hesitate to adopt, clinging apparently to the older
order of things, there is certainly some justification
for the statement that we are more conservative
than the people of that country. But it is very
necessary, in making such an assertion, to guard
carefully against any confusion of cause and effect.
Before the fact can be established beyond all doubt
that the natural character of the English people is
more conservative than that of another people,
not only must the actual achievements of both
peoples in every branch of activity be compared
with minute accuracy, but due allowance must be
made for the external influences which may have
modified the natural action of their characters.
Without plunging into the depths of such a very
complicated question, we can, nevertheless, find a
more immediate cause than the conservatism of the
English character, for our failure to establish a
national system of education as early as Germany
and France.

By a national system is meant one which, among
other things, meets all the varied needs of the
nation, and is representative of a common national
purpose. This common purpose can only be


Causes of England's Backwardness —

insured if the system is controlled — to what
extent need not now be discussed — by the State.
Before arriving at a definite conclusion as to the
cause of our failure to establish such a system
during the nineteenth century, we must, there-
fore, consider the nature of our government during
this period.

In England the greater part of the last century
has been occupied in remodelling our government
on a democratic basis. In 1770, Burke voiced the
determination of the English people to oppose
any attempt to establish a government possessing
despotic elements when he deplored the tendency
shown by the House of Commons to exercise
control tipon the people, whereas " it was designed
as a coxi\xo\ for the people." These words may be
regarded as marking the close of the defensive
attitude of the democratic forces ; they were hence-
forth to assume an entirely offensive role, and for
nearly three-quarters of the nineteenth century we
were consciously occupied in the pursuits of that
form of constitutional government, which would
be thoroughly representative of all classes of
the people, and would at the same time allow
the greatest freedom possible to the individual.
During this period our government was, therefore,
in a stage of transition ; and at every moment the
existing form, backed by the forces of conservatism,
was fighting for its preservation rather than, witn an


compared with Germany — •

assurance of its permanency, attending to its legisla-
tive and executive duties. But unless govern-
ment possess confidence in its own permanency,
providing as it does a sense of stability, national
action becomes impossible.

Even where democratic forces are at work, dis-

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Online LibraryFabian Arthur Goulstone WareEducational foundations of trade and industry → online text (page 1 of 19)